Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide GEO 135
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Vidano on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEO 135 at Illinois State University taught by David Johnson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see World Geography in Education and Teacher Studies at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Exam 2 Study Guide AllGEOl35 71 Southwest Asia I Definitions Arab World But not all Arabs Using part to define a whole generalizations Many Arabs but not all Islamic World But not all Muslims also Christians and Jews Middle East But a vague term and too limiting Southwest Asia probably the best Dry World Also good mostly B climates Arid climates SWANEA Southwest AsiaNortheast Africa the most descriptive term Largely a tribal society Split within Islam into a variety of groups specifically Sunni vs Shia Con ict between who is going to be the successor to the Messenger of God Leads to Al Qaeda and ISIS Hydraulic civilization theory People are uncivilized and throughout history have been uncivilized It means the organization of society that meets everyone s needs Ex everyone does his or her own thing but there is not much organization Face a threat crops are dying and there is a loss of water Water at its core why it s called the hydraulic cycle people realize water is needed to make crops survive Irrigation and dams Not everyone that gets food actually grew it Ancient history Indigenous peoples Arabs others localized Jews Ur of the ChaldeesPalestineEgypt Palestine Gives rise to Judaism Christianity and Islam Muslims say everyone is people of the book all three religions have a common beginning Homeland to mostly Jews Israel and Egypt Everyone came in and ran it for a while 0 Ancient Greeks romans Muslims etc have occupied it at one time This creates con ict of new and old groups Great import in today s society The oil world area where oil is essentially the prime source of wealth and power because it is mostly all that they have to barter and sell to gain power 0 Red oil resources on map Algeria Libya Egypt Saudi Arabia Iran Iraq 0 Choke points places where with little effort someone could shut off a major part of oil resources 0 The black sea is a significant oil reserve 0 Strait of Hormuz is a big oil reserve near the Persian Gulf People are armed on every side because it is surrounded by water 0 Many different ethnicities in the area There are smaller ethnicities in each country Many different languages and religions no commonality 0 The last of big empires was the Muslim empire 0 7th20th centuries a At the end of the first WW the Ottoman Empire remains of Muslim empire were dying a The League of Nations Britain and France got together to try to make a modern world of the land 0 Stated the world should look like us They stated they would give them their command and establish modern nation states in the Middle East a The British tries monarchies and imported royal families 0 The French tries democracies a Problem For the British there are many different religions that were split between two countries and also two different religions and ethnicities being put into the same country creates tension 0 None of the countries are stable besides Jordan because it is the most homogenous Canaanites Philistines Sea Peoples Kurds into area from northeast not Arabs Arabs last of the Semitic peoples to move north on Arabian Peninsula Persians inhabit Iran not Arabs Greeks Romans Muslim empires 7quot C 90tt0man Empire WW1 Western Powers Britain amp France after World War I Islam Antecedents Zoroastrianism monotheistic didn t sustain but left traces in all esp Gnosticism Judaism Traces to Ur and promise land but didn t expand because it is non proselytizing does not convert someone to your view of something Christianity moved to Rome and ByzantiumConstantinople Istanbul and expanded because it is a proselytizing religion Islam Development Family thousands of people Roots Genesis 16 l800BC heilsgeschichte holy or religious scripture study not history per se Abram Abraham after call in Haran Moved from Ur of the Chandees to Haran w father Terah Called to move Haran to a land I will show you Canaan Married to Sarai sarah Sarah is too old to bear children so Abraham found a young servant to bear his son so he can have a lineage of the family go on Son Ishmael by slave Hagar Sarah conceives amp bears a son Isaac And that s the end of Hagar in that household Hagar and Ishmael sent wandering Islamic bloodline Ibraham Abraham 9 Ishmael thru Hagar History of Islam is related to Jewish history History Late 500s AD in Mecca in Arabia A city of commerce and transportation camel and trade Lots of people of different religions no Muslims yet Were polytheistic worship more than one God Muhammad PBUH peace be upon him Gets a job working for Kadijah she is a daughter of a very important wealthy man who is involved in commerce Married Kadijah Qu Sayy Qusayy daughter of Abu Bakr making her a distant cousin of Muhammad In 611 AD he goes off into the desert to find himself revelations Fell asleep and was visited by the angel Gabriel Recites the Koran to Muhammad and was told to spread the word of Islam Goes to Mecca and tells his wife and father in law He converts to Islam and tells others and the religion spreads Problem In Islam they follow one God Allah and they are monotheistic while everyone else is polytheistic and has their own individual temples to other Gods in Mecca O Polytheistic business are losing money because of Muhammad and his followers Leaves Mecca and goes to Medina in 622 AD The people make him a mediator and all the converts leave for Medina Hegira Year one is the Muslim calendar Muslim calendar has different years then we do 0 They leave to go back to Mecca and are welcomed in Mecca is now the center of Islam again 611AD revelations divine commands 622AD Hegira Flight to Medina Year 1 632AD dies9succession dispute begins because he did not leave a will intestate AllGEOl35 72 Southwest Asia 11 Key points to take away from this lecture 0 Know the definitions of nomenclature of Islam Al lah the Shahadah etc 0 Know the difference between the Shi a and Sunni meanings of imam 0 Be aware of the construction of Islamic names Nomenclature of Islam 0 Note that there can be a variety of spellings in English since translation is phonetic When Arabic is converted to Roman the translation is made on the basis of sound which makes spelling vary Illah usually lower case god general term Al lah literally the god Shahadah the creed of Islam There is no god illah but The God Al lah and Muhammad is his Prophet More correctly Messenger Prophet Comes and does not foretell the future bring existing law Messenger bringing a new message from Allah to you Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca once in your lifetime if Muslim if can afford it Hejira Flight to Medina 622 Ummah the community of believers fellow Muslims Mullah religious lawyertheologian Imam Sunni 85 Leader of the congregation is an imam Shi a 15 Intermediary many between you and God 1St was Ali 5 7 or 12 depending 12th Imam disappeared 874AD To return as Al Mahdi Fatwa religious decree if prestige Shari a Qur anic Koranic law codified law STRICT case law a Big in Afghanistan the Taliban believe in strict Koranic law and punishment Caliphate Khalifat successors to the Prophet ended 1924 Monarchy Sultan head of palace guard largely supplanted Caliph Islamic names Methodology Largely a tribaloriented society so re ect extended family May re ect literal relationship or one of principle Descriptorsarticles AbdAmat 0 9 servantslave of as in Amat Al lah Abdallah al er the definite article BinBint 0 9 sondaughter of Ibn of the lineage of Abu father of Abi son of the father of Umm mother of usually a notable son Example Abu Jihad would be one who claims a strong dedication to the principle of jihad struggle Note Struggle can be of several sorts AllGEOl35 73 Southwest Asia 111 Key points to take away from this lecture 0 Know the basic tenets of Islam the Five Pillars 0 Know the differences between the Muslim calendar and the common Western calendar lunar 354 days and the solar has 365 days 14 is the leap year 0 Geographic difference because calendar based on the sun in US and in Islam subtropical place and sun isn t important because there is not different seasons So they go off the moon Lunar calendar Ignores leap years 0 Know the three common means of diffusion of Islam chronologically 0 Know how and why Islam split in the 7th century principles or bloodline 0 Know key figures of Caliphate succession thru Husayn Sunni amp Shi a Tenets Five Pillars Shahadah Profession There is no god illah but God Al lah and Mohammad is his Messenger Rasul Ummah community of Islam accept Shahadah Prayer daily Month of fasting Ramadan Since Muslim year 354 days lunar so moves thru year Alms Pilgrimage Hajj once in a lifetime Spiritual diffusion Islam expanded by 3 methods serially 0 Contagious diffusion 0 Hierarchical diffusion 0 Relocation diffusion Division Succession issue Muhammad dies 632AD Who is to be the new leader KhalifRasul Al lah 39 CaliphKhalif monarch CalphateKhalifat monarchy Sw to be decided by bloodline or by principles Sunni chosen for the principles traditions practices and process 85 Shi at Ali Shia connection to Muhammad bloodline monarchy 15 Ali Ali ibn Abi Talib Calighat Sunni 1 4 Rashidun Rightly Guided Calighat Shi a Abu Bakr Umar Omar Uthman Ali Ali HasanHassan brief time deposed HasanHassanl HusaynHussein HusaynHussein2 FundamentalismRevivalism Sharia Wahhabism Salafism e g Osama bin Ladin Hold to Salaf as Salih pious predecessors z Muhammad AllGEOG135 74 Problems of Southwest Asia I Key points to take away from this lecture 0 Be able to identify specific fundamentalistSalafist groups with religious affiliation SunniShi a etc 0 Understand population doubling time and its implications 0 Understand the role of oil for industrial democracies and Middle east 0 Know the significance of the four ArabIsraeli wars 1948 1956 19671973 0 Understand the implications of right of return for Palestinians and Jews 0 Understand why Occupied Territories West Bank are significant 0 Understand for all Middle East why boundaries are such a problem Division Sunni quotSunnisquot quotsunnali habitsdeeds of Muhammad Shi a Shi ites partisans of Alibloodline Modernism vs Revivalism going back and returning to prior beliefs of Muhammad 1 Omitted from some lists complicating numbering systems 2 Died 680 in Battle of Karbala martyrdom Ashara commemorated on 10th Muharram 2 Democratization vs theocracy Area of continued friction Across the spectrum Al Qaeda Osama bin Ladin Wahhabi Sunni want to return to original principles Sunni based Saudi Arabia is a believer in Wahabi Islam strict Sunni They want to disrupt the west to hope to come together and all be Muslim In Lebanon Hezbollah is a Shi a sect Use this land to attack Israel Hamas zeal Sunni 0 They are Sunni Palestinian refugees from Israel Israel faces many problems with Sunni vs Shia They have the same common goal but do not get along Fundamentalism Sala sm core belief Return to basic principles of IslamMuhammad Shari a sticking point The Caliphate ISISISILIS a new challenge and new Caliph Say they are the new head of all Muslims in the world Islamic state of Iraq and Syria is where their territory is Subcity in Sunni city of Iraq called AQI want individual acts of terrorism and they get recruits Sunni in Iraq won over by Al Qaeda in Iraq ISIS and are antiShia Question Wave of the future or stuck in the 7th century Demographics Young societies Doubling time 37 years double population faster than USISSUE The population is too big too fast with a smaller amount of years Population trees Numbers at the bottom are broader and thins out at the top due to high birth rate Comparison US 117 years Problems with too much young and little old Loss of education by older people harder to get a job because were created by people in 40s60s more people looking for jobs than creating jobs unstable society and leads to revolutions The Arab Street vs the Yuppies Arab street people who are not movers or shakers of society They are in the lower economic status and are partially employed They have more free time and want to be radical and change Result the whole area is unstable Yuppies Young professionals with lots of money and education that buy western goods Since so different from Arab Street there becomes an area of con ict and instability Oil Buyers need oil they really need oil But sellers need buyers they have little else to sell Wealth disparity astoundineg rich and the desperately poor Israel Palestinian problem Nearly everyone in the Middle East hates Israel It is the single uniting factor in the Middle East Why everyone hates Israel in the Middle East During the Holocaust in WW2 the majority that were killed were Jews 6000 IsraelPalestine 1200 the Jews left Israel and come back People from the North West Mediterranean come in also called sea peoples They came in and controlled a number of areas They took over Egypt They formed the Palestinians and create a country 1000 years later as a Roman Empire Israel becomes occupied by Romans so they revolt and become unsuccessful Diaspora Romans spread the Jews and scatter them to get rid of troubled people in Israel 1900 Jews try to establish a Jewish homeland and migrated in large numbers to Palestine At this time IsraelPalestine was run by the United Nations League of Nations which was Britain and French The LON tries to set up modern societies British become bankrupt from Ottoman Empire so by 1947 the UN divides PalestineIsrael This land then becomes Palestinian land vs Jewish land Israel declares itself a state The issue 1967 war that resulted in taking of Israel s land however only some land was taken by Palestine and the rest was Israel s Israel is now hated because there are both minorities and majorities and many Palestinians were rejected or left and these refugees left to go to Jordan The goal of Palestinians want to make their own state however two factors that present this solution Take areas held by Pal and to pursue two state solution It is stopped because there is a belief that the Israel Messiah will not come until King David s place is reestablished Right to return reestablish Palestine in homelands in Israel by ancestors Wars 1948 1956 1967 1973 Refugees since 1948 amp right of return a show stopper Occupied territories A Palestinian state AntiIsrael groups liberation in general Palestinian Liberation Organization PLO FattahAl Fattah Black September Hezbollah Hamas Palestinian Authority Thorn in side of ArabMuslim World conundrum Hate US because the US supports Israel Hate Israel because Israel is too much like the US Boundaries Tribal societies illdefined or undefined boundaries PostWW1 protectorates 9 artificial boundaries AllGEOl35 74a Problems of Southwest Asia I Israel His notes of my summary of why everyone hates Israel LOOK AT AIIGE0135 74 1 Expansion of Comments on Israel Israel a clash of ethnicities and politics 0 The Diaspora SICXOHOpOt scattering spread Jews thru Empire 70 AD 0 Driven by Roman Empire after failed revolt 0 Generally ostracized minorities N Africa and Europe 0 Dispersed Jews ought return to homeland Israel 0 Early efforts Zionist LobbyKenya 0 World War I con icting British implied promises 0 Palestinian homeland 0 Jewish homeland 0 Jews begin to migrate to Palestine 0 League of Nations mandate to Britain 0 World War II Judenfrei changes everything The Holocaust 0 Seminal event of modern Israel Never again 0 Mass exodus to Palestine not yet Israel 0 Armed uprising 0 Irgun Zvai remains as part of right wing of Israeli politics 0 Haganah forerunner of today s Israeli Defense Forces IDF 0 Stem Gang far right Wing crushed for democracy s sake 0 Britain goes broke tells UN it can t maintain the mandate Thorn in side of ArabMuslim World conundrum Hate US because the US supports Israel Hate Israel because Israel is too much like the US AllGEO135 751 Southwest Asia Details I Key points to take away from this lecture 0 Know the relative demographics relative populations 0 Know how country is divided if it is 0 Know ethnicities e g Arab 0 Know religious affiliationidentification e g Sunni 0 Know power relationships who runs the show 0 Know roles of minorities esp dominant or oppressed 0 Know basic details of political history if shown 0 Know interaction with neighbors Iraq see also 7 51aExpansi0n of Comments on Iraq 27 million people growth rate 32 167K sq mi size of California Natural resources Oil reserves largest in realm behind Iran amp Saudi Arabia Natural gas Irrigable farmland But Population split and with a big grudge Shi a Arab 60 Have most power so that s why con ict with Sunni Sunni Kurd 20 Sunni mostly Arab 20 Al Qaeda and ISIS Gulf War I 1990 1991 Result of Iraqi invasion of Kuwait August 1990repelled No y zones UNSCRes 688 5 April 1991 authority inferred Operation Northern Watch N of 36N protect Kurds Operation Southern WatchFocus S of 33N protect Shi a Gulf War II and on and on and on Debatable cause weapons of mass destruction or not Saddam Hussein claimed he didn t have them but pretended he did ostensible cause of Gulf War 11 Allied Victory squandered President Saddam Hussein al Tikriti hanged by Shi as Disbanded the only integral element the Iraqi Army Empowered Shi a majority and called it democracy Result Sunni allies driven into arms of radicals ISIS My Notes on IRAQ 0 One of the most populace nations in the Middle East 10 Iraq is a nationless state does have a government but is not a nation because everyone has different backgrounds and this creates con ict a state is a country with an organized government and a nation has a common heritagebirth Palestinians are a stateless nation because no one recognizes them as a state After the first WW the Ottoman Empire died and the League of Nations took over and created mandates that divided the Middle East up between French and Britain rule No one told Iraq they were a real country and it was created a monarchy These mandates did not keep like people together and unlike people separated which created the issues This made 3 different nations in Iraq as a result of their religions the Shia Muslim Arabs the Sunni Muslim Arabs and the Sunni Muslim Kurds not Arabs Kurds are the most stateless nation in the Middle EastIraq Kurdistan Kurdish Iraq but is the most culturally advanced most peaceful owns lots of oil Shia has the most power in Iraq which creates Sunni allies to become radicals and part of ISIS Syria Notes 0 Problem the largest humanitarian disaster there is a migration of people running away 0 Central African Wars bloody wars with other countries 0 Crafted out of the ottoman Empire 0 In French domain once the crash of the Empire after W1 0 French created republics 0 Sunni Muslims of majority 0 SunniShia issue in Syria you have Alawites running the show 0 Secretive you can t tell what their beliefs are 0 Drink wine not usually allowed in Islam celebrate Christmas 0 Hold power by force of arms which makes them valuable to the Soviet Union and Russia 0 Syrian government ISIS and people of western powers USA are trying to overthrow their government 0 Druze are another group in power 0 They have their own militia but not their own government 0 Are Gnostics Believe that there is a Creator God This god is responsible for evil because if there is evil in this world a perfect god would not create it 0 Ali 1st Caliph in Shi a and in Sunni he is the 4th Caliph o Shia don t recognize other caliphs after him because they believe they should be descendants of Muhammad o Deification to make a deity God of Ali is God s friend in Shia ll 0 Esoteric Qur an Koran only known to a few There is a written hidden message that only a few know Jordan Notes 0 Used to be called TransJordan because it was held by the Jordan River 0 Very stable prowestern government 0 Majority is Sunni 0 Advancedrole of women is advanced 0 Allies with the USA and they do not get involved in Middle East wars 0 Issue Jordan is next to Israel 0 Palestinian Arabs leave IsraelPalestine and take refuge in Jordan These people cause problems 0 Sept 1970 Palestinians in Jordan try to overthrow Jordan and try to take over Israel 0 Failed revolution so they are restricted and forced to leave Jordan 0 Since these Palestinians failed they state that they did not try hard enough So they become a militant terrorist group called Black September who blow up things 0 Their actions have died down Lebanon Notes 0 Bunch of people caught in the middle 0 Sunni Shia and Christian 0 Peaceful country and don t try to intervene 0 Known as a Switzerland of the Middle East because they are small neutral and made up of 3 groups that don t get along 0 People put money here so that it is safe 0 Lebanon is next to Israel too 0 Some people in Lebanon are refugees from Israel called Hezbollah 0 They are Shia Muslim very militant and own the Bekaa Valley 0 Lebanon is also right next to Syria tooSyrians want Lebanon to be part of Syria Saudi Arabia Notes 0 Very little population density 0 Absolute Monarchy 0 Much unexplored because it is not suitable for human habitation 12 0 NOT divided by religion 0 IA of world s oil reserves 0 Everyone is Wahhabi Sunni Muslim 0 Practice is differentvery strict rules such as governing women 0 Women are prohibited from driving Kuwait Notes 0 Large religious division Muslim Sunni vs Shia others Christians Hindus etc 0 Nominal constitutional monarchy 0 Go here to work in oil industry Bahrain Notes 0 Lots of oil there 0 Islamic monarchy 0 Commercial center 0 Women can vote 0 Shia Muslim dominated 0 Iran wants to overtake Bahrain 0 Want to control the ow of oil to western industries 0 Language Arabic English Farsi Urdu o Farsi indigenous for Persian both names from Parsi o IndoIranian subgroup of IndoEuropean Urdu sometimes called Muslim Hindi 0 Different script Persian 0 Both from Sanskrit Qatar Notes 0 Major financial sources 0 Mostly Sunni 0 Monarchy 0 Peninsula 0 Large oil and gas deposits 13 United Arab Emirates Notes 0 Lots of oil 0 Variation in religion Sunni vs Shia 0 Lots of languages Yemen Notes 0 Used to be two countries 0 Republic 0 Many terrorist groups 0 President of Yemen pushed out 0 2 groups want control 0 Al Qaeda on the Arabian Peninsula 0 Many different religions Oman Notes 0 Monarchy 0 Used to be 2 separate countries 0 Many theological beliefs 0 Disagreement of Koran if created or uncreated has it been around forever or not 0 The legitimacy of the Khalifat Abu Bakr and Umar are ok Uthman is not ok Ali is okay for the 1st half of Khalifat 0 Many different languages Iran Notes 0 Vast majority Shia Muslim 0 Iranians are nit Arab s but are Persians 0 Speak Persian Turkic and Kurdish 0 If Kurdistan becomes a country Turkey would lose a big chunk of land and oil and so would Iran and Iraq 0 Azeri wants to be free from Iran 0 Baluch wants to be their own country which would take oil and land in Pakistan 0 Surrounded by mountain ranges l4 0 People of an ethnic mix 0 Roots go back to Persian Empire 0 Problems 0 00000000 Regional distrust Revivalism enlightenment modernization Politicalcultural restlessness much proUS feeling Young educated women professionals said proUS Others antiUS Kurds Oil tons of oil little refining capacity Nuclear power Pakistan India Israel have the bomb Ethnopoliticocultural con icts stateless nations 15
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