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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dana Ayoob on Thursday November 6, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH101 at University of Washington taught by Pickrell in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 115 views. For similar materials see Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 11/06/14
Chapter 1 10152011 Perspectives Structuralism the analysis of the mind in terms of its basic elements Use of introspection to study sensationsconsidered basic elements of consciousness aka exposing subjects to sensory stimuli and having subjects describe inner experience Too subjective WILHELM WUNDT Functionalism psychology should study the functions of consciousness rather than its elements Hands structuralist explains movement by studying muscles tendons etc Functionalist asks why we have hands Tradition endures in cognitive psychology and evolutionary psychology 1 Psychodynamic Perspective Forces Within searches for the causes of behavior within the inner workings of our personality our unique pattern of traits emotions and motives emphasizing the role of unconscious processes SIGMUND FREUD Psychoanalysis the analysis of internal and primarily unconscious psychological forces 2 Behavioral Perspective Power of the Environment focuses on the role of the external environment in governing our actions behavior determined by previous habits and immediate stimuli cognitive behaviorism environment affects what thoughts we have 3 Humanistic Perspective emphasized free will personal growth and the attempt to nd meaning in one s existence rejected psychodynamic concepts of humans as being controlled by unconscious forces rejected behaviorism s view of humans as mere reactors to envi 4 Cognitive Perspective examines the nature of the mind and how mental processes influence behavior electrical recording and brain imaging techniques 5 Sociocultural Perspective examines how the social environment and cultural learning influence our behavior thoughts and feelings social norms 6 Biological Perspective examines how brain processes and other bodily functions regulate behavior experiment damages parts of rat brains Chapter 2 10152011 Approaches to understanding behavior 1 Hindsight after the fact understanding reasoning after a conclusion has been drawn limitation past events can be explained in multiple ways strength provides ideas for further research 2 Prediction Control and Theorybuilding characteristics of a good theory organizes info testable generates new hypothesis supported by findings of new research conforms to law of parsimony simple theories Defining and Measuring Variables 39 variable any characteristic or factor that can vary operationalize to define a variable in terms of the specific procedures used to produce or measure it turns abstract concepts into testable variables interna validity Social Report measures Social desiravility bias responding in a socially acceptable manner Measures of overt behavior Coding systems increase the reliability consistency of measurements Unobtrusive measures keep participants unaware that certain responses are being measured Chapter 2 10152011 Psychological Tests Personality tests Intelligence tests Neuropsychological tests Physiological measures Heart rate blood pressure brain processes etc Methods of Research Descriptive Research how humans and other animals behave in natural settings 1 Case Study indepth analysis of an individual group or even advantages indepth detailed into new ideas or challenge existing theories limitations can t determine causeeffect difficult to generalize findings lack of objectivity in gathering and interpreting data 2 Naturalistic Observation behaviors observed in a natural setting influence avoided habituation the presence of an observer is ignored over time advantages behavior can be observed in natural settings high degree of internal validity limitations can t establish causal relationship 3 Survey Research obtained throu questionnaires or interviews population all individuals we re interested in drawing a conclusion about Chapter 2 10152011 sample subset of individuals drawn from the population representative sample reflects important characteristics of population types of sampling Random each member of a population has equal chance of being chosen Stratified population divided into subgroups participants chosen to correspond w population percentage Advantages can collect large amounts of info quicklyinexpensively can ask about limitless cariety of attitudesbehavior Limitations unrepresentative samples can produece distorted results can t indicate causation self report bias 4 CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH research measures one variable X researcher measures second variable Y researcher determines whether X and Y are related does not manipulate anything does not equal causation x can cause y y can cause x both variables can influence each other bidirectionality 3quot variable can influence both x and y spurious direction and strengthcorreation coefficient 3 variable problem natural correlation variables that are causally related are correlated but not all variables that are correslated are causally related 3quot variable correlation the fact that 2 variables may be correlated only because they are both caused by a 3quot variable televised violence and aggression are correlated 3quot variabeparental supervision Chapter 2 10152011 advantages can establish generalization outside lab generate ideas for further lab study allows examination of variables that may not be practical or ethical to study in lab allows researchers to make predictions Experiments Researcher manipulates one or more variables measure whether this manipulation influences other variables attempts to control extraneous factors that might influence the outcome of the experiment Independent variable factor being manipulated Dependent variable factor being measured by experimenter Random assignment each participant has an equal likelihood of being assigned to any group All participants could be exposed to all conditions of the independent variable Counterbalancing the order of conditions is varied so that no condition has an advantage Threats to validity Internal validity an experiment supports clear causal conclusions Confounding variables 2 variables are interconnected we can t determine which one has influenced a dependent variable Placebo effect B ndness Experimenter expectancy effects External validity the results of a study can b egeneralized to other populations settings and conditions Replication repeating a study to duplicate the original findings 3 Measures of Central Tendency 1 Mode 2 Median 3 Mean Shoud we put any emphasis on Measures of variability and statistics and stuff Meta analysis etc Chapter 4 10152011 Brain and its Functions Neuron review page 98 Electric AND chemical process Cells in the nervous system that communicate w one another to perform info processing task Pans Cell body Dendrites receive info Axon sendstransmits info Myelin Sheath insulating layer covering axon Speeds up Synapse gap btw Neurons 3 steps in activation of nerve impulses 1 Neuron Has electric resting potential Ions in neurons are more negatively charged neuron is negative resting potential 2 Action Potential occurs when a neuron is stimulated 3 Original ionic balance is restored neuron is at rest
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