Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide PY 358
Popular in Abnormal Psychology
Julio Avalos Ibarra
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Notetaker on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PY 358 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Theodore Tomeny in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 110 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Exam 1 Study Guide Chapters 13 Key terms Chapter 1 O Conduct that is inconsistent with the individual s development cultural and societal norms and that creates emotional distress or interferes with daily functioning the eld of study that explores the role of genes and environment in the transmission of behavioral traits John Watson the theory that the only appropriate objects of scienti c study are behaviors that can be observed and measured directly idea that biological psychological and social factors probably contribute to the development of abnormal behavior and that different factors are important for different individuals a form of learning in which a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus to produce a conditioned response the shared behavioral patterns and lifestyles that differentiate one group of people from another idea that common symptoms of a disorder may vary depending on a persons age Someone who has a predisposition for a disorder but it lies dormant until an environmental stressor occurs approach to understanding behavior that considers it from a quantitative perspective situation where people act on something that isn t fact Nerve cell found throughout body study of structure and function of nervous system and the interaction with behavior Chemical substance that are released into synapse and transmit info from one neuron to another form of learning in which behavior is changed by events that happened afterward I BE Skinner We are products of environment Originated by Sigmund Freud Based on belief that many aspects of behavior were controlled by unconscious urges existing since infancy 3 Regions 0 Id sex and aggression 0 Ego tries to mediate 0 Superego super moral part of unconscious I Treatment all about Dream analysis interpretation free association insight and catharsis o when providing treatment psychologist relies on ndings of research and when conducting research investigates topics to help guide and improve 0 idea that Abnormal behavior must be understood within the context of social and cultural forces 0 Space between neurons 0 theory that prenatal period or shortly after birth viral infections could cause psychological disorder What are the different criteria for abnormal behavior 4 D s o Distress Dysfunction Dangerous Different or Deviant What are some of the challenges and limitations of de ning abnormal behavior iWhat factors should be considered when de ning and treating abnormal behavior 0 Personal Characterisics 0 Age 0 Education 0 SocioEconornic Status 0 Biological Changes i Identify differences between categorical and dimensional approaches 0 Categorical Do they meet criteria More distinct boundaries 0 Dimensional Constantly changing Allows for more descriptive diagnosis and not all or nothing approach iWhat did the ancient Egyptians believe 0 Believed evil spirits were in a persons head Trephanation QThe Greeks and Romans Hippocrates Father of Medicine was rst to identify symptoms Hallucinations delusions hysteria and mania Thought of the 4 humours LDuring the Middle Ages and Renaissance 0 They thought witchcraft was involved Mass Hysteria It was a work of the devil But Weyer and Paracelsus was first to deny Witchcraft gThe Nineteenth Century 0 Moral treatment began in the 19th century They removed patients form asylums The use of respect and kindness 9 What are the major differences between each of the modelstheories listed in the textbook 0 Humanistic Carl Rogers Incongruence between self image and actual selfillness 0 Cognitive Aaron Beck perception is our reality Depression negative View of self 10 What is the Bioosvchosocial model 0 Theoretical perspective that suggests that health is determined by complex interactions among biological social and psychological factors Key Terms 0 Chapter 2 o Part of brain located at its base that controls fundamental biological functions such as breathing o largest part of forebrain Contains structures that contribute to higher cognitive functioning Abstract though perception of time and creativity Presence of more than one disorder comparison group of an experimental study in which variable to be studied absent Relationship between variables statistical gure that describes the direction and strength of a correlation Positive increase on both Neg as x up y down Range 1010 o variable that is assessed to determine the effect of independent variable 0 regulates bodily temperature but uses hormones rather than nerve impulses to do so 0 examining whether family members of a person with a particular disorder are more likely to have that disorder that family members of people wo o includes Limbic system basal ganglia and cerebral cortex 0 part of limbic system and has a role in memory O 0 formation s Chemical messengers that are released into the bloodstream and act on organs variable that experimenter controls Region involved w experience of emotion and basic biological drive such as aggression sex and appetite portion of a brain stem that coordinates sensory info and movement Includes thalamus hypothalamus and reticular activating system brain structure Chemical substances that are released into the synapse and transmit information from one neuron to another scienti c approach that focuses on communication between basic science and applied clinical research 1 Be able to describe the two parts of the nervous system What does each part do Peripheral Nervous System part of human nervous system that includes they sensorysomatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system Central Nervous System Includes brain and spinal chord 2 Be able to describe the two parts of the peripheral nervous svstem What does each part do Sensorysomatic nervous system controls sensations and muscle movements Autonomic nervous sytem controls involuntary movement Sympathetic Fight of Flight Parasympathetic relaxes body from sympathetic 3 Be familiar with the basic structure of the neuron and how neurons communicate with one another 4 Why is an understanding of neurotransmitters and their function so important with regard to mental illness 0 Because a malfunction in the neurotransmitters is what can lead to an abnormal behavior Drugs can help x neurotransmitters or become one 5 Be familiar with the parts of the brain implicated in memory and emotion functioning and other complex mental processes 6 What do we know about memory from the case study involving the hippocampus Has been linked with memory de cits such as Alzheimers 7 How is the brain structured 0 Brain Stem controls Breathing Medulla Pons and cerebellum regulate breathing and heart Midbrain coordinates sensory movement 0 Hypothalamus Like a thermometer Thalamus relays sensory info 8 What do we know about the two hemispheres and the types of information they process 0 The Corpus Callosum allows both hemispheres to communicate o LeftRight hemSpheres Left primarily responsible fro language and cognitive functions Right associated with creativity imagery and intuition 9 What type of information does each lobe process 0 The brain has 4 Lobes 0 Temporal Lobe 14 Associated with understanding auditory and verbal info labeling of objects and verbal memory 0 Occipita Lobe 14 Located at back of skull Center for visual processing 0 Parietal Lobe 14 lntetegrates sensory info from various sources 0 Frontal Lobe 14 Seat of reasoning impulse control judgement language memory motor function problem solving sexual and social behavior that send messages to organs via hormones 10 How is the endocrine svstem involved with behavior and mental illness Sends messages via Hormones Studies show that certain hormones are elevated in people with depression anxiety and other psychological symptoms 11 Howwhy are the following types of research important for our understanding of abnormal behavior Neurolmaging takes picture of brain 0 CT or CAT scans 0 MRI Genetics 0 Gregor mendel Law of segregation dominant vs recessive Law of independent assortment 0 In uence of genes Height Personality Attitudes Abnormal Behavior Behavioral Genetics include family twin and adoption studies and allow critical glimpses into whether certain behavioral traits or mental disorders run in families and the extent that are due to genetics or environment 0 Molecular Genetics study of structure and function of genes See which cause abnormality 12 Be able to de ne the following and describe the information they can provide and their limitations Case Study Comprehensive description of an individual that focuses on assessment of abnormal behavior and treatment Bene ts 0 Can focus on assessment 0 Examination of rare phenomena 0 Generate hypothesis for group studies 0 Practitioner involved Limitations 0 Amount of data will vary Impossible to replicate 0 Limited in ability to understand AB Inability to make rm conclusions 0 Do not include control groups Singlecase Design conducted with single individual Advantages Controlled Individual is hisher own control group Limitations 0 Do not allow researchers to generalize the results to heterogeneous groups of people 0 Do not address impact of individual diff Group level research Most common Can draw conclusions Looks at relation between variables 0 Population Studies o Epidemiology Prevalence and Incidence Epidemioloqv approach that focuses on the prevalence and incidence of disorders and the factors that in uence those patterns W number of cases a disorder in a given population at a designated time Incidence number of new cases that emerge in a speci c time 13 What are controlled group designs and why are they helpfulimportant Groups are exposed to different conditions One is experimental and one is controlled independent and dependent 14 What are some common problems both current and in the past in research with regard to poor diversity of research samples 0 Issues 0 Exclusion of women Medication can effect the fetus and ensuring that woman do no become pregnant Menstrual cycle 0 Exclusion of older adults Abundance of research conducted with white samples college 15 What are differences between crosssectional and longitudinal designs 0 Cross Sectional Design reaserch design in which participants are assessed once Cohort group of people who share common characteristics and move together 0 Longitudinal Design design in which participants are assessed at least two times and over a certain time interval Key Terms 0 Chapter 3 o gathering info about a person and his environment to make decisions about the nature and treatment of problems an observed change that is meaningful in terms of clinical functioning presence of more than one Disorder identi cation of illness clinician weighs how likely it is a person has one diagnosis instead of another 0 IQ o amount of agreement between two clinicians who are using the same measure to rate the same symptoms in a single patient Comparison group that is representative of the entire population against which a person s score on a psychological test is compared test produces similar scores able to identify problem percent of time screener accurately identi es the absence of problem 16 What is the purpose of a clinical assessment Deciding what procedure and insturments to administer Screening 0 Diagnosis 0 Treatment Plan 0 Outcome Evalutaion 17 What type of information is gathered during one of these assessments Info about a person and his environment to make decisions about treatment 18 Why are these assessments important 19 What are some characteristics of a good assessment instrument Standardization Normative Comparisons ReHabH y 0 TEST RETEST o INTERRATOR AGGREEMENT Validity 0 Construct Criterion Concurrent predictive 20 How do these characteristics improve the dualitv of the instruments 21 What are the different types of assessment measures Clinical Interviews Psychological test Behavioral Assessments Psychophysiological Assessments 22 What are clinical interviews 0 Clinical lnterviews conversation between an interviewer and a patient whose purpose is to gather info and make judgments related to goals 0 Types Structured interview ask standardized set of questions Unstructured interview clinician decides what to ask and how to ask them 23 What purpose do interviews serve and how are they different from other assessment instruments How are they similar 0 Purpose is for screening diagnosis treatment and planning 24 Know what the different psychological tests purport to measure and their purposes 0 Projective tests derived from psychoanalytic theory in which people are asked to respond to ambiguous stimuli 25 What are some of the major problems with the different psychological tests 26 How do the behavioral assessment techniques differ Behavioral Observation measurement of behavior as it occurs by someone other than the person whose behavior is being observed Selfmonitoring behavioral assessment in which the patient observes and records his own behavior as it happens FunctionaAnaysis where a clinician identi es causal links between behavior and environment 27 What is the DSM How is it used 0 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual classi cation of disorders originally developed in 1952 Has been revised 28 What are some factors that should beconsidered when making a mental illness diagnosis 29 In what wavs can diagnostic svstems be harmful Stereotypes and Labels Overmedication Self ful lling prophecies o Stigma 30 In what ways do dimensional and categorical systems of classi cation differ 31 What are some pros and cons of each Exam 2 Study Guide Qhapter 4 Key Terms Agoraphobia A fear of being in public places or situations where escape might be dif cult or help unavailable if a panic occurs Anxiety A common emotion characterized by physical symptoms futureoriented thoughts and escape or avoidance behaviors Anxiety Disorders A group of disorders characterized by heightened physical arousal cognitivesubjective distress and behavioral avoidance of feared objectssituationsevents Exposure the crucial ingredient in behavior therapy in which a person learns to overcome fears by actual or imagined contact with the feared object or event Fight or Flight a general discharge of the sympathetic nervous system activated by stress or fear that includes accelerated heart rate enhanced muscle activity and increased respiration Generalized Anxiety Disorder the excessive worry about future events past transgressions nancial status and the health of oneself and loved ones Heritability the percentage of variance in liability to the disorder accounted for by genetic factors Posttraumatic Stress Disorder the emotional distress that occurs after an event involving actual or threatened death serious injury or a threat to physical integrity and that leads to avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma feelings of emotional numbness and persistent symptoms of increased sympathetic nervous system arousal Selective Serotonin Reuptake lnhibitors a group of medications that selectively inhibit the reuptake of serotonin at the presynaptic neuronal membrane restoring the normal chemical balance drugs thought to correct serotonin imbalances by increasing the time that the neurotransmitter remains in the synapse Separation Anxiety Disorder the severe and unreasonable fear of separation from a parent or a caregiver Social Anxiety Disorder a persuasive pattern of social timidity characterized by fear that the person will behave in a way that will be humiliating or embarrassing Speci c Phobia marked fear or anxiety about a speci c object or situation that leads to signi cant disruption in daily functioning Trait Anxietv a personality trait that exists along a dimension those individuals high on this dimension are more reactive to stressful events and therefore more likely given the right circumstances to develop a disorder also called anxiety proneness 0 Worry the apprehensive negative expectations or outcomes about the future or the past that are considered to be unreasonable in light of the actual situation Application 1 What parts of the nervous system are involved in the anxiety response What does each part do 0 Sympathetic Nervous System the part of the autonomic nervous system that activates the body for the ght or ight response When activated the sympathetic nervous system increases heart rate and respiration allowing the body to perform at peak efficiency 0 Parasympathetic Nervous System the part of the autonomic nervous system that counteracts the effects of system activation by slowing down heart rate and respiration returning the body to a resting state 2 How is typical anxiety differentiated from anxiety disorders 0 Functional Impairment 0 Developmental Age Sociodemographic Factors sexraceethnicity 3 What are some factors to consider when trying to identifydetermine those experiencing an anxiety disorder Onset is around 11 0 Comorbitity and most common 0 Most common in Hispanics black and whites 4 What is a panic attack and how is it different from panic disorder 0 Panic Attack an abrupt surge of intense fear or intense discomforts that reaches a peak within minutes and is accompanied by four or more physical symptoms 0 Two types Expected and Unexpected Panic Disorder had at least one panic attack and worries about having more attacks Fear of Panic attacks 5 What are the differences between obsessions and compulsions Obsessive Compulsive Disorder a condition involving obsession intrusive thoughts often combined with compulsions repetitive behaviors that can be extrensive time consuming and distressful 6 Apply the major theories eg psychodynamic cognitive behavioral biological to the anxiety disorders How does each theory explain the anxiety disorders What are common anxiety treatments based on these theories 0 Behavioral Theories Learned behavior one become classical conditioned Vicarious learned theory 0 Well researched Client faces fears Exposure Virtual reality Exposure 0 Cognitive theory information is processed different leading to development of anxiety 0 Aaron Beck said Anxiety maladaptive thoughts Fear of Fear Anxiety sensitivity 0 Use of SSRl s Generate positive thinking and exposure 0 Biological TheoryTreatment Psychosurgery only if medicine hasfaHed o Capsulotomy gamma knife surgery 0 Psychological Theory Treatment Psychodynamic uses free association and dream interpretation Chapter 5 Key Terms Amnesia the inability to recall important information and usually occurs after a medical condition or event Conversation Disorder a pseudoneurological complaint such as motor or sensory dysfunction that is not fully explained by the presence of a medical condition 0 Paralysis or blindness o Glove Anesthesia does not follow known neurological patterns of study DepersonalizationDerealization Disorder feelings of being detached from one s body or mind in a state of feeling as if one is an external observer of one s own behavior Dissociative Amnesia an inability to recall important information usually of a personal nature that follows a stressful or traumatic event 0 Three types LocaHzed Generalized Selective Dissociative Disorders a set of disorders characterized by disruption in the usually integrated functions of consciousness memory identity or perception of the environment 0 Five Types Depersonalization Derealization Amnesia ldentity confusion ldentity alternation Dissociative Fugue a disorder involving loss of personal identity and memory often involving a ight from a person s usual place of residence 0 Dissociative Identity Disorder the presence within a person of two or more distinct personality states each with its own pattern of perceiving relating to and thinking about the environment and self Factitious Disorder Imposed on Self a condition in which a person self engages in deceptive practices to produce signs of illness Factitious Disorder imposed on another a condition in which one person induces illness symptoms in someone else latrogenic the term describing a disease that may be inadvertently caused by a physician by a medical or surgical treatment or by a diagnostic procedure 0 lllness Anxiety Disorder the condition of experiencing fears or concerns about having an illness that persists despite medical reassurance o Obsessive about health 78 have comorbity with anxiety and depression Malingering a condition in which physical symptoms are produced intentionally to avoid military service criminal prosecution or work or to obtain nancial compensation or drugs Pseudoseizures a sudden change in behavior that mimics epileptic seizures but has no organic basis 0 Somatic Svmptom and Related Disorders a condition de ned as the presence of one or more somatic symptoms plus abnormalexcessive thoughts feelings and behaviors regarding the symptoms Application 1 What do somatic symptom disorders all have in common a Excessive thoughts feelings and behaviors in relation to the physical symptoms that seem out of proportion to the symptoms themselves How is malingering different from factitious disorder a If you malinger you are producing symptoms so you can gain something from it Like not having to go to jail or into the military With factitious disorder you gain nothing What are some unique challenges when it comes to detecting somatic symptomfactitious disorders a Challenge of getting people to reveal their symptoms to a professional b Emphasis placed on physical symptoms What are some unique challenges to treating these disorders 5 Apply the major theories Biological Brain Malfunction vs structural abnormalities Psychodynamic intrapsychic con ict personality and defense mechanisms Behavioral modeling and reinforcement Environment stress sexual abuse family separationloss family con ictviolence and sexual assault 6 What are common treatments based on these theories 0 Biological and psychological treatment basic education of the mindbody connection when it comes to symptoms 0 Cognitive behavioral therapy Chapter 6 Key Terms Antidepressants a group of medications designed to alter mood regulating chemicals in the brain and body that are highly effective in reducing symptoms of depression Bipolar Disorder a state of both episodic depressed mood and episodic mania Cyclothymic Disorder a condition characterized by uctuations that alternate between hypomanic symptoms and depressive symptoms Persists for at least 2 years Depression a mood that is abnormally low Disruptive Mood Regulation Disorder a disorder for children age 6 to 18 years old who have quotsevere recurrent temper outburst that are grossly out of proportion in intensity or duration to the situationquot Double Depression a combination of episodic major depression superimposed on chronic low mood Electroconvulsive Therapy the controlled delivery of electrical impulses which cause brief seizures in the brain and reduce depressed mood Hypomania a mood elevation that is clearly abnormal yet not as extreme as frank mania Learned Helplessness a term meaning that externally uncontrollable environments and presumably internally uncontrollable environments are inescapable stimuli that can lead to depression Lithium a naturally occurring metallic element used to treat bipolar disorder Major Depressive Disorder a persistent sad or low mood that is severe enough to impair a person s interest in or ability to engage in normally enjoyable activities it is an episodic illness many people only have a single episode But some have several over the course of lifetime Runs in Families Mania a mood that is abnormally high Mixed State a state characterized by symptoms of mania and depression that occur at the same time Mood Disorders a syndrome in which a disturbance in mood is the predominant feature Persistent Depressive Disorder a chronic state of depression in which the symptoms are the same as those of major depression but are less severe Persistent patient is never without symptoms for more than two months Premenstual Dysphoric Disorder a more severe form of premenstrual changes that af ict 3 to 8 of women of reproductive age Selective Serotonin Reuptake lnhibitors a group of medications that selectively inhibit the reuptake of serotonin at the presynaptic neuronal membrane restoring the normal chemical balance drugs thought to correct serotonin imbalances by increasing the time that the neurotransmitter remains in the synapse Suicidal ldeation a condition characterized by thoughts of death 39 H ii 0 0 Passive wish to be dead Active thought and detailed plan Application 1 W O39NN 5399 C 4 9301 899399 FPO 9539 Q How are mood Disorders different from regular happiness or sadness How are Bipolar I and Bipolar ll disorders differentiated Bipolar l full blown mania alternate with episode of major depression Bipolar ll hypomania mood elevation that is abnormal yet not severe enough to impair functioning or require hospitalization Depression is more than just sadness What are all the different ways that depression can affect someone Disturb psychological emotional social and physical functioning lrritability or Hostility Result in physical disorders ypothyroidism lack of thyroid hormone Hypercortisolism too much hormone control How might mood disorders look different depending on the person39s age What are common risk factors for suicide Males have had more success at commiting suicide because they choose harsher methods rearms hanging etc Youth and Elderly Highest rates amont whites and American IndianNative Indian Biological factors Family History Parasuicide super cial cutting and OD on nonlethal levels of meds What are common approaches to treating suicide Crisis Intervention Focus on High risk Groups Societal Level Prevention Preventing Suicidaal Contagion Apply the major theorieseg psychodynamic cognitive behavioral biological to the mood disorders Depression i Behavioral Learned helplessness ii Cognitive Aaron Beck said we have anegative view of self and life Psychological CBT and IBT Biological 1 Antidepressant snd SSRl s iii iv 2 ECT 3 Light therapy for major 4 Transcranial magnetic 5 Deep brain stimulation b Bipolar i Psychological CBT and Interpersonal and Social rhythm therapy Stay with normal routines ii Biological Lithium 1 ECT for severe when medication doesn t work Qhapter 7 KeyTenns Binge Eating consuming a larger amount of food than most people would eat in a discrete period of time and having a sense that eating is out of control 0 Binge Eating Disorder a condition characterized by regular binge eating behavior but without the inappropriate compensatory behaviors that are a part of bulimia nervosa o Bodv Mass Index the formula for weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared Enmeshment the over involvement of all family members in the affairs of any one memeber o Inappropriate Compensatory Behavior any actions that a person uses to counteract a binge or to prevent weight gain 0 Purging self inducing vomiting or using laxatives diuretics or enemas to reverse the effects of a binge or to induce weight loss Application 1 How does one distinguish Anorexia Nervosa from Bulimia Nervosa a Anorexia Nervosa a serious condition marked by restriction of energy intake relative to needed energy requirements resulting in signi cantly low body weight b Bulimia Nervosa a disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating in combination with inappropriate compensatory behavior aimed at undoing the effects of the binge or preventing weight gain 2 What are some medical problems associated with the different eating disorders a Osteoporosis a condition of decreased bone density b Amenorrhea the absence of menstruation for at least 6 3 consecutive months 3Eating disorders aren39t just about food What are some of the other psychological issues often present that drive the development and maintenance of eating disorders a 80 will suffer from depression b 75 will suffer from anxiety disorders Apply the major theories to eating disorders What are common treatments for eating disorders a Anorexia increase calories Normalization of eating behavior and weight b Bulimia normalize eating elimination of bingepurging c Binge normalize eating weight stabilization Improve psychological factors Which care providers are typically involved in the treatment of eating disorders and why a Multidisciplinary teams i Psychologist ii Psychiatrist iii Pediatricians iv Dieticians V Socialworkers Vi Nurse Specialist
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