HPEB 502: Study Guide Test 2
HPEB 502: Study Guide Test 2 HPEB 502 001
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sierra Barton on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HPEB 502 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Gabrielle Michelle Turner-McGrievy in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 498 views. For similar materials see Applied Aspects of Human Nutrition in Nursing and Health Sciences at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
HPEB 502 Practice Test 2 Which of the following describes the blood glucose response to a given food compared to a standard a Glycemic load b Glycemic index c Glucose intolerance d Glucose level Which of the following is a condition resulting from a lack of lactase in the system a Lactose intolerance b Lactase persistence c Lactic acid threshold d Lactase allergy Which of the following is a simple carbohydrate a Starches b Fiber c Sugars d Bread Which of the following is not a monosaccharide a Lactose b Glucose c Fructose d Galactose Which of the following is known as table sugar a Sucrose b Lactose c Maltose d Fructose What is the recommended intake of fiber a 2025 g b 2538 g c 3038 g d 3040 g How many kcal do carbohydrates provide a 9 kcal gm b 7 kcal gm c 6 kcal gm d 4 kcal gm Which of the following is not a function of carbohydrates a Supplies energy b Protein sparing c Strengthens bones d Regulates glucose 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 How many kcal do lipids provide a 9 kcal gm b 7 kcal gm c 6 kcal gm d 4 kcal gm What is the most common form of fats amp oils a Fatty acids b Phospholipids c Triglycerides d Glycerol TF Lipids to not readily dissolve in water a True b False Which of the following is not a good source of omega3 fatty acids a Fish oil b Chicken c Canola oil d Flax seed Which of the following is not a function of fatty acids a Provide energy b Storage of energy c Insulates organs d Transports blood What percentage of fat should take up our kcal intake a 010 b 1020 c 2030 d 3040 What location in the body is fat broken down a The mouth b The stomach c The small intestine d The large intestine How many kcal does protein provide a 9 kcal gm b 7 kcal gm c 6 kcal gm d 4 kcal gm Which of the following is the building blocks of protein a Amino acids b Vitamins c Lipids d Chicken How many essential amino acids are there 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 a 20 b 9 c 11 d 10 How is protein released into the blood stream a Travels from small intestine to stomach via portal vein amp released b Travels from small intestine to liver via portal vein amp released c Travels from small intestine to large intestine via portal vein amp released d Travels from small intestine to colon via portal vein amp released Which of the following is not a function of protein a Maintaining fluid balance b Forming hormones amp enzymes c Insulates organs d Forming glucose Which source of protein accounts for about 70 of our protein intake a Animal protein b Plant protein c Protein shakes d Protein powder What percentage of protein can take up our total kcal a 20 b 25 c 30 d 35 Which of the following vitamins is not readily excreted helps promote vision amp growth amp prevention of drying of the skin a VitaminA b Vitamin D c VitaminE d Vitamin K Which of the following vitamins is an antioxidant protects double bonds in unsaturated fats and is found in nuts amp seeds a Vitamin A b Vitamin D c Vitamin E d Vitamin K T F Fat soluble vitamins are readily excreted a True b False TF Water soluble vitamins are readily excreted a True b False Which of the following vitamin deficiencies can cause loss of appetite and enlarged heart a Thiamin Bl b Riboflavin B2 c Niacin B3 d Biotin 28 Which of the following vitamin deficiencies can cause scaly inflamed skin and changes in the tongue amp lips a Thiamin Bl b Riboflavin B2 c Niacin B3 d Biotin 29 Which of the following vitamins synthesizes collagen absorbs iron and helps with immune functions a Folate b B12 c Vitamin C d B6 30 Which of the following is not a main food source of Biotin a Peanut butter b Cooked lamb liver c Boiled egg d Baked potato SDP NFDSJ1PP NP WNNNNNNNNNNI I I I I I I I I H PPWNP P PP NHPPWNP P PWF E P onUgtJgtwngtUgtnwgtonnwowgtngtnowgtgtngtw HPEB 502 Practice Test 2 Answer Key HPEB 502 Test 2 Study Guide Chapter 4 Carbohydrates Carbs are the main fuel source for the brain nervous system amp red blood cells Muscles rely on carbs to fuel physical activity Provides 4 kcal gm Simple carbs sugars Complex carbs starches amp fibers Simple sugars put togethercomplex carbs Common simple sugars units monosaccharides o Glucose dextrose Source of fuel for cells n blood stream blood glucose or blood sugar 0 Fructose fruit sugar n fruit honey amp highfructose corn syrup 0 Galactose n lactose Common simple sugars disaccharides o Sucrose Table sugar 0 Lactose Milk amp milk products 0 Maltose Fermentation Alcohol production Common complex carbs polysaccharides 0 Starch Amylose Amylopectin 0 Dietary Fiber Undigested starch Body cannot break bonds Functional fiber I Fiber added to foods I Humans don t eat enoughaverage 16 g I RDA 2538 g Carbohydrate Digestion 0 Cooking Softens fibrous tissues o In mouth Salivary amylase amp maltose breaks starch to shorter saccharides Short time in mouth o In stomach Acidic environment No further starch digestion o In small intestine Most digestion takes place here Pancreas releases enzymes pancreatic amylase Absorptive cells release maltase sucrose lactase Monosaccharides absorbed Lactose Maldigestion 0 Reduction in lactase Lactose undigested amp not absorbed Metabolized by large intestinal bacteria Causes gas bloating cramping discomfort o Lactose intolerance when symptoms occur after lactose intake Functions of Carbs o Supplies energy 0 Protein sparing o Prevents ketosis o Regulating glucose Glycemic Response 0 Glycemic index ratio of blood glucose response to a given food compared to a standard 0 Glycemic load grams of carbs in a food multiplied by glycemic index of that food then divided by 100 High glycemic load large release of insulin Chapter 5 Lipids Provides 9 kcal gm Don t readily dissolve in water We need very little in our diet Types of lipids o Triglycerides Most common form of fats amp oils Fatty acids attached to glycerol 0 Phospholipids Built on glycerol backbone Component of cell membranes Function emulsifier o Sterols Multi ringed structure Found in animal foods Functions I Essential component of cell membrane I Produced by liver I Precursor to bile acids Fatty Acids 0 Found in our body amp foods triglycerides 0 Saturated fatty acids solid form 0 Unsaturated fatty acids liquid form Cis amp trans Hydrogenation of Fatty Acids 0 Process used to solidify an oil 0 Addition of H to CC bonds 0 Increases shelf life 0 Formation of trans fatty acid Digestion of Fat o In stomach Gastric lipase o In small intestine Primary site of fat digestion amp absorption of lipids Bile acid released Fat broken down o In large intestine Less than 5 of ingested fat is excreted in feces Transportation of Synthesized Lipids 0 Made primarily by liver 0 Verylow density lipoprotein VLDL carries dietary fat from small intestine to cells 0 Low density lipoprotein LDL carries cholesterol made by liver amp from other sources to cells 0 Highdensity lipoprotein HDL contributes to cholesterol removal from cells amp in turn excretion of it from the body Functions of Essential Fatty Acids 0 Omega 3 Fatty Acid Primarily from fish oil salmon mussels crab shrimp Found in canola oil walnuts flax seed chia seed hemp seeds cauliflower Brussel sprouts hummus amp soy foods Decreases blood clotting Deceases inflammation 0 Omega6 Fatty Acid Found in vegetable oils Only need 24 tbsp day Increases blood clotting Increases inflammatory responses Functions of Fatty Acids 0 Provides energy Storage of energy Insulates organs amp protects body Transports fat Some satiety Flavor amp mouth feel OOOOO RDA for Fat Intake 0 2030 total kcal from fat 0 we average 33 Chapter 6 Protein Provides 4 kcal gm Amino Acids 0 building blocks of protein 0 20 amino acids 0 9 essential must be consumed in food 0 11 nonessential synthesized by body Protein organization 0 order of amino acids in a protein determines its ultimate shape 0 proteins final shape determines function 0 diseases such as sickle cell anemia can occur when amino acids are incorrect on a polypeptide chain Protein Digestion 0 cooking denatures proteins amp softens tough connective tissue 0 in stomach denatures by stomach acid 0 in small intestine choecystokinin hormone released from small intestine in response to presence of chime pancreatic enzymes peptides 9 amino acids I ready for absorption Functions of Protein 0 Maintains fluid balance Contributes acid base balance Forming hormones amp enzymes Contributes to immune function Forms glucose Provides energy Contributes satiety OOOOOO RDA for protein 0 Kg body weight x 08g protein 0 Provides about 10 of total kcal but can provide up to 35 Protein Food Sources 0 Animal protein 70 of our protein intake top 5 I beef I poultry I milk I white bread I cheese 35 comes from animal sources worldwide 0 Plant protein Heart healthy Cancer fighting Bone health Better glucose control Contain no cholesterol Limited saturated fat High fiber Chapter 8 Fat Soluble Vitamins Vitamins 0 Essential organic substances 0 Yields no energy 0 Basic functions Facilitate energy yielding chemical reactions Function as coenzymes 0 Should be consumed daily Storage of Vitamins in the body 0 Fat soluble not readily excreted except vitamin K 0 Water soluble generally lost from body except B6 amp B12 Vitamin Toxicity 0 Fat soluble can accumulate in body 0 Water soluble some can cause toxicity doesn t usually accumulate Fat Soluble Vitamins Overview 0 Not readily excreted causes toxicity 0 Absorbed with fat 0 Fat malabsorption can cause deficiency of fat soluble vitamins o Transported with fat in lipoproteins Vitamin A o Preformed Retinoids Found in animal products 0 Profomed Carotenoids Found in plant products 0 Functions Promote vision Promote growth Prevent drying of skin amp eyes Promote immune function amp resistance to bacterial infection Cardiovascular disease prevention Cancer prevention Acne medication 0 Deficiency Leading cause of blindness o Toxicity Bonemuscle pain loss of appetite skin disorders headaches dry skin hair loss increased liver size vomiting Fetal malformation Possible permeant damage Vitamin D o Synthesized from sun exposure 0 Functions Regulates blood calcium Influences normal cell development Aids in bone formation 0 Food sources Fatty fish salmon herring Fortified milk 0 Deficiency Rickets result of low vitamin D I Breastfed infants w little sun exposure Osteomalacia soft bones o Toxicity Common in infants amp children Over absorption of calcium Calcium deposits in organs amp blood vessels Vitamin E 0 Fat soluble antioxidant 0 Functions Protects double bonds in saturated fats Improves vitamin A absorption 0 Deficiency Breakdown of cell membranes Hemolysis Nerve degeneration o Toxicity Inhibit vitamin K metabolism amp anticoagulants Possible hemorrhage Muscle weakness headaches nausea Vitamin K 0 Role in coagulation process blood clotting 0 Role in calciumbinding potential 0 Food sources Liver Leafy greens Broccoli Pea rs Green beans 0 Toxicity Excess vitamin A amp E interferes with vitamin K I Can cause hemorrhage amp fractures Toxicity unlikely readily excreted Chapter 8 Water Soluble Vitamins Water Soluble Vitamins Overview 0 Dissolve in water Generally readily excreted from body Subject to cooking losses Function as coenzymes Participate in energy metabolism 5090 of B vitamins are absorbed marginal deficiency more common OOOOOO Thiamin Bl o Coenzyme form used in energy metabolism 0 Food Sources Lean ham Pork chops Wheat germ o Deficiency Beriberi I Weakness amp poor arm amp leg coordination I Loss of appetite I Enlarged heart amp sometimes sever edema o Surplus rapidly lost in urine nontoxic Niacin B3 0 Coenzyme forms used in energy metabolism 0 Heat stablelittle cooking loss 0 Food Sources Tuna Roasted chicken peanuts o Deficiency Pellagra 3 D s Dementia Dermatitis Diarrhea Folate o Coenzyme DNA synthesis Homocysteine metabolism Neurotransmitter formation 0 Folic acid Supplement form Better absorbed than folate o Deficiency Megaloblastic anemia Neural tube defects Vitamin B6 0 Coenzyme forms Activate enzymes needed for metabolism of carbs fat amp protein Synthesize nonessential amino acids via transamination Synthesize neurotransmitters Synthesize hemoglobin amp WBC Role in homocysteine metabolism Vitamin 312 0 Synthesized by bacteria fungi amp algae o Coenzyme Role in folate metabolism Maintenance of myelin sheaths RBC formation 0 Deficiency Pernicious anemia body can t make enough healthy red blood cells Nerve degeneration amp paralysis 0 Food sources Animal products Vitamin C o Synthesized by most animals not humans 0 Excess excreted diarrhea common 0 Sensitive to Cookingheat Oxygen 0 Functions Synthesis of collagen Iron absorption Immune functions Antioxidant o Deficiency Scurvy I Deficient for 2040 days I Fatigue pinpoint hemorrhages I Bleeding gums I Weakness I Fractures Chapter 9 Water amp Minerals VVater 0 5070 body weight 0 Functions Body temperature regulation Removal of body waste via urine Amniotic fluid joint lubricants saliva bile o Dehydration Loss of 12 body weight in fluid thirst signal Loss of 2 or more lose strength amp endurance Loss of 1012 heat intolerance Loss of 20 coma amp death 0 Too much water Overburden the kidneys Low blood electrolyte concentrations Blurred vision Sodium 0 Most about 80 in American diet comes from process foods amp restaurant meals 0 Functions Excretion regulated by kidneys Muscle contraction Conduction of nerve impulses o Deficiency Rare Persistent vomiting diarrhea Excessive perspiration Depletion of sodium in body Muscle cramps nausea dizziness shock coma Potassium 0 Functions Fluid balance Nerve impulse transmission Lowering blood pressure 0 Deficiency Muscle cramps confusion constipation irregular heart beat heart failure 0 Food Sources Kidney beans winter squash plain yogurt OJ Calcium 0 Makes up 40 ofall minerals in body 0 Functions Bone formation amp maintenance Blood clotting Nerve impulse transmission Muscle contraction Cell metabolism 0 Food sources Plain yogurt cheese milk spinach salmon Nondairy sources I Soymilk rice milk I Leafy greens I Calciumset tofu I Fortified cereals I supplement Magnesium 0 functions aids in many enzyme reactions potassium amp calcium metabolism proper nerve amp cardiac functions insulin release from the pancreas may dilate arteries may prevent heart rhythm abnormalities 0 deficiency develops slowly irregular heartbeat weakness muscle spasms disorientation nausea vomiting seizures Iron 0 functions hemoglobin in red blood cells myoglobin in muscle cells electron transport chain enzyme cofactor immune function drugdetox pathway 0 vitamin C enhances absorption nonheme iron pair with I citrus fruits I peppers I broccoli I strawberries 0 absorption of iron determined by body s need storage is in intestinal cells absorbed in acidic environment 0 food sources oat bran cereal baked clams spinach Zinc 0 functions cofactor to many enzymes DNA synthesis amp function Growth protein metabolism wound healing Immune function Cell membrane structure amp function Development of sexual organs amp bones Insulin functions Helps with taste 0 Deficiency Reduced sense of taste 0 Toxicity Inhibits copper metabolism Possibly increases risk for prostate cancer Causes diarrhea crams nausea vomiting Depresses immune function 0 Food sources Steamed oysters sirloin steak pot roast