Psych 420 Test two notes
Psych 420 Test two notes Psych 420
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allie McLaughlin on Monday March 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 420 at University of South Carolina taught by Ms. Guy in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 03/21/16
Chapter 6 emotional and social development in infancy and toddlerhood O o Ericksons psychosocial theory Con ict Basic trust vs mistrust 1st yr resolution responsiveness and sympathetic loving care from caregivers Autonomy vs shame and doubt 2nCI yr resolution suitable guidance form caregivers opportunity to make responsible choices help learning impulse control Basic emotions Happiness anger sadness fear universal Seen in humans and other primates Interpreted through facial expression Development of basic emotion Happiness smile from birth social smile 610 wks laugh 34 months Angersadness general distress from birth anger 46 months sadness less common Sadness can represent lack of caregiving Fear rst fears 612 months most often stranger anxiety evolutionary adaptation Understanding emotion in infancy 34 months sensitive to structure of interactions realize people are more like them 5 months match voice and expression based on emotion Social referencing Use another s reaction to appraise an uncertain situation Emerges 810 months Look at how parents respond to situation and it indicates how they should respond Self conscious emotions Appear from 153 years of age Shame embarrassment guilt pride and envy Require awareness of self adult guidance Emotional selfregulation Adjusting ones emotional state to a comfortable level to achieve goals Temperament control lmproves across rst year of life due to brain development of frontal lobe infants become better at producing selfsoothing behaviors with movement can move away from something causing stress Development of selfregulation 13 months depend on caregivers for soothing 46 months shift attention from unpleasant attention 612 months increased mobility allows for increased control 2 years talk about feelings actively try to control emotions fewer tantrums Temperament Early appearing stable individual differences in reactivity and self regulation NY longitudinal study Started 1956 by Thomas and chess Followed 141 children from infancy to adulthood Problems in uenced by how caregivers acted to children Temperament tied to psych problems protection from negative life events Temperament based on Rhythmicity regularity of body functions hunger bathroom Ext Distractibility Approachwithdrawal response to novelty Adaptability ease responding to environmental changes Attention span persistence how much time devoted to activity engaging in Intensity of reaction negatively vs positively Threshold of responsiveness intensity of stim required to get a response Quality of mood Temperament classi cation Easy 40 quickly establish a routine cheerful adapt easily Dif cult 10 irregular routines negative intense reactions adapt slowly higher rates of anxiety and aggression Slowtowarmup 15 inactive mild reactions negative adapt slowly Rest of percentage fall into multiple categories Rothbarts Revisions Combine overlapping dimensions Introduce effortful control abillity to suppress a dominant response to plan and execute a more adaptive one positive correlation with effortful control and positive development Temperament stability Low in rst years Moderate from preschool on long term predictions best after age 3 Biological basis of temperament Neurobiological correlates of shyness and sociability heart rate cortisol pupil dilation blood pressure skin surface temp Temperament and genetics Responsible for about half of individual differences MZ twins more similar than DZ Less heritability before temperament has stabilized Temperament more strongly correlated to genotypes Temperament and environment Nutritionalemotional deprivation after temperament Home environmentNoise and crowinglrritabilitywithdrawal and institutionalizationinattention poor impulse control Goodness of t Temperament environment interaction Effective child rearing good t with child s temperament Attachment Strong affectionate bond between a child and their caregiver Positive attachment child turns to caregiver in time of need Harlow s monkey Attachment does not depend on hunger satisfaction Psychoanalytic and behavior theories are disproved through this Bowblys Ethological Theory Preattachment birth6 wks Attachment in the making 6wks68 months strong attachment being formed develop sense of trust Clearcutattachment 68 months18 24 months stress when caregiver leaves them Reciprocal relationship 1824 months less anxiety with separation trust caregiver to return to you Internal working model Set of expectations about availability and support of attachment gures Guides all future close relationships Positive relationship with caregiver promotes further positive attachments Measuring attachment Mary Ainsworth s strange situation 12 year olds 8 episodes of brief separations and reunions Study infant responses Types of attachment Secure 60 parent is secure base calmed when parent returns show strong preference toward parent vs stranger Avoidant 15 unresponsive to parent when present avoidslow to greet upon return Resistant 10 seek closeness with parent distressed by absence cling with resistanceanger upon return Disorganized disoriented 15 most insecure confused inconsistent behaviors atdepressed emotion cry unexpectedly not easily comforted Attachment stability Secure attachment more stable than insecure except disorganizeddisoriented stable Cultural variations in attachment Chapter 7 0 Physical Growth in Early Childhood o Gain 23quot and 5 Lb per year 0 Lose baby teeth 0 Girls general growth ahead of boys girls also tend to lose teeth before boys 0 Brain Growth in Early Childhood 0 Increase from 70 to 90 of adult weight 0 Synaptic pruning follows overproduction of synapses First pruning occur in frontal lobe of brain Cerebellum aids in balance and control of body movement 0 A lot of changes in motor coordination Hippocampus Memory Corpus Callosum more communication between hemispheres of brain 0 Lateralization in Early Childhood 0 High levels of activity in left hemisphere from 36 years Language skills 0 Steady increase in activity in right hemisphere Spatial skills 0 Giving directions reading etc Handedness o Re ects dominant cerebral hemisphere Righthanded 90 left hemisphere Lefthanded 10 both hemispheres o Brains less lateralized more likely to be ambidextrous 0 Nature and Nurture o Lefthandedness and development More likely to have developmental problems Depends on if a child has gone through a brain injury to cause lefthandedness parents may be unaware of injury More likely to have verbal and math skills very strong intellectual capabilities In uences on Physical Growth 0 Heredity and Hormones Hormones Chemical substances releases by cell and in uence other cells in the brain and body Pituitary Gland Produce hormone that results in growth 0 Growth Hormone GH Released throughout life Affects all tissues except CNS and genitals Does not play a role prenatally huge role postnatal o ThyroidStimulating Hormone TSH Causes thyroid gland to release Thyroxine o Thyroxine is necessary for brain development 0 De ciency will result in mental retardation Aids GH 0 Nutrition Appetite decreased and unpredictable as growth slows Prefer familiar foods 0 Could be adaptive Imitate those they admire Increased liking with unpressured exposure 0 Infectious disease More of risk in developing countries leads to more stunted growth patterns Poor diet suppresses immune system Illness reduces appetite Diarrhea a danger Stunts growth and development also leads to 1 million childhood deaths every year Oral rehydration therapy and zinc can help 0 Immunizations Decrease childhood disease in industrialized nations Protecting children and other people 30 of US preschoolers lack immunizations Payment 0 Parental stress Misconceptions 0 Childhood injuries Leading cause of childhood deaths in industrialized nations 0 Auto accidents burns drowning Unintentional 20 of deaths in US Greater in 0 Boys than girls Inattentive overactive irritable aggressive Poverty Motor development in early childhood 0 Body becomes less topheavy and center of gravity shift downward o Posture and balance improve Leads to new motor skills 0 Gross motor skills 2 years gait smooth and rhythmic 5 years upper and lower body skills combine into more re ned actions Greater speed and endurance 0 Fine motor skills Selfhelp dressing eating etc Drawing and printing Progression of drawing skills 0 Scribbles 2ncl year Not as concerned with the gestures being made as move about paper not actual representations 0 First representational forms 3 years label alreadymade drawings 34 years draw boundaries and people tadpoles o More realistic drawings preschool to school age 0 Skills tend to develop more quickly in cultures that value art Piaget s Preoperational Stage 0 27 years 0 Extraordinary increase in mental representation 0 Language Makebelieve play 0 Practice and strengthen new schemes 0 With age play Detaches more from real life Becomes less self centered ls more sociodramatic play with others 0 Advanced sociodramatic play assigns roles Ex cops and robbers who is who Bene ts of makebelieve play 0 Strengthens mental abilities Sustained attention 0 Memory Language and literacy Creativity Regulation of emotion Perspective taking Dual representation 0 Viewing a symbolic object as both an object and a symbol 0 Mastered around 3 years of age 0 Adult teaching can help Ex maps photos drawings 0 DeLoache 1987 Limitations of preoperational thought 0 Egocentric Animistic thinking Inability to conserve Lack of hierarchical classi cation Limitation egocentrism Failure to distinguish others viewpoints from one s own Three mountain task 0 Limitation animistic thinking Belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities 0 Limitation conservation Understanding that object characteristics remain the same despite changes in appearance Centration focus on one aspect and neglect others lrreversibility inability to mentally reverse se Conservation Task same object appears different 0 Limitation Hierarchical classi cation Organization of objects into classes and subclasses based on similarities and differences 0 Follow up egocentrism As young as 2 years old shows awareness of unique views Preschoolers adjust language based on audience similar speech when talking to younger then adults 0 Follow up Animistic thinking Over estimated Occasionally attributed to animals rarely to inanimate objects Believe in magical until between 4 and 8 Vygotskys Sociocultural Thoery Emphasized language 0 Private speech Seen when young children talk a lot to themselves quotegocentric speechquot according to piaget Vygotski disagreed much more functional and plays huge role in development 0 Vygtoski private speech For selfguidance Foundation for all higher cognitive process problem solving abstract reasoning memory ext As tasks become easier private speech turns into inner speech 0 Zone of proximal development Where learning occurs OOOO Range of tasks too difficult for kids to do alone but possible with help 0 Make believe play A ZPD where children advance themselves Learn based on internal ideasearn to resist impulses and instead learn to react on what would make sense Strengthens capacity to think before acting Socioprivate speech Vygostki believes it is a result in social development Piget believes it is spontaneous and all children act in make believe play 0 Scaffolding Adjusting support offered during an activity to t the child s current level of performance Slowly reduce amount of scaffolding o Gains in information processing Attention Processing Memory Theory of 0 Inhibition Ability to control distracting stimuli nterna thoughts Externa distractors Predicts social maturity and readingmath achievement 0 Planning Thinking out a sequence of acts and allocating attention 0 reach goal 0 Development of planning Preschoolers generate and follow plans for familiar tasks that aren t to complex 0 Impact of cultural tools Tools support planning lnstructions for games Patterns for construction Recipes In uence of experts In uence of practice 0 Memory Recognition Noticing that stimulus is identical or similar to one previously experienced Recall Generating a mental representation of an absent stimulus 0 Memory Strategies Deliberate strategies used to retain info Rehearsal Organization Emerge in early childhood but not yet effective 0 Types of memory 0 O Episodic Memory for everyday experiences Scripts General descriptions of what occurs and when it occurs during events Can in uence make believe play and early planning Can make predictions Autobiographical Memory for personally meaningful one time events 0 Autobiographical prompts Used by adults Elaborative prompts adult follows child s lead Repetitive prompts repeating the same questions Create shared history between adult and child Positively associated with pure attachment 0 Theory of mind Coherent ideas about mental life in others Early awareness in infancy Desire TOM 23 years Belief desire TOM 34 years Believe both belief and desire will in uence decision Language Social experience 0 Individual differences 1 Home environment Positive mental development supported by Homes rich in toys and books Warm caregiving Less common in low SES families but protective when it is 0 Preschool Kindergarten and child care Child centered Children select from a wide variety of activates Learn through play Montessori approach design to promote exploration and self discovery promote academic and social development Academic Teacher structure learning Formal lessons letters numbers colors shapes Repetition and drill usually used Undermines motivation in early childhood and puts emotional wellbeing at risk More stress behavior 0 Early intervention for atrisk kids Head start 12 years of preschool Nutritional and health services Parent involvement Resu s Similar but not as strong Program quality varies Inferior public schools and neighborhood can interfere When quality high Increased high school graduation and college enrollment Decreased drug use and delinquency More involved parents better outcomes High Scope Perry project 2 year preschool Parent involvement Took place at parents home University designed More effective then head startbenefits lasted into adu hood o Aspects of good child care Many activity areas Group size lt20 Care giver child lt110 Positive guidance techniques College educated caregivers Parent involvement Academics 0 Educational media Learning environment including TV and computers Positive effects on Early literacy math sills Make believe play Academic achievement Excessive exposure can be harmful Vocabulary Chapter 8 6 year olds know about 10000 words must learn 5wordsday Fastmapping connect new words to meanings with brief exposure Coin new words Use metaphors Fastmapping Grammar Development 3 years SVO sentences Omit prepositions Add grammatical morphemes the dog s toy Small markers changing meaning Over regularization apply grammar rules without exceptions saying foots instead of feet Pragmatics Ability to engage in effective and appropriate communication 2 years old engage in conversation 4 years old adjust to listeners age sex and social status Break down in challenging situations limitation when talking over phone Supporting language development Recast restructure inaccurate speech to correct form shoe on footsvs shoes on feet Expansion elaborate on children s speech eat cheeriosvs do you want to eat the cheerios Erikson s theory Initiative Positive outcome New sense of purposefulness Eager to try new tasks Try skills in play Negative outcome Overly strict conscience Related to parents threats criticism and punishment Selfconcept Increased selfunderstanding leads to development of selfconcept Attributes abilities attitudes and values individual beliefs de nes them Preschoolers Observable characteristics Basic emotions Likesdislikes o Selfesteem o Emoti Judgments and feelings about own worth Affects emotional experiences future behavior and longterm adjustment High selfesteem promotes initiative Criticized 3 years olds give up easily lnstead adjust expectations use scaffolding Emotional development Improve in Emotional understanding Emotionalself regulation onal understanding Correctly judge Causes of emotions Consequences of emotions Understanding increased with Social interaction 0 Emotional selfregulation 0 Self o Emp o Emp Adjust emotional state to achieve goals 34 year olds describe strategies for adjusting arousal Affected by Temperament effortful control Warm parental guidance conscious emotions lnjure or enhance sense of self Ex guilt embarrassment envy pride Develop based on adult feedback and cultural cues athy and Sympathy Empathy Ability to detect emotions and take others perspective Motivates altruistic behavior Or can lead to personal distress Sympathy Feelings of concern or sorrow for another person athy Temperament Social warm god emotional regulation high empathy Parenting Warm sensitive empathetic parents high empathy 0 Development of social paly Mildred Parten Three step sequence 1 Nonsocial activity onlooker solitary play 2 Parallel play independent sidebyside play 3 Social play associative cooperative 0 Early friendships Friend someone who plays with you shares toys Friendships change frequently Bene ts Social support and favorable school adjustment 0 Parents childrearing styles Authoritative most positive type of parenting Authoritarian coldrejecting parents Permissive warm but have low control Uninvolved withdrawn and emotionally detached 0 Outcomes of childrearing styles Authoritative Selfcontrol moral maturity high selfesteem Authoritarian Anxiety unhappiness low selfesteem anger de ance Permissive lmpulsivity poor school achievement Uninvolved Depression anger poor school achievement 0 Effects of punishment Frequent harsh punishment has negative side effects Alternatives to harsh punishments Time out withdrawing privileges positive discipline Parents can increase effectiveness of punishment Consistency warm parentchild relationship explanations 0 Positive discipline Use transgressions as opportunities to teach Reduce opportunities for misbehavior Provide reasons for rules Have children participate in family duties And routines Try compromising and problem solving Encourage mature behavior 0 Development of aggression Seen in all children occasionally By 2ncl year two types emerge Proactive aggression Instrumental aimed at something the child wants Personal aggression not aimed toward person Reactive aggression Hostile provoked by other person meant to hurt other person Forms of aggression Physical causes physical injury Verbal causes threats of physical aggression name calling teasing Relational causes social exclusion gossip friendship manipulation Effects on aggression Individual differences Gender Temperament Family Harsh inconsistent discipline Cycles of whining giving in Media violence Increases Hostile thoughts and emotions Aggressive behavior Leads to short term and long term behavior problems Helping kids control aggression Improving parenting Encouraging children to attend to non hostile cues Promoting perspective taking Teaching con ict resolution skills Limiting exposure to media violence and home stressors Child maltreatment Abuse Physical abuse assaults resulting in physical injury Sexual abuse fondling intercourse pornography and other forms of exploitation Neglectfailing to meet basic needs Emotional abuse can cause mental disorders include isolation unreasonable demands humiliation and intimidation Factors related to maltreatment Parent characteristics Child characteristics Family characteristics Community less supportive Culture laws 0 Consequences of maltreatment Emotional Poor selfregulation impaired empathy sympathy depression Adjustment Substance abuse violent crime Learning Impaired working memory and executive function 0 Preventing maltreatment lntervening with highrisk parents Social supports for families Parents anonymous Healthy families America Chapter 9PHYSCAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN MIDDLE CHILDHOOD Overweight and obesity In the US 32 of children overweight Including 17obese More likely to be overweight adults 0 Health risks associated with obesity Physical symptoms High blood pressure cholesterol Respiratory problems Insulin resistance Lifelong problems Heart disease diabetes gall bladder disease cancer early death 0 Causes of obesity Heredityobese parents more likely to have obese kids Low SES Parental feeding practices Insufficient sleepinterrupts brain signals for metabolism Low physical activity Time spent watching TV Eating out o Psychological and social consequences of obesity Feeling unattractive Stereotyping Teasing and social isolation Depression Problem behaviors Less schooling lower income marriage problems 0 Treatment Overweight obesity should be treated as a FAMILY disorder 0 Motor development in middle childhood Gross motor skills lmprove balance strength agility exibility Fine motor skills lmprove writing drawing 0 Organized youth sports About 50 of children participate lncrease self esteem and social competence Predicts physical activity in early adulthood Piagets concrete operational stage 711 years old Thought becomes more logical exible and organized overall 0 Conservation Pass the conservation tests Evidence of operations Decentrationable to realize change in one aspect is accommodated by a change in another aspect Reversibility Ability to reverse actual steps taken place 0 Classi cation Master hierarchical classi cation 710 years successfully solve Piagets class inclusion problem 0 Seriation Ability to order items along a quantitative dimension Ef cient at 67 years of age Transitive inference ability to seriate things mentally Appears about 7 yea rs 0 Spatial reasoning Able to use directions Mental rotations quotMental walkquot giving directions by pretending to be following them yourself Cognitive maps Mental representations of familiar largescale spaces 0 Cultural interpretations of maps Landmarks detail vs scalelittle detail Limitations follow up research of Piagets theory Struggle using operations with abstract Continuum of Acquisition Master concrete operational tasks more gradually Culture and schooling affect performance on tasks Gains in info processing Attention working memory exible strategy use cognitive selfregulation Memory strategies Increased use Rehearsal Organizationgroup related items together Elaborationcreate relationship between info not in same category Cognitive self regulation Still developing ability to monitor progress towards goal check outcomes and redirect unsuccessful attempts Parents can promote its development Attention De cit hyperactivity disorder Symptoms lnattention impulsivity and excessive motor activity Resu sin Academic and social problems Frustration higher rates of acting out IQ score about 715 points lower then peers Believed to have a genetic component Treatment of ADHD Stimulant medication Improves attention academic performance peer relations Works for 70 Insuf cient by itself Family intervention Ongoing adult assistance Some argue that children with ADHD outgrow it De ning intelligence Difficult to nd a consensus Intelligent behaviors change with age Most people suggest Verbal ability practical problem solving and social competence 0 Factor Analysis A correlational procedure identifying test items that cluster together Factors clusters 0 Charles Spearman g general intelligence Abstract reasoning capacity quot5quot speci c intelligence Unique to task 0 Sternbergs Triarchic Theory Analytical intelligence practical intelligence and creative intelligence interact with each other Analytical intelligence Apply strategies Acquire taskrelevant info Selfregulation Practical intelligence Adapt modify select environments that t ones characteristics Creative intelligence Solve new problems Automate processing 0 Theory of multiple intelligences Howard Gardner Dismisses quotgquot At least 8 independent intelligences Innate shaped through development Neurological support Multiple Intelligence Naturalist lntrapersonal Musicalauditory Bodykinesthetic Interpersonal Visualspatial Logicalmathematical Linguisticliterary 0 Measuring intelligence Binet Designed the rst successful intelligence test 1905 Identify students needing special education Mental age Adapted to the US StanfordBinet Intelligence Scale 0 StanfordBinet Intelligence Scale 2 years to adulthood Measures Fluid reasoning quantitative reasoning knowledge visua spatial processing working memory Verbal and nonverbal o Wechsler intelligence scale for children 6 to 16 years of age Measures Verbal reasoning perceptual reasoning working memory processing speed Most quotculturefair Intelligence Quotient IQ Extent raw score passed deviates from the mean for same age Standardized Mean always 100 o IQ Score Stability Correlational stability Compares scores relative to agemates from one test to he next Better correlations When older at rst testing and when tests are close together Absolute scores Compare scores over repeated testing s Most children uctuate 1020 points 0 SES and IQ Racial differences in IQ Associated with lowSES 0 Nature vs Nurture Genetics may account for about half of variability Positive environment positive cognitive development and higher IQ More heritable in highSES then lowSES conditions 0 Adoption and IQ Substantial increases after adoption Sti biological mothers IQ plays a role Black adopted children Average IQ 110117 Likely culture plays more of a role than genetics 0 Cultural Bias in Testing 2 views Biased Cultural factors can undermine performance Communication styes Cultural speci c content Stereotype threat Not biased Meant to represent success in common culture Fair because predict academic achievement equally 0 Reducing bias in testing Pretestinterventionretest Dynamic assessmentgoa help kids in areas where they can succeed with help so they can succeed independenUy Focus on learning process Feedback provided Adultchild learning relationship cultivated 0 Language Development Vocabulary 10000 words40000 words Approximately learning 20 words a day Grammar Passive voice in nitive phrase Bilingualism Learn both at the same time No problems with language development Good at both by preschool One then the other Takes 35 years to be as good as sameage native speakers of second language Both offer cognitive advantages Attention reasoning concepts exibility and general language skills 0 Erikson s theory Industry Develop since of competence at useful skills and tasks School provides many opportunities lnferiority Pessimistic and lack con dence in ability Negative responses from family teachers and peers 0 Self concept Major changes between 8 and 11 years More balanced In uences by perspective taking Use social comparisons Compare ideal with real self References social groups 0 Selfesteem Academic social athletic physical competence hierarchy Physical appearance has the greatest impact on how one feels about themselves 0 Culture and Selfesteem Emphasis of social comparisons Gender stereotypes Racial differences Representation of ethnicitySES in neighborhoodschool 0 Parenting and Selfesteem Authoritative parenting is bestinvolved in kids life with some restrictions and help in decision making Too controlling Low selfesteem Aggression Antisocial behavior Too indulgent Unrealistically high selfesteem Worthwhile goal setting boosts selfesteem o Achievement related attributions Attributions everyday explanations for causes of behavior Reason for successReason for failure Mastery OrientedAbiityControllable factors that can be overcome by effort Learned helplessnessExternal factorsAbiity which cannot be changed by effort 0 In uences on learned helplessness Parents Believe child incapable Make trait statements Gender stereotypes More commonly affects girls SES and ethnic differences LowSES minorities receive less positive feedback usually from teachers Emotions o SelfConscious Emotions Pride and guilt governed by personal responsibility Pride take on new challenges Guilt strive for selfimprovement o Emotional understanding Explain emotion using internal states Understand mixed emotions Identify selfconscious emotions in others Empathy increases Emotional selfregulation Problemcentered coping Appraise situation as changeable Identify problem Decide what to do Emotion centered coping unchangeable situation When little can be done about outcome Internal and private Aimed at controlling distress Positive sefreguation emotional selfefficacy feeling in control of emotional experiences Moral development Moral rules Flexible biased on intentions Linked to social conventions Realize that intentions and context affect moral implications 0 Understanding diversity and inequality 0 ngr I Early school years Assign power and privilege to white people Assign stereotyped traits to minorities With age overt prejudice declines Focuses on inner traits Subtle prejudice may persist oup Outgroup Bias ngroup bias prefer own group Outgroup prejudice negative comparison of out to in group Outgroup favoritism minorities view majority more favorably than own group After 78 outgroup prejudice weakens May see subtle unintentional prejudice Affected by Fixed views of traits Overly high selfesteem Cultural classi cation and interracial contact 0 Reducing prejudice Intergroup contact Classrooms that expose diversity teach understanding and value of differences address prejudice and discrimination and encourage perspective taking prevent prejudice formation and reduce biases Friendship in middlechildhood More selective Personal qualities and trust important Fairly stable Type of friends affects development Peeracceptance Popularmany positive votes wellliked prosocialantisocial Rejectedmany negative votes commonly disliked aggressivewithdrawn Controversialmany positive and negative votes both likeddisliked Neglectedseldom mentioned positively or negatively usually welladjusted Helping rejected children Coach positive social skills Promote perspective taking and social problem solving Alter peers negative opinions Intervene in negative parenting practices Gender stereotyping Increase steadily in middle childhood Extended to include personality traits and school subjects Gender identity 3 l6th grade Boys masculine identi cation strengthens Girls become more androgynous Gender Identity Selfevaluations affect adjustment Gender typicality Gender contentedness Pressure felt to conform to gender roles Family relationships Parents Less time spent together Coregulation Parents let kids make most decisions but still have overall say Siblings Rivalry Companionship and assistance Parental encouragement of warm sibling ties is vital Onlychildren High in selfesteem achievement motivation Closer relationships with parents Peer acceptance tends to be less favorable Not as good with problem solving 0 Divorce rates Increased from 19601985 Stabilized over last 10 years Us highest in world 45 of marriages 25 of kids in singleparent homeusualy mother run household only 12 with father 0 Consequences of divorce Immediate Family con ict decreased Drop in income Disorganized home life Vary with child s age sex and temperament Long term Improved adjustment after 2years Less aggressionde ance with fathers involvement Coparenting improves adjustment 0 Blended families Motherstepfather Most common Boys adjust to changes more quickly then girls Older children show more adjustment problems Father stepmother Often leads to reduced fatherchild contact Children in father custody often react negatively Girls and stepmothers slow tog et along
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