Mind Mapp psych407
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This 57 page Study Guide was uploaded by Diamondrich64128 on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to psych407 at University of Missouri - Kansas City taught by fox in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see cognitive psychogy in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Kansas City.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Chapter 7 Cognition Thinking Intelligence amp Language What is This Elements of Cognition Concept ideas that represent a class or category of objects events or activities Dog golden retriever collie St Bernard Pomeranian Emotion happy sad fear excitement You know what they are even if not first hand experience Basic concepts have a moderate number of instances and that are easier to acquire than those having few or many instances Apple more basic than fruit less specific than Macintosh apple Book more basic than printed material Prototvpe an especially representative example of a concept To decide if item belongs to a concept we compare it to a prototype not all dogs bark not all apples are red not all birds fly Which dog is doggier a golden retriever or a Chihuahua Which fruit is fruitier apple or pineapple Prototypical most representative Which is a Prototypical Bachelor Elements of Cognition Proposition unit of meaning that is made up of concepts and expresses a single idea relationship to another Students study General Psychology Student like General Psychology 39 Cognitive schema integrated mental network of knowledge beliefs amp expectation concerning a particular topic or aspect of the world Mental model of world Gender schema regarding beliefs about what it means to be male or female Schemas regarding culture occupations geographical locations Mental image mental representations that mirrors or resembles the thing it represents mental images occur in many if not all sensory modalities visual images picture in mind s eye Auditory in mind s ear song slogan Important in thinking and in construction of cognitive schemas Elements of Cognition Concepts Propositions Mental Images Lb Cognitive Schemas How Conscious is Thought Subconscious process mental processes occurring outside of conscious awareness but accessible to consciousness when necessary Eat and read a book Drive and listen to music Multitasking takes longer less efficient accurate study and listen to music or TV less effective How Conscious is Thought Nonsubconscious process Mental processes occurring outside of and not available to conscious awareness Not know answer at test time then think of it as walking out the door Intuition hunches amp gut feelings Implicit learning learning that occurs when you acquire knowledge about something wo being aware of how you did amp wo being able to state exactly what it is you have learned Strategy to win a game How to speak native language Walk up stairs How Conscious is Thought Mindlessness may be thinking but not vary hard Act speak amp make decisions out of habit wo stopping to analyze Worker at Mc Donald s gave change for 200 bill MoRE GOOD NEWS FROM MADISON AVENUE SKWEESS M1 30N5L g g m cu mas ruzol 1 2 3 4 5 Quick Quiz Which concept is most basic furniture chair or high chair Which sample of the concept chair is prototypical High chair rocking chair dinning room chair In addition to concepts amp images which express a unitary idea may be a basic form of mental representation Paul s mental representation of Thanksgiving included associations turkey attitudes It s time to be with relatives and expectations I m going to gain weight from all that food They are all part of his for the holiday Karen discovers that she has called her boyfriend Mike s phone number instead of her mother s as she intended Her error can be attributed to Word bank for questions 3 4 amp 5 cognitive schema mindlessness proposition subconscious process Formal Reasoning Formal Reasoning IQ test college entrance exam Reasoning Drawing conclusions or inferences from observations facts or assumptions Algorithm a problem solving strategy guaranteed to produce a solution even if the user does not know how it works Long division Deductive Reasoning a form of reasoning conclusions follow certain premises if the premises are true conclusion must be true Psych 1000 meets MWF at 700am it s Monday I need to be at class Sherlock Holmes DEDUCTIVE REASONING fm l Premise g true IrConclusion 39 gt m st be i I I I l Etjrue f Premise true 1 Errors possible All rapists are men All men are rapists Formal Reasoning Inductive reasoning a from of reasoning the premises provide support for conclusion but possible for the conclusion to be false I ve eaten at Mi IVlargarita several time they have good food Food likely good but could have been just what you ordered Something is probably true Science depends on inductive reasoning observation draw conclusion l l WW Premise true I 39r INDUCTIVE REASONING Possibility l Conclusion ipremlse ofdisorepant I I Igt probably true information true mmom man AFGUE mng aurau was L mmewg r Om 2Ilil39anwpmmm1m Khu rum mm Informal Reasoning Informal reasoning No clear correct answer lack of information Abortion Death penalty Going to war increase taxes Heuristic a rule of thumb suggests a course of action guides problems solving but does not guarantee an optimal solution Moves to make in a chess game Strategy to play card game Dialectal Reasoning opposing facts or ideas are weighted amp compared to determine the best solution or DlALECTAL REASONING Iving differences Arguments fag K Pro lCon llstens to both SldeS weighs evrdence decrde 3 M 3 Pro Con av 13 M n Most reasonable conclusion based on evidence and logic Problem Solving Trial and Error one possible solution tried after another Algorithms specific stepbystep procedures for specific problem Heuristic an educated guess based on prior experiences that narrow down the possible solutions for a problem quotrule of thumb Representative Heuristic any object sharing characteristics member Availability heuristic frequency or likelihood based on ease to recall info Meansend analysis look at difference in begin amp end steps to reduce dif Insight quotaha moment solution in a flash magic information reorganizes a problem solution think outside the box Critical Thinking Critical thinking question assumptions evaluate and integrate evidence consider alternatives and reach conclusions that can be defended as most reasonable Adults amp adolescents were given opposing statements then asked What do you think about these statements How did you come to hold that point of view On what do you base your position Can you ever know for sure that your position is correct Why do you suppose disagreement exists about this issue Creativity Solving problems by combining ideas or behaviors in new ways SteveJobs Apple Convergent thinking 1 problem 1 solution Divergent thinking 1 problem many solutions Brainstorming many ideas practical or not Keeping a journal list of ideas Free writing write everything edit later Mind or subject mapping visual representation concepts and connections Quick Quiz Most of the Christmas gifts Kevin bought this year cost more than they did last year so he concluded that inflation is increasing What kind of reasoning Inductive deductive dialectical Jane is arguing with Pam about whether real estate is a better investment than stocks quotYou can t convince me says Jane just know I m right Jane needs training in reasoning Joe thinks the media have a liberal political bias and Sue thinks they are too conservative Well says Joe quotI have my truth amp you have yours It s purely subjective What level of thinking What evidence might resolve this issue between Joe and Sue Barriers to Rational Reasoning Exaggerating the Improbable minimizing the probable Affect heuristic tendency to consult one s emotions instead of estimating probabilities of objective IVlad cow disease vs bovine spongiform encephalopathy beef sales Availability heuristic tendency to judge the probability of a type of event by how easy it is to think of examples or instances Works with affect heuristic IVlore available mental picture more likely to use that example Tornados exaggerated asthma under estimated 911 fear flying so drive even though 65 x more dangerous Jaws amp shark attacks Barriers to Rational Reasoning Avoiding Loss Minimize risks Which program would you enter 1 Will definitely save 200 people 2 13 probability of saving all 600 people amp 23 probability of saving none IVlost pick program 1 Which program 1 400 definitely die 2 13 probability of nobody dying amp 23 probability that all 600 with die IVlost chose program 2 Reject risk when they think of the outcome as lives saved but Accept risk when they think of the outcome as lives lost Avoiding Loss PROBLEM1 First program Second program MUM 13 probability that all are saved 39 9 23 probability that nobody is saved D PROBLEM 2 First program Second program 1 0 probability that 23 die 13 probability that nobody dies 23 probability that all die Barriers to Rational Reasoning Fairness Bias usually motivated to avoid loss yet Ultimatum Game 2 people partner gets 10 and decide how much to give you If you accept both keep the money If you reject the offer no one gets money reject even though anything is better than nothing Monkeys give token to get a slice of cucumber Saw in next cage that other monkeys were give a grape Stopped giving the token got nothing Even through down their cucumber slice Unlike this hockey player most people have a sense of fair play Barriers to Rational Reasoning Hindsight bias to over estimate one s ability to have predicted an event once the outcome is known quotI knew it all along phenomenon I knew they would break up Confirmation Biastendency to pay attention only to information that supports one s beliefs People are rarely excited to hear news that is contrary to their beliefs Pay more attention to those that confirm Mental Sets Try to solve new problems using same heuristics strategies and rules that worked in the past Trying to find patterns to events Connect the dots with 4 straight lines Pen can not leave the paper ls the following rule trlule Illc a card has a vowel on one side then it has an even number on the other sicle Whiclh 2 cards to your needl to turn over to find out Need for Cognitive Consistency Cognitive dissonance a state of tension when a person holds 2 cognition that are psychologically inconsistent or when a person s belief is incongruent with their behavior Dissonance opposite of consistency COGNITIVE DISSONANCE I Cognitionscon ict quotquotquot39quot Effonstoreduce I TenSIon dissonance quot Cognitive Reject belief I 7 l dissonance quot39 V Change behavior 5339 Behavuor conflicts with g Deny the evidence attitude or belief Rationalize Cognitive Dissonance How do people react to failed prophecies People thought world was to end on 1220 Believers would be whisked away to safety Some quit their jobs spent their life savings Those that made no public commitment lost faith Those who sold all increase belief to avoid dissonance Leader stated quotworld saved because of group s strong belief r Vt u a L V Jv lQl Lb Elt ll I W WhimwmW Mm g i 55TER 01 m rtus 99M 1 FRENCH EC WM wavion 39 N ouw 0M5 To Miami Ti m N01 iiome 1 mean AW 39 wcorivtmmq THIS MAY RINK CAUSQQ l 3 Situations That Cause Dissonance 1 To justify a choice or decision you made freely Buyers remorse Postdecision dissonance Think you may have made a bad choice Ifyou choose car quotI love my car even if it is in the shop every month If someone else chose no dissonance 2 To justify behavior that conflicts with your view of self Feel you are honest but choose to cheat quoteveryone does it quotit s just this once 3 To justify the effort put into a decision or choice IVlore you work more value goal Justification of effort increase their liking for something that they have worked hard or suffered to obtain a common form of dissonance reduction 1 2 3 4 Quick Quiz In 2001 an unknown person sent anthrax though the US post office Many people became afraid to open their mail although the risk for any given individual was extremely small 5 people died during the attacks What heuristics explains this Research on the Ultimatum Games shows that people usually act out of rational selfinterest True or False Bill meets a young woman in the cafeteria They hit if off and eventually get married Bill says quotI knew that day that something special was about to happen What cognitive bias is affecting his thinking You are part of an experiment that is boring and repetitive you must tell other students about to participate that it was fun amp interesting Half got 1 and the other half got 20 Which group decided that the study had been fun after all amp why Intelligence Intelligence usually defined as ability to profit from experience acquire knowledge think abstractly act purposely adapt to changes in the environment Factor Analvsis a statistical method for analyzing the intercorrelations among various measures or test scores clusters of measures or scores that are highly correlated are assumed to measure the same underlying trait ability or aptitude factor Psvchometrics measurement of mental abilities traits amp processes Types of Intelligence Speaerman GFactor ability to reason amp solve problems or general intelligence SFactor excel in certain areas or specific intelligence Garnder s Multiple Intelligences not just logic reason amp knowledge 1 Verballinguistic 2 Musical 3 Logic mathematical 4 Visual spatial 5 Movement 6 Interpersonal 7 Intrapersonal 8 Naturalistic 9 Existentialist Theories of Intelligence Sternberg s Triarchic Theory information processing strategies the ability to creatively transfer skills to new situations the practical application of intelligence Skills amp knowledge needed for success in life according to self 3 Asnects 1 Analytical Intelligence Problem solving break down into components parts for analysis Recognize and defining the problem Selecting a strategy for solving Mastering strategy Carrying out the strategy and evaluation of results IVletacognition knowledge or awareness of own cognitive process and abilities to monitor and control those processes too much time studying on what they know not enough time at what they don t Triarchaic Theory 2 Creative experiential intelligence Creativity in transferring skills to new situation Cope with novelty Learn quickly to make a new task automatic If not have this Great at meeting due dates are specified and immediate response Problems w self imposed deadlines at work amp employer not tell how doing 3 Practical contextual intelligence Practical application of knowledge adjust for different context Able to adapt to different environments Tacit knowledge practical action oriented strategies for achieving goals not formally taught or verbalized inferred quotYou re Wise but you lack tree smarts Intelligence Binet s Brainstorm France Why do some children answer like those younger and other like those older Mental age MA measure of mental development expressed in terms of the avg mental ability at a given age Intelligence quotient IQ a measure of intelligence originally computed by dividing a person s mental age by their chronological age and multiply by 100 now from norms provided form standardized intelliqence tests Why change formulation 8 yr old perform like 10 yr old mental age IQ 125 10 divided by 8 X 100 All average children regardless of age would have an IQ of 100 Did not explain adults a 50 year old who scores like a 30 year old not low IQ Distribution of IQ Scores 994 9544 6823 C 9 4 22 3 O O Q 5 D O 9 C 8 L D a 39 i1359 i34133413i1359 39 i 55 7O 85 1 00 1 1 5 130 IQ scores FEGEJRE 523 Expected Distribution of 1Q Scores In a large population 10 scores tend to be distributed on a normal bellshaped curve On most tests about 68 percent of all people will score between 85 and 115 about 95 percent will score between 70 and 130 and about 997 percent will score between 55 and 145 In any actual sample however the distribution will depart somewhat from the theoretical ideal Intelligence Lewis Terman Stanford University Normed for US Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale 1916 David Wechsler 2 tests 20 years later Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children WISC Verbal Vocabulary arithmetic abilities immediate memory span recognize similarities general knowledge comprehension Performance Ability to recreate block design within specified time limit Id missing part from picture General IQ plus 4 subsets Verbal comprehension perceptual reasoning working memory processing speed Picture arrangement Arrange the panels to make a meaningful story 3 Code I 3 5 o l A L i Test21435213421 Digit symbol Picture completion Supply the missing feature Object assembly Put together a Using the key at the top fill in the jigsaw puzzle appropriate symbol beneath each number Block design Copy the design shown using another set of blocks Culture amp Testing Test not always sensitive to culture City over rural Middle class over poor White over nonwhite IVlale over female Youth over elderly Stereotvpe threat a burden of doubt a person feels about their performance due to negative stereotypes about their group s abilities Increased Anxiety worse performance I hate tests I am no good at math Disidentifying reduced motivation This test has nothing to do with how I feel about myself STEREOTYPE THREAT C Anxiety D Worsened Negative stereotype 27 T performance 39 about one s group eg They re i unintelligent b h g Reduced C DISldentlflcathl39l motivation Adj for c quotapport Domains of Intelligence What about these situations Nobel Peace prize winner in medicine not able to budget Autism Savant syndrome Rainman Traumatic Brain Injury Lose one domain not another Emotional intelligence EQ ability to ID your own and other people s emotions accurately express your emotions clearly and regulate emotions in yourself and others If not able to ID own behavior Not able to cope to tragedy Express emotions inappropriately If not able to ID in others Poor work and friend relationships Miss read verbal cues or body signs Psychometric amp Cognitive Psychometric Focus Performance on standard tests What is intelligence A general intellectual ability captured by IQ score or a range on specific verbal and nonverbal abilities Use Emotional intelligence No Use Practical intelligence No Use well validated standardized tests Yes Cognitive Focus Strategies used when solving problems What is intelligence Many different skills and talent in addition to intellectual ones Use Emotional intelligence Yes Use Practical intelligence Yes Use well validated standardized tests Being developed Heritability Differences are they genetic or result of experience and environment Heritability statistical estimate of the portion of the total variance in some trait that is attributable to genetic differences among individuals within a group Height highly heritable Table manners low heritability more upbringing Heritability Adopted children 39 share genes from each bio parent biology raised by adoptive parent environment compare correlation btw traits of bio amp adopted pfqv vca uw tLuaod zmu hiw Shared Genes Shared Environment Biological Adopted Adoptive Parents Child Parents Heritability Identical twins monozygotic 1 egg fertilized by 1 sperm Fertilized egg zygote divides into 2 parts 2 separate embryos Identical Twins Fraternal Twins same Sex Wquot quotgirli gi iiirifix 09mSpamquot Sepaf iif iil edby Fraternal twins dizygotic 2eggs fertilized by2 sperm H J t Share all Snare only m b m of their genes about half their genes No more genetically alike than w other siblings Same or different sex So Why study identical twins study identical twins living with biological parents study identical twins living with adoptive parents Genes and Individual Intelligence IQ intelligence quotient norms from standardized tests average score of 100 set 23 fall between 85115 15 points 100 IVIost think IQ measures a general quality affects most aspects mental ability Some believe culturally bias middle class white IQ highly heritable Identicaltwins 39 quot 3 reared together Fraternal twins reared together Identicaitwins 397 reared apart Nontwin biological quot siblings reared together Nontwin biological 39 siblings reared apart Grades IQ and SelfDiscipline Duckworth and Seligman 2005 8th graders Which is a better predictor of academic performance among adolescents IQ or selfdiscipline Longitudinal study Self report Teacher s report Pa rent s report Questionnaires Selfdiscipline 2 x s 5 groups Final EPA 94 9 2 9D 88 86 84 are U SEWP i eie39ine ui ntiles Culture Asians and Americans Beliefs about intelligence Americans math in innate If have ability don t need to work hard If you don t have it no use in trying Standard American parents lower standards American parents happy with barely average Asian parents only happy with high score Values Americans do not value education as much as Asians Ask 5th graders quotIf wizard could give you anything you wanted 60 Asians stated something related to academics Americans money or possessions IPercentage who say studying hard is most important for math performance n ANODkO ImNOOCOO OOOOOOOOOOO Teachers Students Got it or you Don t TiiJaPanese Quick Quiz What goals do cognitive theories of intelligence have that psychometric theories do not Logan understands the material in his statistics class but on tests he spends the entire period on the most difficult problems and never even gets to the problems he can solve easily According to the triarchic theory of intelligence which aspect of intelligence des he need to improve Tracy does not have an unusually high IQ but at work she is quickly promoted because she knows how to set priorities communicate with management and make others feel valued Tracy has knowledge about how to succeed on thejob According to a recent study of 8th graders is more strongly correlated with school performance than is What is wrong with defining intelligence as quotwhatever intelligence tests measure Animal Intelligence ognitive ethologv Study of cognitive process in nonhuman animals Some can anticipate future events Make plans Coordinate their activities with comrades Primate Studies Able to use objects and simple tools Summing of quantities Use of symbols to make request Understand short English sentences Is it Language Must have these 1 Use combinations of sound gestures or symbols that are meanianul not random 2 It must permit displacement communication about object amp event not present displaced in time or space Not just pointing at things 3 Grammar syntax that permit productivity ability to produce and comprehend an infinite number of new utterances By this criteria animals have communication not language Do Animals Have This Theorv of Mind system of beliefs about way one s own mind and the minds of others work and of how individual are affected by their beliefs and feelings Great Apes chimpanzees gorillas and orangutans Elephants dolphins rom carioonbonkcom Q We New Yorker Collection 19 Peter Sieineri All Rights Resened quotIt s always Sit Stay Heel never Think lnnova te Be yourself Anthropomorphism To falsely attribute human qualities to nonhuman being Clever Hans the wonder horse able to do math 931525 339 d l ms mam ha rg its QQQE miamyxaim im mm may 3ELE 1fi 3 l t li l 371 elemLet t I 39 Language Language system that combines meaningless elements sound amp gestures to from structured utterances convey meaning Humans Notjust speech sign language The ability to create an infinite number of new utterances Nonhumans grunts amp screeches communicate with each other but not a language The innate capacity for language Language structures Surface structures how it is spoken or signed Deep structures what is inferred how the sentence is to be understood Language Complex Chomsky Not just learn by imitation use grammarsyntax Convert 2 surface structures to 1 deep structure Mary kissed John amp John was kissed by Mary Mary kisser John kissee Two Surface Structures Mary kissed John gt John was kissed by Mary One Deep Structure Mary Kisser John Kissee Convert 1 surface structure to 2 deep structure Bill heard the trampling of the bikers Bill heard the hikers trampling something Two Deep Structures 57 Bill heard the hikers trampling something One Surface Structure 3953 f 1 h Bill heard the trampling of the hikers Bill heard someone trampling the hikers Bill heard someone trampling the hikers JFK quotIch bin ein Berliner I am a jelly donut I am a citizen of Berlin Language acquisition device innate mental module that allows young children to develop language if exposed THAT no on m PLAYeeounp bAWbiue3com 39 511 ginquot 12quot 39 1342 2 39 a39 9W 5 owes mnmwamu vesr 0v MNG mum3 symumt L7 I I I Z 135439 2 3 1 k Even when parents try to correct their children s syntax it doesn t usually work 39 Evidence That Supports Chomsky Children in different cultures similar states of linguistic development Add no to beginning quotno get dirty I Double negative quothe don t want no milk Children combine words in ways that adults never would quotDaddy taked me quotGo store quotI waked up Adults do not consistently correct their children s syntax Usually parents reward incorrect syntax quotwant milk mother will serve milk Children not exposed to adult language may invent their own I Deaf children create their own sign language Infants 7 months can derive simple linguistic rules from string of sound I If learn ABA pattern until bored will want ABB I If learn ABB pattern until board will want ABA I ABB quotWo fe fe I ABA quotWo fe wo Thereforelanguage acquisition replaced language learning Nay Sayers to Chomsky Some think experience has a greater role 0 Experience probability that any given word or syllable will follow another
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