Updated Big Ideas
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ali Miller on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 150A at University of Arizona taught by Dr. Gail Gonzales in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 301 views.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Big ideas 1 2 peacea Psychology is the scienti c study of behavior and mental processes Wilhelm Wundt 1 Is the father of psychology 2 1879 opened the lst psychology laboratory 3 Leipzig Germany William James Wrote the rst psychology text book American Harvard 1890 Wrote quotprinciples of psychologyquot Big idea Psychologists Degree PhD Doctorate of philosophy in psychology Spent entire education studying psychology Many specialize in psychological disorders clinical Psychiatrists Degree MD A physician who specialized in psychological disorders Can prescribe drugs do surgery Makes more money Big Idea Correlation coef cient r xy 0 A number between 1 and 1 0 Shows the relationship between two variables 0 Doesn t prove cause and effect 0 A scatterplot is used to show correlations Each point represents an individual s two scores Big Idea Good experiments Experiment must have control group Subjects randomly assigned Subjects and researcher should be blind double blind Big Idea a Independent Variables IV are what the experimenter manipulates b Dependent variables DV are what the experimenter measures at the end of the experiment c eg the effect of a low sugar diet IV on learning DV Big Idea Observational De nition 0 De ning a concept in terms of speci c procedures used to measure it Big Idea Placebo 0 Any inert substance or condition 0 An inactive treatment 0 A nontreatment 10 Big Idea Ethics in psychological research a Informed consent b Protection of participants from harm c Con dentiality d Debrie ng participants at the end of the study 0 BIG IDEA what makes up the nervous system 0 Centeral 0 Brain 0 Spinal cord 0 Peripheral 0 Automatic Works automatically breathing o Somatic Muscles in charge of responding to requests Parasympathetic Sympathetic 0 BIG IDEA Structure of the neuron 0 0 Dendrites Soma Cell body 0 Axon Can be up to 3 feet long The tail 0 myelin 0 Big Idea Glial Cells 0 Glial cells separate support and insulate the neurons from each other 0 They make up 90 percent of the brain 0 Two special types of glial cells generate myelin BIG IDEAS 2 1 Big Idea An overview of the nervous system 0 Central Brain Spinal cord Peripheral Autonomic you can override Parasympathetic Sympathetic Don t have time to think about things can high jack your entire body if it thinks you are in danger o somatic o if you decide to take notes 2 BIG IDEA An electrical impulse is triggered in the dendrites passes through the soma travels along the axon and releases chemical neurotransmitters and the synapse uid lled gap triggering a response beginning in the dendrites of the next neuron 0 about 10 of the brain is neurons Big IDEA Neurotransmitters o Serotonin 0 Happy involves mood sleep and apetite 0 Used in SSRl s Drugs for depression anxiety 0 Dopamine Involved in control of movement and sensations of pleasure Parkinson s and schizophrenia Transmitter that39s associated with these disorders schizophrenia has too much Parkinson s has too little If a patient has both this is the disorder is the one that is focused on o Acetylcholine 0 Attention 0 0 0 0 Memory Controls muscle contractions Arousal Alzheimer s Endorphins Involved in pain relief Opiate like substance Released when you exercise Norepinephrine Also called nor adrenaline Involved in arousal and mood Fight or ight Also acts as a hormone GABA Involved in sleep and inhibits movement Stops the message Glutamate Involved in learning memory formation nervous system development and synaptic plasticity Serotonin o Involved in mood sleep and appetite O39CO39OOOO39OOO 3 BIG IDEA 3 types of neurons Efferent motor neurons Interneurons o Connecter neurons 0 90 percent of your neurons 0 Going out o If it is just thinking 0 Only found in the central nervous system 0 Afferent sensory neurons 0 Coming in The brain is 90 glia or glial and 10 plural add period neurons What is the corpus callosum made of two words axon bers BIG IDEA 3 Big idea Sensann sensation is the process of receiving information form the environment using sensory receptors Perception perception is the process of organizing and interpreting information 2 Big idea psychophysics Study of relationship between sensation and perception Term from Gustav Fechner 18011887 Big Idea Absolute threshold The smallest amount of energy required to be detected 50 of the time Under optimal conditions 50 can detect Big Idea habituation and sensory adaptation o Habituation Occurs in the brain by ltering out information o Sensory adaptation Occurs in sensory receptor cells by becoming less responsive to unchanging Stimuli Big idea Transduction o The conversion energy from one form to another eg light to neural impulses Big idea photoreceptors o The retina contains two kinds of photoreceptors o 120 million thin rods see shades of black and white 0 67 million bulgy cones see color concentrated in fovea o The axons form a bundle called the optic nerve and cross before reaching the occipital lobes o The optic nerve causes a blind spot Big idea Hearingaudition 0 Tiny hairlike cilia are the sensory receptors for hearing 0 Located in the shellshaped cochlea 0 Hearing can be impaired at the nerves or the bones Big Idea Chemical senses o Smell olfaction and taste gustation work together 0 Molecules attach to the sensory receptors Big Idea the ve basic tastes Salty Sour Bitter Sweet Umami OOOOO 10 Big Idea somesthetic body senses o What os thought of as the sense of touch really several sensations originating in several different places in and on the body 0 Skin senses Touch pressure temperature pain 0 Kinesthetic sense Location of body parts in relation to one another 0 Vestibular senses Movement body position The process of receiving information from the environment is called one word no punctustion sensation 50 and the process of organizing and interpreting information is called one word add period 0 perception This term refers to a process in the brain which lters out unchanging stimuli habituation Transduction refers to the 3 words conversion of energy Photoreceptor axons form bundles called the optic nerves which cross over before reaching the 2 words plural occipital lobes where the primary visual cortex is located Receptors for our sense of balance are located in the inner ear Name the structures where they are located 2 words no punctuation semicircular canals quotThe organized whole is greater than the sum of its partsquot What perspective would be likely to say that careful its a proper noun Gestalt Any nontreatment substitued for a treatment is called a one word and add period placebo Which lobe of the brain includes areas for hearing and smell one word temporal BIG IDEA 4 1 Big Idea Behaviorists o Pavlov 0 Watson o Skinner o Thorndike Big idea Key terms 0 Conditioning learning 0 Everything that is not a re ex was learned 0 Biologically learning means establishing durable neural pathways 0 MAIN TYPES Classical by association Operant by consequences Big idea lvan Pavlov 0 18491936 0 Discovered and documented classical conditioning 1 Re exes stimuli and responses ii 1904 rst Russian Nobel prize winner iii Physiologist Big Idea 0 Acquisition the process of learning 0 Extinction the fading of the learned response 0 Spontaneous recovery the recurrence of the response after extinction Big Idea stimulus generalization and discrimination o Generalization a tendency to respond the same way to similar stimuli o Discrimination the ability to distinguish between similar stimuli Big idea Law of Effect 0 Rewarding behavior tends to recur 0 Anything that increases behavior is reinforcement 0 EL Thorndike Big idea reinforcement 0 Positive addition of a pleasurable stimulus 0 Negative removal escape or avoidance of aversive stimulus 0 Doesn t mean punishment 0 Something was taken away that you didn t want Big Idea John B Watson 0 Father of behaviorism 0 Problems 0 Advice column 1928 Big Idea BF Skinner The most famous behaviorist When and how you reinforce behavior is called the Schedule of Reinforcement lnterva schedules pay by the hour Ratio schedules pay by the job Ratio schedules are better Ratio or variable ratio 10 Big idea different types of punishment 0 Application Addition of unpleasant stimulus 0 Removal Removal of pleasurable stimulus Conditioning learning 0 Ivan Pavlov discovered and documented two words include period classical conditioning The ability to distinguish between similar stimuli is one word include period discrimination Schedules that pay by the hour are known as interval schedules while ratio schedules pay by the job 0 Executive functions frontal lobe Receiving information from the body s senses parietal m Sensarion is the process of 5 words no punctuation using sensory receptors receiving information from the environment Big ideas 5 1 Big Idea What is memory 0 Encoding Converting environmental and mental stimuli into memorable brain codes 0 Storage quotholding onquot to encoded information o Retrieval Pulling information from storage 2 Big Idea threestage process of memory 3 Big Idea sensory memory 0 Main process Pattern recognition lcons Echos 0 Capacity 0 Large but not unlimited 0 Duration of sensory codes 0 Very brief Big idea types of longterm memory 0 Procedural memory implicit Motor skills habits classically conditioned relaxation Declarative memory explicit Semantic memory Facts general knowledge 0 Episodic memory Events experienced by a person Big idea state dependent learning 0 Memories formed during a particular physiological or psychological state will be easier to remember while in a similar state Big idea selective attention 0 The focusing on conscious awareness on a particular stimulus Big idea serial position effect 0 We tend to remember the rst and especially the last item on the list Big idea automatic encoding o Flashbulb memories i Automatic encoding due to unexpected highly emotional event Big idea Reliability of memory retrieval 0 False memory syndrome i Creation of inaccurate or false memories via others suggestions often while the person is under hypnosis Big idea curve of forgetting o Herman Ebbinghaus found that information is mostly lost within 1 hour after learning and then gradually fades away Big idea Principle of learning 0 The amount remembered depends on the time spent learning Big idea spacing effect 0 We tend to remember better when our practice study is distributed Big idea hippocampus o The nexus of memory 0 Consolidation and organization of shortterm declarative memories into longterm memories 0 Sea horse Big idea 0 Source amnesia is the most common type of amnesia 5 Big idea imagery principle 0 We remember better when we create vivid mental pictures 0 Cognitive therapy use mental pictures 5 Big idea overearning 0 We need to study twice as much as we think we need 5 Big idea mnemonics 0 Memory tricks Named after mnemony Echoic memory 12 to 1 second memory Big Idea 6 1 Big idea consciousness 0 Our awareness of ourselves and our environments 2 Big idea 0 Altered state consciousness Sleeping Drunk driving Dreaming In shock Coma On drugs Hypnosis Sensory deprivation hallucinating without drugs Meditation Unconscious Fainted Passed out Religious experiences Day dreaming 3 Big Idea Mindfulness o A state of active open nonjudgemental attention on the present 3 Big idea an altered state 0 Dissociated consciousness i Altered state 0 An important use is for pain control 0 Hypnosis o quotthe total possible consciousness may be split into parts which coexist but mainly ignore each otherquot Wiliam James Principles of Psych Big ideas Brain waves 0 Beta awake normal alert consciousness 0 Alpha precious time relaxed calm o Theta deep relaxation and mediation problem solving 0 Delta deep dreamless sleep Not a lot of brain activity Adds growth Big ideas Brain waves 0 Beta awake normal alert consciousness 0 Alpha precious time relaxed calm o Theta deep relaxation and mediation problem solving 0 Delta deep dreamless sleep Not a lot of brain activity Adds growth Big idea stages of sleep REM 0 Rapid eye movement 0 Dreaming about 90 of the time o More active brain waves alpha amp beta 0 Increased activity in heart and lungs o Snoring stops 0 Muscle paralysis 0 Sexual arousal Big idea interpretation of dreams 0 Sigmund Freud 1900 Manifest content What you dream 0 Latent content Hidden content Big idea sleep disorders 0 Insomnia 1015 Ambian sleeping pill o Narcolepsy 005 o Cant drive a car 0 Go right into REM at any moment 0 Very rare 0 Sleep Apnea 5 o Stops breathing while sleeping Usually overweight men with wide necks o Airways being blocked 10 11 12 13 O 0 Night terrors o Worse than nightmares o No dreamlike quality 0 You can t wake yourself up from it Big idea cognition Mental activity or thinking quotThe highest possible stage in moral culture is when we recognize that we ought to control our thoughtsquot Charles Darwin Big idea problem solving and decision making Algorithms Speci c steps for certain problems formulas Big idea heuristic Guesses based on experience hunches quotrule of thumbquot Availability predication based on personal experience or knowledge Representative prediction based on stereotypes Meansend analysis working backwards Big idea ways to improve thinking Mental exercises learning new language or playing a musical instrument Mindfulness reducing anxiety and stress Physical exercise promoting aerobic tness is important for optimal cognitive functioning Cognition refers to thinking or in other words 2 words add period mental activity Charles Darwin said quotThe highest possible stage in moral culture is when we recognize that we ought toquot do what 3 words punctuation already provided control our thoughts Playing a musical instrument and learning a foreign language are two examples of this technique for improving cognition two words mental exercise Name the most common type of neurons plural interneurons Big Idea 7 Big Idea 8 1 Big Idea Motivation A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior Big Idea Jean Piaget Most famous developmental psychologist Swiss 18961980 Constructivist Theory of Knowing Big Idea cognitive development Piaget s Stage theory Piaget Children are not quotlittle adultsquot but instead think quite differently about the world Schema Assimilation Accommodation Sensorimotor Preoperational Between 2 to 7 years of age Children are ego centric Demonstrate logic mistakes hard time taking in multiple aspects of an object Concrete operational More concrete logic 712 Formal operations 12 years to adult Big idea schema scheme A framework for organizing and interpreting information A schema for buying a mealquot or going to schoolquot A group of related neural patters that represent some concept Plural schemata Psychosocial development Big idea characteristics of adolescent thought Finding fault with authority Argumentativeness Indecisiveness Apparent hypocrisy Selfconsciousness Selfcenteredness Latin means to move Selfmotivation is one of the key aspects of emotional intelligence Emotion a response of the whole organism involving Physiological arousal Expressive behaviors Conscious behaviors 2 Big Idea Abraham Maslow s Hierarchy of needs In phone pictures 3 4 0 Physiological To satisfy hunger thirst and fatigue 0 Safety needs To feel secure and safe Belongingness and love needs To be accepted and belong Esteem needs To gain approval and recognition 0 Cognitive need To know understand and explore Aesthetic To appreciate symmetry order and beauty Selfactualization The need for selfful llment and to realize ones potential Transcendence To help others achieve selfactualization Big Idea Major drug categories 0 Big Idea 0 Depressants Decrease the activity of the nervous system Include Alcohol Barbiturates Benzodiazepines Valium Xanax Opiates Morphine Heroin methadone Hallucinogens Cause false sensory messages altering the perception of reality 0 Include o LSD o PCP o Mescaline Psilocybin Cannabis o MDMA ecstasy Stimulants 0 Increase the activity of the nervous system 0 Include Amphetamines Benzednne Dexedrine Cocaine Nicotine Caffeine Chocolate tea coffee energy drinks Sex and Gender sex refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women Malefemale 0 Gender refers to the sociocultural characteristics society considers appropriate for men and women 0 male and female are sex categories while masculine and feminine are gender categories 0 Aspects of sex will not vary substantially between different societies while aspects of gender may vary greatly 5 Big Idea physiology of emotion o Emotion associated with sympathetic nervous system activity 0 Amygdala fear and facial expressions 0 Hemispheres of the brain Positive emotions left frontal lobe Negative feelings right frontal lobe Interpreting facial expressions right hemisphere 6 Big Idea Catharsis 0 An emotional release 0 Catharsis is not an effective way to deal with anger Complete the following sentence including punctuation Motivation is a 8 words need or desire that energizes and directs behavior Alex has a temper tantrum when she doesn39t get her way At least it is better than bottling up those emotions False Which hemisphere of the brain interprets facial expressions one word right Piaget coined this term to refer to our mental framework organizing and interpreting information schema scheme schemata Dents or ditches on cerebral cortex sulci 1 The stress response activation of Health amp Nutrition 0 60 of American overweight o 33 are obese 20 above ideal weight range 0 10 French fried is a serving 0 Eat less of everything except fruits and veggies Restaurants usually put 3 servings on a plate 0 Eat food not too much mostly plants 0 Eating Disorders Big Idea 0 Anorexia selfstarvation 26 die from anorexia o Bulimia cycles of binge eating and purging o 90 95 women both anorexia and bulimia Binge eating a new diagnosis 0 Meditation and Coping Big Idea Meditation mental exercises to refocus attention trancelike consciousness o Concentrative Focusing min on repetitive or unchanging stimulus to clear mindrelax o Receptive Becoming aware of everything in immediate consciousness mindfulness Exercise 0 Exercise and Mood Big Idea 0 Over 150 studies con rm exercise especially aerobic reduces anxiety and depression 0 Exercise is about as effective as drugs for treating anxiety and depression and more effective at preventing symptoms recurrence 0 Exercise and Health 0 Reduces risk of cancer heart disease and Alzheimer s 0 Half as many heart attacks 0 Eats up bad fats o Occasional exercise reduces risk of death by 29 0 Daily conditioning reduces risk of death by 43 0 Reducing Stress Big Idea 0 Drink water 0 Deep abdominal breathing Exercise especially aerobics 0 Think Positive 0 Practice Gratitude Count your blessings UN 0 Maintain social relationships 0 Make time for fun Meditation yoga prayer 0 Muscle Relaxation Tense and release Laugh Aromatherapy Lavender Calomel Rose Biofeedback 0 Being in nature oceanlt3 Some music Massage lt3 Big idea social psychology
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