Study Guide 1
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This 29 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Sullivan on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 415 at Clemson University taught by Edwin Brainerd in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Systems and Theories in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Type text Type text Unit One Knowledge Checklist for Unit One Dr Edwin G Brainerd Jr Psychology 415 History amp Systems Random shit he says quotwhat is old becomes new again you don39t realize it has been done already in the past so most people assume its new You don39t know the history then you don39t know when you re getting something old being forced back on you 0 William James famous psychologist talked about stream of consciousness Constant on going ow of stream of consciousness Wilhelm Wundt 1879 set up rst psych lab at lipsig Started to study psychology w experimental methodology also considered an experimentalist not a structuralist anymore because he was interested in more than just breaking down human expe ence History is different than any other area theoretically most experiments in psychology are repeatable Germany controlled psychology didn39t make any attempt to compromise for other languages Edward Bradford Titchner student of wundts Translated wundts work into EngHsh o Helped women get into psych Type text Type text Unit One 0 Father of structuralism Wundt amp thhnen 0 Provided cocaine to some of his patients then found out it was addictive 0 He used it himself throughout his life 0 Stopped prescribing it once found out it was addictive 0 Ex Of problems you can run into when theres a biographer who wants to cover up something Robery G Guffrey quoteven the laboratory rats were whitequot his experience in a grad school as an African American Compared to ALL disciplines psych excelled most others in opening themselves up to anyone interested in eld Discrimination still has affect on psych today 0 How history moves forward History doesn t want to move at all e le primitive tribes make new discoveries amp go 1000 years without any technology changes ect When things are going well history doesn t change much Paradigms a set of beliefs that a particular branch of science holds or believes it Core beliefs of that particular branch of science Not up for debate necessary to be part of that group 0 Freudian psychoanalysis Id Superego Ego Not willing to debate these paradigms Type text Type text Unit One 0 Almost a religious belief for scientists like Koran bible ect NOT UP FOR DEBATE 0 Not going to be changed easily CORE BELIEFS 0 Thomas Kuhn 1970 scientists are not passionate observers theyd like people to believe they are They hold onto their paradigms till evidence proves otherwise Chapter One The Study of the History of Psychology 0 Be aware that the study of a science39s development and history is rare in the scienti c community Psychology has one of the most active areas of historical investigation 0 History of psych has its own journals division win APA amp its own research center 0 One of the oldest of all scholarly disciplines 0 Know the rationale for the study of psychology39s history 1 Recognize the diversity within psychology a there is no single form approach or de nition of psychology on which all psychologists agree there s enormous diversity 2 Provides a framework for solidarity and unity within psychology a History provides framework 3 Emphasizes the relationships that make the whole of psychology cohesive lntegrates topics and issues ls interesting in its own right ideas presented are interesting people are interestingquot U39lIgt Type text Type text Unit One 6 Dr B will give me an F if don t 0 Understand the paradox that psychology is one of the oldest sciences in the world and at the same time one of the newest sciences 0 As old as ancient man wondering about the bizarre behavior of a tribe member but only formalized in the late 1800 s 0 Paradox One of the earliest things people wanted to know about but one of the youngest sciences Psychology behavior is one of the earliest questions that humans were interested in Brains haven t changed in 50000 years Wanted to know about behavior of others in our groups in the past bc there were a lot of individual differences 0 Understand psychology39s parents and what each contributed to modern psychology 1 Philosophy rational tradition questions about the mind consciousness epistemology mind body interaction etc a Philosophers one of the rst groups to question human behavior b Created the quotrational tradition idea that you can discover the nature of things by simply thinkingreadingstudying about them 219th Century Science applied experimental methods to psychology human physiology psychophysics Type text Type text Unit One a quotpsychophysiologyquot deals with relationship bw sensation energy amp perception b Weight was a main area they worked with used a wing of a y to test perception c Gave us the empirical tradition need to go observe the thing you want to know about of psychology 0 Understand the de nition of Historiography principles methods amp philosophical issues of historical research and how psychological history differs from other sciences 1 No laboratories or controlled replication to verify conclusions a Theoretically most experiments can be repeated 2 Materials must be used to construct lives events and careers 3 Much material is found in bits and pieces like shard of pottery a Can t quotrecreate subjectsquot 0 Be able to give or recognize an example of each of the following problems that can occur with psychology39s historical data 1 Data is permanently lost or destroyed often intentionally aJohn B Watson destroyed all of his things intentionally when he was drunk 2 Data is temporarily lost and not discovered until years later a Charles Darwin Robert Hooke papers found in cupboard minutes of the Royal Society Type text Type text Unit One 3 Data is intentionally suppressed for a speci ed period of time to protect patients and others a Freuds papers held to protect the privacy of his patients their families amp even himself 4 Data is altered or omitted to protect a famous person s reputation a Translation is not exact or sometimes not complete b Freud Free associationquot talk about whatever is going through your mind babble onquot german word invasion c Biographies author could be biased Picking only speci c datesinstances lacks things about individual could want to protectharm reputation 5Autobiographical data may be self serving to person look more intelligent harder working etc a Autobiographies a lot could be factual Skinner s autobiography was said to be very untrue by other classmates 0 Be able to identify de ne and recognize examples of the contextual forces that shaped psychology Be able to give example of these forces effect on psychology 3 main contextual forces 1Economic forces such as low salaries and limited teaching opportunities a Lack of teaching jobs people w ow salaries forced to get other jobs on the sides especially those looking for teaching positions Type text Type text Unit One b Makes us an applied science 2 World War I and World War II a psychology was growing during these wars WWII changed things period where weapons started getting more sophisticated beginning of airplane psych gets really involved in WWI being able to test ppl for variety ofjobs test b4 enlisting b good result for psych showed what we could do expanded areas of psych clinical in WWII c personnel selection psychological testing amp engineering psychology 3Prejudice and Discrimination a Primarily males Caucasian amp Christian b Lack of women minorities c Psychological teaching positions were mostly reserved for Christians Europe amp America dJewish could get into schools get degree but never offered a profession ship only for Christian males i Freud was Jewish Reason why he went into private practice e Discrimination against women i contextual forcesquot of time didn39t think women needed a college education ii doctors wrote about possible damage could be done to women by too much thinkingquot iii could damage their reproductive capacity iv would wind up marrying a psychologist do research through husband Type text Type text Unit One 0 Be able to recognize examples of and de ne the Personalistic Great Person theory of history and the Naturalistic Zeitgeist Theory of history 0 What is the surest way to make certain that a new idea is accepted and spreads rapidly o Naturalistic Theory of History The Zeitgeist intellectual amp cultural climate or spirit of the times or the times must be right for an historical event to occur if the times aren t right doesn t matter how good of an idea it is it will die View that progress amp change in scienti c history are attributed to the Zeigeist which makes a culture receptive to some ideas but not others History doesn t quotpush forward 2 sides of Zeitgeist 1 le Bible s approach to explaining the galaxy the earth is at the center of everything but astronomers Galileo realized it was really the sun ahead of their times shut down by the Catholic church bc disagreed w bible Last words before burned stake quotstill it moves the earth brutally suppression of ideas 0 2 when the time is right ideas are going to occur 0 le Darwin evolution needed to occur Pitcairn Island Mammoth of new species ect Russians 0 Darwin came from well known scienti c family grandfather Type text 0 Type text Unit One talked about evolution all of his life Personalistic theory history doesn t change until a great gure comes along new ideasambitionsinsightsect view that progress amp change in scienti c history are attributed to the ideas of unique individuals Someday whos a leaderbrings change le Newton s physics Albert Einstein changes physics Without this person could wait hundreds of years for the change to take place Times being right signi cant person almost always going to work 0 Be sure that you understand the term quotSchools of Psychology quot Be aware of what makes a school the features that schools de ne for their members and the bene ts of school membership quotschool of psychologyquot term used when department was taken over by someone with a strong view of a paradigm 1 person directs whole department in direction of his paradigm certain schools became known of the paradigmschool of psychology they supported a le cornell structural school titchner Harvard functional Williamjames Type text Type text Unit One Kuhn quotschools of psychology go through a very predictable lifespan of events 3 0 School of thought group of psychologists who become associated ideologically amp sometimes geographically w the leader of the movement 0 Structuralism rst school of psychology wanted to break human experience down to its most basic elements amp organize them into a periodic table of the mindquot 0 Understand the relationship between schools of psychology and the scienti c paradigms discussed by Thomas Kuhn in his book quotThe Structure of the Scienti c Revolutionquot the notion of paradigms 0 Remember that paradigms are ercely defended and not easily change 0 How does John Garcia relate to this issue Working in classical conditioning area paradigm need repeated pairings of conditionedunconditioned stimulus stimulus of air amp warning stimulus need to be delivered close together just about anything can be extinguished His discovery didn t t paradigm of classical conditioning multiple trials fairly small amount of time bw stimulus occurring amp could be undone His different paradigm resulted in him not being able to get his papers published 10 Type text Type text Unit One quottaste aversion conditioningquot become repulsed by something too much tequila never again people aren t too keen on changing paradigms 0 Understand and be able to list the three life stages of a school or paradigm Know the characteristics of each stage 0 Preparadigmatic Stage teen years of human life spanquot school is very rebellious vocal Trying to get rid of paradigm that39s currently controlling psychology only common belief other beliefs are poorly formed know what they don t like Some schools die during this stage 0 Paradigmatic Stage middle agequot school overcome opposition become ruling paradigm of pSyCh are psychologyquot now ppl have national prominence ideas are well formed 1 problem battle is overexcitement gone they slip into normal science excitement in research diminished a lot 0 ie BF Skinner schedules of reinforcementquot 0 Old Age or Post Paradigmatic people hold on to paradigm becomes less in uentialimportant until only left w old major spokesperson decreasing in importance another school has taken over 11 Type text Type text Unit One Most likely going to drift away die off become a memory ery Thinking about Psychology amp the Development of Science 0 Human brain has been in its present condition for the previous 250000 years and virtually unchanged for 50000 years We would understand the preGreeks and the early Greeks very well 0 They were curious about the world around them and drew what conclusion they could about disease famine storms and nature in general 0 They were also interested in psychological questions why some people were brave dishonest good mothers or mentally unbalanced First attempt at explanation was animism idea that everything is alive 0 usually coupled w anthropomorphism attribute human emotions to non human things 0 supernatural sort of explanation Later changed to magic which gave a sense of control 0 Often witchcraft superstition Finally explanation and control were attributed to human like gods primitive religion who controlled the world 0 jealous meddled in human affairs 12 Type text Type text Unit One Early Greek Philosophers were the rst scientists in Western Culture 0 Events were not supernatural but occurred because of understandable natural causes 0 Started looking for natural cause of eventsquot 0 Greeks credited with it but lots of others did it as well Called cosmologists because they wanted to know about the world around them 0 Cosmologist studying the worldcosmos wanted to know real causes for events 0 Through observations greeks were able to make lots of discoveries o quotrewarding pastimequot to observe world around them 0 discovered world was orderly amp predictable place 0 Saw an elegant ordered system around them Probably astronomy rst 0 Pleasant to contemplate 0 Observation and inductive method Inductive reasoning record simple observations amp at some point can create general lawrule for behavior 0 Searching for the Physis the basic building block of all material things Thales 625545 BC believed Water is the phy s 13 Type text Type text Unit One 0 One of the rst to say quotdo away w supernatural explanationsquot greek scientist 0 There are knowable natural causes behind most events 0 One of the rst ppl to predict solar eclipse explain why it occurred plot position of sun earth moon Heraclitus 540480 BC Fire is physis 0 Fire is not so different to saying energy is important in all elements Democritus 460470 BC All things made of tiny atoms in constant motion Shape size and speed of atoms determines physical qualities Hippocrates 460377 BC Illness is not caused by supernatural but by physical causes neurotransmitters affect behaviorwell being 0 Health and human behavior are controlled by four humors 1 Phlegm 2 Blood 3Yellow Bile 4 Black Bile Aristole 384322 BC 0 First real psychologists studied everything 0 Studied under Plato Teacher to Alexander the Great 0 Major book De Animaof the mind or the spirit could be an introductory psych text 0 Laws of Association to be important for years 1 Similarity 14 Type text Type text Unit One 2ConUguty 3 Opposites 4 Frequency 0 Greece now begins a gradual decline 0 Rome gains in power but interest is in the physical sciences Much of Greece s knowledge goes East and to the other Mediterranean Countries Arab countries become major seat of learning and scholarship Christianity persecuted in Rome until the year 303 and becomes state religion in 395 in uenced science amp knowledge in general Typical of early thinker was St Augustine 354430 Major work was Confessions believes in close relationship w God quotCure my lust but not nowquot Close personal relationship with God God will reveal all that you need to know To try and learn more was to show a distrust of God 0 Hate and distrust of Pagan Science which was the scholarship of the East and the Arabs Danger of Pagan science Dark Ages begin 500800 Schools close Learning is lost Civil war Disease Famine 15 Type text Type text Unit One Western thought at a standstill Other areas vibrant and expanding Muslims capture large parts of Europe 600 on Middle Ages 8001450 0 Church is all powerful and a strong political contender in European countries they re powerful bc they could excommunicate other countries 0 Knights and nobles are also major political in uences in their own countries 0 The Church begins founding many of the great universities of Europe which are really monasteries in their early days still provide a basis for learningstudying Scholasticism o handicaps any real learning or advancement 0 Limited the thinking of schoolsuniversities 0 Doing research on what was said earlier 0 Doesn39t t well w science St Thomas Aquinas 12251274 AKA Dumb Ox is an important gure Major work is Summa Theologica quotthe highest religiontheologyquot Makes Aristotle s work acceptable to the Church Translates psyche as the Christian soul immortal soul in Christian sense anticipated Christianity Discovery glori es God Bible Aristotle and Aquinas himself become pilars of Church doctrine 16 Type text Type text Unit One Renaissance 14501600 becomes a time of extensive learning in all areas Church power has weakened and more investigation was allowed Painting music architecture literature science all ounsh Giordano Bruno DeVinci and Galileo still in trouble with church Chapter Two Philosophical In uences on Psychology 0 Understand how the world view of scientists and great thinkers is changing at the end of the Renaissance Period The spirit of Mechanism doctrine that natural processes are mechanically determined amp capable of explanation by the laws of physics amp chemistry has become their doctrine The clock has become the scientists model for an orderly predictable and knowable universe The automata have become their model for human func on o became a metaphor for how the world is understood 0 Machines of all types have expanded into the everyday life of the typical person 0 Mechanical statues automata in gardens and clock towers could imitate most human behavior Maybe man was a machine too A very complex machine but still a machine 0 Charles Babbage with his calculating engine has show that machines can even think much like the modern computer Is the human brain another 17 Type text Type text Unit One machine devised by God 0 Scientists now believe in 1 Determinism doctrine that acts are determined by past events 2 Reductionism doctrine that explains phenomena on one level in terms of phenomena on another level Rene Descartes 15961650 was a major gure of this pe od Know about his early life and unfortunate death in Sweden 0 Comes from wealthy French family has resources amp time to pursue interests good gambling bc of good math skills 0 Very sick doesn39t have to go to early class gets excuses for most things 0 quot y in 3 pointsquot theory watches a y in the room while everyone is in class In order to gure out position of y only need 3 numbers Became basis of Cartesian mathematics His mathematical system 0 Goes to Sweden dies there france wants his body back hes too tall they cut off his head it gets stolen gone for 200 years 0 Know how mathematics and the spirit of truth saved him from the deep depression after years of study 0 Nervous breakdown after years of study believed quotI know nothing for certainquot 18 Type text Type text Unit One 0 Has a dream visited by the quotspirit of truthquot told him to study mathematics and apply them to all sciences thus producing certainty of knowledge 0 Queen Christina of Sweden wanted him 0 Know about his Mind Body Dualism the view that both the mind and body exist and are capable if in uencing each other 0 Body amp mind both have major affects on each other 0 MUTUAL INTERACTION Site of this interaction is the pineal body 0 Just about everything he found was bilateral 0 Only place that wasn39t bilateral pineal glandbody Descartes believes that many behaviors are re exive and automatic 0 Undulatio Re exes o Re ex action theory idea that an external object can bring about an involuntary response Humans have both re exes and free will Animals have only re exes and no soul 0 Know Descartes view of ideas and derived innate ideas 0 Automata o If humans are truly machines they can be understood just as easily 0 Many of our human behaviors are machine like re exes 19 Type text Type text Unit One 0 Most of the stuff we know comes from the senses 0 Everything we know about the sensory interaction is derived mostly from nature 0 Innate idea some of our ideas are innate Concept of in nity Idea of god 0 Know his four Rules of Certainty 1 Belief only what I recognize as evident 2 Divide dif cult areas into small problem and deal with the parts 3Think in an orderly fashion Deal with the simplest part rst 4 Always review completely so that nothing is left out Know Descartes Fly In Three Points and how it was discovered 0 Know Auguste Comte 17981857 for his views on Positivism and materialism o Positivism doctrine that recognizes only natural phenomena or facts that are objectively observable o Materialism doctrine that considers the facts of the universe to be suf ciently explained in physical terms by existence amp nature of the matter Recognize Sir Issac Newton as a model of how one can be a successful scientist and be an extremely religious person Newton believed that 20 Type text Type text Unit One 1The world was created by and set in motion by God according to his divine laws 2 Once set in motions God doesn t interfere or tinker 3 Natural laws are supreme and there are no exceptions Our knowledge is incomplete if the laws fail in some situation 4To discover God s law is to gain true amazement at the glory and genius of the creator a God was a mathematician Perception psychophysics sensation l perception John Locke 16321704 was the founder of the British Empiricist Movement 1At birth infants are a tabula rasa or blank paper 2 All knowledge is acquired through the senses Know Locke s views on 1Sensation and re ection sensation appears rst 2Primary and secondary qualities 3Simple and complex ideas simple ideas are elemental cant be analyzed or reduced to simpler ideas but complex can 4The theory of association notion combining ideas amp reverse notion of analyzing them marks the beginning of the mental chemistry approach to the problem of association Locke s major work was called A Treatise on Human Understanding 21 Type text Type text Unit One You may omit the remaining philosophers from page 52 on But know the small paragraph on the Contribution of Empiricism to Psychology P 60 o w rise of empiricism philosophers turned away from earlier approaches to knowledge 0 same problems different methods atomistic mechanistic positivistic Chapter Three Physiological In uences on Psychology Realize the huge amount of physiological investigation that was going on in the 17001800 5 Much of it was modern and sophisticated Know the three important methods that were used 1 Extirpation technique for determining the function of a given part of an animal s brain by removing or destroying it amp observing the resulting behavioral changes 2Clinical Method posthumorous exam of brain structures to detect damaged areas assumed to be responsible for behavioral conditions that existed before the person died 3Electrical stimulation technique for exploring the cerebral cortex w weak electric current to observe motor responses 4Aso know the pseudoscienti c methods of phrenology the shape of a persons skull revealed their intellectual amp emotional characteristics 22 Type text Type text Unit One Be able to name and to explain the ve reasons that Physiology and Psychology ourished rst in the Germany universities 1 Experimental method was well accepted in Germany 2 German temperament and tolerance for tedious repetitive lab work 3 Germany s broad de nition of science to include these topic Many more universities in Germany Competitive nature of Germany universities where merit is rewarded U39lIgt Herman von Helmholtz 18211894 0 Know the numerous areas of Helmholtz s investigation and interests 0 Emphasized a mechanistic amp deterministic approach 0 Investigations of the speed of neural impulse amp research on vision amp hearing 0 First empirical measurement of the rate of conduction by stimulating a nerve amp the attached muscle in the leg of a frog 0 Revised amp extended theory of color vision Know about Helmholtz s investigation of the speed of neural transmission about 90ftsec Major book on the eye and optics Handbook of Physiological Optic Treats entire visual system from receptors retina to the brain 23 Type text Type text Unit One Know about Helmholtz s work with color vision Red blueviolet and green make white light when the are mixed hence they eye must contain receptors to these color Know as the YoungHelmholtz Theory of Color Vision Today we know he was half right but he failed to detect the opponent process in the neurons after the retina Also did extensive research on hearing including work on tones harmony and resonance Ernst Weber 17951878 was another researcher of this time period Worked with Temperature your ability to detect the temperature of substances particularly water depends the skins temperature before the test Skin sensitivity using the two point threshold he discovered that some area of the human body are high sensitive to touch while others are not Detection of weight differences Weber39s Fraction 140 When weights are small we can detect small differences between two weights When weights are large when can only detect larger differences The ratio is approximately 140 JND or Just Noticeable Difference smallest difference that can be detected bw 2 physical stimuli 24 Type text Type text Unit One Gustav Fechner 18011887 was considered by many to be the rst real experimental psychologist Academic gad y who got a medical degree at Leipzig and spent the rest of his life at the university Injured eyes in sunspot study Nervous breakdown Dreamed raw ham and wine would cure him It did 0 Know why he wrote the satire Proof that the Moon is Made of Iodine under the name Dr Mises 0 Con ict bw 2 sides of personality persisted throughout his life Interest in science amp interest in metaphysical o Essays ridiculing medicine amp science His focus in psychology was the area of psychophysics which is the study of the relation between the raw stimulus and a person s perception of that stimulus Understand and recognize examples of 1 Absolute threshold point of sensitivity which no sensations can be detected amp above which sensations can be experienced 2Relative threshold point of sensitivity at which the least amount of change in a stimulus gives rise to a change in sensation 3 Weber39s Law and what it demonstrates 25 Type text Type text Unit One iThe change in a stimulus that will be just noticeable is a constant ratio of the original stimulus Q Amount stays the same but proportion changes amp that39s what makes the perceptual difference 4 Fechner s Methods Psychophysics a Method of average error consists in having subjects adjust a variable stimulus until they perceive it to be equal to a constant standard stimulus bMethod of constant stimuli involves 2 constant stimuli amp aim is to measure the stimulus difference required to produce a given proportion of correct judgments c Method of the just noticeable difference 2 stimuli presented to subjects one is increased or decreased until subjects report that they detect a difference Fechner s major work was Elements of Psychophysics Chapter 4 The New Psychology Wilhelm Wundt 18321920 is an unlikely founder of the science of psychology Childhood is lonely and troubled 26 Type text Type text Unit One WW nds himself in graduate school and becomes a proli c writer averaging 22 scienti c pages a day or 53 735 pages in is life time Many say that he out wrote both his critics and translator Important books and journals included Principles of Physiological Psychology Journal of Psychological Studies Cultural Psychology Subject matter of psychology should be consciousness and conscious experience Two types Immediate unbiased by interpretation and Mediate provides info about something other than the elements of that experience experience Immediate experience was major area of interest and could best be detected by introspection examination of ones own mind to inspect amp report on personal thoughts or feelings Wundt proposed three elements of consciousness 1 Sensations which occur when sense organs are stimulated 2 Feeling which result from sensations a WW developed that Tridimensional Theory of Feelings by introspecting to a metronome i Pleasuredispleasure ii Tensionrelief iii Excitementdepression 27 Type text Type text Unit One 3 Emotions which were more complex feelings WW has a strong desire to categorize these elements into a Periodic Table of the Mind WW also believed that we had an innate tendency to organize and build these elements of consciousness into complex experience He called this tendency several names Voluntarism apperception creative synthesis Hermann Ebbinghaus 18501909 applied experimental method to complex human behaviors such as learning and forgetting Know how Ebbinghaus conducted his paired associate learning tests with nonsense syllables syllables presented in a meaningless series to study memory processes 0 Wanted to come up with new words that weren t already associated with other de nitionsmeanings Be able to reproduce and interpret Ebbinghaus famous forgetting curve 0 Material is forgotten rapidly in the rst few hours after leaning amp more slowly after Franz Brentano and his Act Psychology Carl Stumpf 18481936 was a rival of Wundt who favored another method of introspection know as Phenomenology 28 Type text Type text Unit One He had bitter arguments with Wundt about the introspection of tones Oswald Kulpe 18621915 was another individual who differed with Wundt Kulpe used systematic experimental introspection which allowed retrospective analysis of cognitive tasks Kulpe also believed in lmageless Though meaning that thought could occur without images or any sensory stimulation Study hard folks Hope this helps Don t Dr B l 29
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