Study Guide Test 2
Study Guide Test 2 Psych 415
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Knowledge Checklist Two Psychology 4150 Chapter Five Structuralism Remember that Wundt Brentano Kulpe and the gang are now considered to be experimental psychologist and not structuralists because of the experimental methodology and the wide range of their research Wundt was interested in the elements of consciousness but stressed the importance of their active organization and synthesis History marches on Structuralism actually begins with Edward Bradford Titchener 1867 1927 Titchener presented himself as Wundt s faithful student and translator but focused entirely on the elements of consciousness and the construction of a periodic table of the mind He totally discarded Wundt s voluntarism and apperception Titchener s Life 0 Graduated from Oxford in philosophy 0 Went to study the new psychology with Wundt PhD in 1892 0 England not receptive to psychology so gets job at Cornell University 0 Developed psychology laboratory 0 Stayed for rest of academic career 0 Wrote 2 widely read introductory psychology text books 0 Outline of Psvcholoav 1896 0 Primer of Psvchologv 1898 0 Maj or work was Experimental Psvchologv A Manual of Laboratorv Practice 19011905 Very in uential book for the next 25 years 0 Titchener was Germanic in his approach to students 0 Highly controlling of students careers and lives even after graduation 0 Kind and friendly if students were deferential O Lectures were formal but popular 0 Supported female and minority graduate student long before they were accepted in other programs 0 Margaret Floy Washburn first female PhD was Titchener s student m Animal Mind 0 Titchener s Experimentalist meet weeklyno women 0 Cigars and ice cream for all 0 Titchener s work and interest in psychology declined in his later years Coin collecting foreign languages and music took up more and more of his time 0 Titchener becomes more isolated because he refuses to attend meetings Keeps British citizenship Resigns for APA This isolates Titchener and contributes to the fall of Structuralism 0 Titchener names his new enemy school of psychology functionalism Titchener s Psychology 0 Titchener believed that the proper area of study for psychology was the structure the conscious experience of the normal adult human and the way these elements associated 0 Proposed three elementary states of consciousness O sensations basic elements of perception and occur in the sounds sights smells and other experiences evoked by physical objects in our environment 0 Images elements of ideasnot actually present in the moment e g memory of a past experience 0 affective states elements of emotions 0 Discovered 44500 basic and irreducible elements of sensation 0 Each element could be categorized according to characteristics basic to all sensations Titchener added duration and clearness to Wundt s quality and intensity 1 quality attribute differentiating each element from the other e g cold red 2 intensity strength weakness loudness or brightness of sensation 3 duration sensation s path over time 4 clearness the role of attention in conscious processing 5 extensity used with vision and touch how much of the receptor is effected by the stimulus Rejected Wundt s tridimensional theory proposed only pleasuredispleasure Maj or method of investigation was introspection Titchener viewed this as experimental Experiment an observation that can be repeated isolated varied Warns students about the problem of stimulus errors which involves confusing the process under study with the object under study Also warns about meaning words which represent preconceived ideas 0 Four Rules you will get good scientific evidence 1 Must put away all preconceived ideas 0 If you do that youre commiting stimulus error 2 must hold attention on introspection 3 Body must be fresh be rested free of stressanxiety 4 must have a favorable attitude enthusiastic about what you re doing Attention was another major area of interest to Titchener because it relates closely to successful introspection Three types of attention Nai39ve or involuntary attention caused by unexpected stimulation Door slamming Voluntary or secondary attention Focused attention like reading or studying Derived or habitual attention Lightly focused attention while doing something else Listening to children playing in back yard Reasons for the decline and death of structuralism Titchner didn39t support it his behaviors may have ended it when he died so did structuralism But the main reasons are 1 structuralism is completely pure not good ivory tower science you collect data publish papers but still have almost no interest in application 2 has a limited area of interest in study 3 considered too german Little interest in application Scrouge McDuck Far too pure Too foreign for many Americansactually too German WWI created lasting bad feelings for some in US Introspection has been suspect since Greek times Limited area of study No animals children abnormals etc James and many others felt that you learned little about humans by breaking down consciousness Against reductionism Chapter 6Functional Antecedent In uences Time is right for evolutionary theory New species discover every yeartoo many for the ark Bones fossils and even bodies of extinct animals found Even society changing Charles Darwin 18091882 Darwin s Life Academic problems and has a hard time deciding what to do with life Several false starts Family connections get him a job on HMS Beagle Captain Robert Fitzroy Problems with physical health upon return to England Worked on his theory of evolution for 22 years Alfred Russel Wallace wrote Darwin about a theory of evolution similar to Darwin s that Wallace developed in 3 days Darwin took friends suggestion to have Wallace s paper and portion of his forthcoming book presented at scientific meeting 1St printing of On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection sold out Darwin overwhelmed with new physical illness He relies on Thomas Henry Huxley to defend his new theory against the antievolutionary forces of Soapy Sam Wilberforce and Captain Fitzroy Fitzroy commits suicide because of his role in Darwin s voyage and theory Darwin helps to financially support Fitzroy s widow Darwin s Theory as expressed in The Origin of the Species by Means of Natural Selection 1 There are limited resources throughout nature even for humans a Thomas Malthus predicts human starvation 2 There is genetic variability in each generation 3 Some of these changes will be favored by natural selection 4 An increase in survival and reproduction result Successful reproduction is how the evolutionary battle is won A 3 reproductive advantage is huge over hundreds of generations 5 Successful traits intensify sometimes to a point that they later become useless Darwin s importance to psychology is that fact that behavioral traits can be passed on the same way Grizzly Bears Human Sexual Behaviors Darwin tries to narrow the distance between human and animal behavior in two other important books 1871 The Descent of Man evidence for human evolution from lower forms of life emphasized similarity between animal and human processes 1872 The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals Peter and Rosemary Grant show that evolution can work much more rapidly than Darwin predicted with a 20 year study of finches Evidence continues to grow for evolution Missing links have pretty much found and the gaps filled in Know the four reasons that Darwin is important to modern psychology on page 155 Sir Francis Galton 18221911 Galton s life estimated IQ 20 youngest of 9 children wealthy family pressured by father to study medicine didn t like it after Oil of Croton entered Cambridge University to study mathematics traveled extensively wrote popular book The Art of Travel cousin Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species Galton fascinated by theory of evolution which guided his subsequent work Mental inheritance Hereditarv Genius 1869 eminent men have eminent sons specific forms of genius inherited founded eugenics improve inherited human traits through artificial selection applied statistical concepts to heredity problems eminence not a function of opportunity English Men of Science 1874 Natural Inheritance 1889 His works suggest the old English saying that blood will tell Didn t know the mechanism of genetic transmission Mendel s work not known at this time all books say great families produce great men common theme Statistical methods Galton fascinated by counting and numbers Adolph Quetelet first to apply statistical methods and normal curve to biological and social data Galton developed mean and standard deviation to describe any normal curve produced corelation measure his student Karl Pearson developed productmoment coefficient of correlation Pearson s r for Galton s discovery of regression toward the mean Mental tests 1 originated by Galton but term comes from his student James McKeen Cattell 2 assumed intelligence can be measured in terms of sensory capacities 3 assumption based on Locke s empiricism 4 developed his own instruments Galton Whistle 1884 established Anthropometric Laboratory The association of ideas i two problems in association 1 diversity of association of ideas 2 the time required to produce associations 40 of associations traced to events in childhood and adolescence The unconscious in uenced thought processes 5 wordassociation test first experiment attempt to examine associations PS Mental imagery ii Galton first extensive use of psychological questionnaire iii determined imagery distributed normally in the population iv found similar images more likely to occur between siblings than between unrelated persons Arithmetic by smell and other topics selfinduced paranoia validity of religious beliefs power of prayer yawns and coughs as a measure of boredom arithmetic by smell The Animal Guys George John Romanes 18481894 Formalized and systematized study of animal intelligence b selected by Darwin to apply theory of evolution to the mind C Animal Intelligence 1883 1 first book on comparative psychology 2 purpose demonstrate a high level of animal intelligence b similarity of animal intelligence to human intellectual functioning c continuity in mental development d anecdotal method the use of observational often causal reports or narratives about animal behavior Cute and amazing animal stories like the Reader s Digest 6 introspection by analogy A technique for studying animal behavior by assuming that the same mental processes that occur in the observer s mind also occur in the animal s mind f criticisms 1 short on scientific rigor 2 line between fact and subjective interpretation in his data not clear Conway Lloyd Morgan 18521936 g Romanes s designated successor h proposed a law of parsimony The notion that animal behavior must not be attributed to a higher mental process when it can be explained in terms of lower mental processes 1 also called Lloyd Morgan s Canon 1894 2 suggested by Wundt 1892 i goal give comparative psychology a more scientific basis j believed most animal behavior due to learning based on sensory experience k first to conduct largescale experimental studies in animal psychology Chapter 7 Functionalism Development and Founding Functionalism asks what does the mind do Titchner actually named it Evolution s Neurotic Philosopher Herbert Spencer 18201903 He comes from Britain to America Where he and his ideas are celebrated Social Darwinism application of the theory of evolution to human nature and society Principle of survival of the fittest coined the phrase Utopian view human perfection inevitable if nothing interferes with the natural order and evolutionary process Let the weak the poor and the unfit perish for the good of society Synthetic philosophy Spencer s idea that knowledge and experience can be explained in terms of evolutionary principles William James 18421910 Anticipator of Functional Psychology General paradox James is a great in uence on American psychology but seems to have no leadership aspirations In some ways he is a negative in uence and calls psychology that nasty little science James Life Wealthy family with early international schooling and international connections Many false starts in a career including art business medicine and chemistry Major intellectual depression about free will Goes to Europe to learn about the new science of psychology Meets with Helmholtz Fechner Wundt and others Attends classes informally 1869 earned MD from Harvard Considered suicide intensely fearful institutionalized himself Chronically neurasthenic academic year 18751876 taught his first course in psychology James is a natural teacher who is loved by students Talks with then after class Student evaluationsGertrude Stein incident Hates laboratory work and hire Musterberg Started 1st book on honeymoon finished it 12 years later there is no such thing as a science of psychology James is an incapable Principles of Psvcholoav 1890 is loved by students and Americans in general goal of psychology study of people as they adapt function of consciousness survival treats psychology as a biological science James tells people here s what we know and here s what you can apply to your life J ames s Psychology The Steam of Consciousness It is personal It s ever changinglike a soap bubble It s continuous with no gaps It s selective J amesLange Theory of Emotion Often called the backward theory of emotion Behavior such as running comes before the emotional response People like this view because it gives good control of our emotional behavior Habit the great y wheel of society Keeps people in dangerous jobs and bad places Decided he had nothing more to say about psychology Wrote Talks for teachers James moved back into the area of philosophy and religion 10 To understand James and his psychology you have to understand his philosophy Pragmatism Emphasized the value of pragmatism Validity of an idea is its practical utility Anything is true if it works Granville Stanley Hall 18441924 Growth of psychology 18751900 due to Hall as well as James Large number of firsts 1received first American doctoral degree in psychology SOWNQP PFDN 11 12 13 14 15 16 started first psychology lab in US started first American psychology journal first president of Clark University organized and was first president of APA one of the first applied psychologists born on Massachusetts farm ashamed when at 17 father purchased draft exemption from civil war 1863 enters Williams College a Voted smartest man b Developed enthusiasm for evolutionary theory after graduation enrolls in seminary a interest in evolution probably not helpful b Hall gives a trial sermon seminary president prays for his soul leaves seminary goes to Germany a studies philosophy and theology b later adds physiology and physics c also goes to beer gardens and theaters very daring for him d he reports having romantic interludes e passionate affairs made life seem richer returns to US in 1871 parents revoke support a has no degree b is heavily in debt reads Wundt s book Physiological Psychology 1874 a Becomes interested in psychology b Becomes uncertain of his career Goes to Harvard gets 1St doctoral degree in psychology 1978 Leaves for Europe to study with Wundt Hall returns to US with no job 11 17 Decides to apply psychology to education 1882 Gives talk to National Educational Association this brings Hall fame and a professorship at Johns Hopkins Hall urges psychologists to hitch their future to the growing area of education 18 1887 Hall founds American Journal of Psychology 19 1888 Hall becomes first president of Clark University a before takes job takes an all expensespaid tour of Europe 20 1915 establishes Journal of Applied PSVChOIOClV the 16th American journal 21 Founding member of the American Psychological Association and 1St president 22 Hall s interest in religion Establishes Journal of Religious Psvcholoqv 1904 23 Hall hosts the Clark Conference featuring Freud Jung and other famous European psychoanalysts Fits with Halls interest in sex 24 Makes Clark receptive to women and minorities despite his opposition to coeduca on a Admitted female graduate students and faculty b Encouraged Japanese students to enroll c Refused to restrict hiring Jewish faculty d Encouraged Black graduate students 1 First African American to earn PhD was Cecil Sumner at Clark 25 Hall retires in 1920 continues to write 26 Hall dies 4 years later during second term as APA president a Difficult untrustworthy unscrupulous devious and aggressively selfpromoting b James said Hall was mix of bigness and pettiness Hall39s Psychology B Evolution and the recapitulation theory of development unitary theme to Hall s work evolution belief that growth of mind follows evolutionary stages 3 Hall often called genetic psychologist a Concern with human and animal development b Problems with adaptation 4 Leads him to study of childhood N L 12 a Calls for such study at 1892 world s fair speech b Intended to how child functions in real world c Child becomes Hall s laboratory 5 Uses questionnaires 6 Hall s influential book Adolescence 1904 a Two volumes 1300 pages b Develops recapitulation theory children in their personal development repeat the life history of the human race c Controversial Excessive focus on sex 1 Hall accused of having prurient interest 2 Thorndike Hall s book is chock full of errors masturbation and Jesus 3 Lectures on sex at Clark cancelled The Founding of Functionalism No formal founders none interested in promotion of the school There were differences but interested in studying functions of consciousness Named by Titchener The Chicago School John Dewey 18591952 The Reflex Arh James Rowland Angeli 1869 1949 Harvey A Carr 18731954 Functionalism at Columbia University Robert Sessions Woodworth 18691962 Dynamic psychology is concerned with the behavior and motivation of the functioning organism The problems faced by talented women in the field of higher education Myth of male superiority Derivative of variability hypothesis based on Darwinian ideas that men show a wider range and variation of physical and mental development than women the abilities of women are seen as more average Therefore it was argued women 13 are less likely to benefit from education are less likely to achieve intellectually had less evolved brains than men showed a smaller range of talents than men are inferior to men physically and mentally P PWNT No women allowed at colleges and universities before 1830 Fear that intellectual activity would interfere with reproductive capacity Mary Whiton Calkins 18631930 1 Not allowed to formally enroll at Harvard but attends classes Harvard refused to grant a degree 2 Used paired associate method of memory testing 3 James called her PhD examination brilliant but still no degree given 4 First female president of the APA Helen Bradford Thompson Woolley 18741947 1 Administer battery of physical mental emotion and personality tests to males and females Found no significant indication of male superiority Leta Stetter Hollingworth 18861939 1 conducted extensive research on variability hypothesis 191316 focused on physical sensorimotor and intellectual functioning of wide range of subjects Her data refuted variability hypothesis and socalled female inferiority 2 Challenged notion of innate motherhood instinct 3 Social and cultural attitudes not biology responsible for keeping women behind men in contributions Chapter 8Applied Psychology The Legacy of Functionalism 14 Poor salaries and lack of jobs force many new PhD psychologists to look for work outside of the traditional academic areas Testing and education become one of the major applied areas of employment G Stanley Hall was one of the rst to recognize the importance of this area James McKeen Cattell 18601944 According to legend Cattell boldly announces to Wundt that he will be Wundt s assistant Cattell insists on doing his own individual difference research Wundt calls Cattell typically American Obtains PhD in 1886 Goes to study with Galton who is at the peak of his career a Takes on Galton s interest in statistics b Both interested in individual differences c Uses Galton s method of mental testing which involves sensory capacity 1 Cattell also interested in Galton s Eugenics Becomes a firm believer and argued for sterilizing delinquents and socalled defective persons Promoted offering incentives to the healthy and intelligent who intermarry Galton has a much larger in uence on Cattell than Wundt e 1888 Cattell becomes professor of psychology at U of Penn 1 Aloofness strained relations between Cattell and Columbia s administration Described as ungentlemanly irretrievably nasty and lacking in decency Dismissed from University f In 1921 he forms the Psychological Corporation and earns a living doing testing for industry and education Alfred Binet39s 18571911 develops the rst good intelligence test for the French ministry of education Binet and Theodore Simon revise Binet39s test and add the concept of mental age which is age at which children of average ability can perform certain tasks Henry Goddard translates Binet39s test into English 15 Becomes the rst to misuse IQ test by administering it to nonEnglish speaking immigrants Lewis Terman in 1916 standardizes Binet39s test into the The Stamford Binet test which was used for many years Also develops the concept of IQ World War I accelerates the testing movement because of the Army s need to access intelligence of thousands of draftees Yerkes and coworkers develop the Army Alpha and Army Beta test Testing business booms after WWI but many bad tests such as Edison s mar the testing movement Contributions of Women Florence Goodenough PhD from Stanford 1 created DrawAMan test a version of which still used Maude Merrill James wrote StanfordBinet revision with Terman Thelma Thurstone helped develop Primary Mental Abilities test with her husband Psyche Cattell daughter of James McKeen Cattell extends age of the StamfordBinet test to 3 month old infants Anne Anastasi was a general expert in all areas of testing Wrote over 150 books and articles APA president in 1971 The Development of Clinical Psychology Lightner Witmer 18671956 16 In 1896 Witmer begins teaching a mentally challenged student to read Witmer begins teaching educators his methods Soon opens a clinic to help children with learning disabilities Witmer is much more educational in his area of interest than the clinical psychology we think of today 1907 founds journal Psychological Clinic Two books provide impetus to field Clifford Beers 1908 a former mental patient on the need to deal humanely with the mentally ill in the book A Mind That Found Itself Hugo Munsterberg 1909 describing treatments for mental disorders first child guidance clinic 1909 aim to treat child disorders early The book was called Psvchotherapv Clinical Psychology as we know it today doesn t really begin to grow until the World Wars create a major need for psychological serves Then it explodes into a major applied area The development of IndustrialOrganizational Psychology Walter Dill Scott 18691955 Determined to make something of his life from a very early age Studies with Wundt and both he and his wife earn a PhD Gives talks to business men about the role of psychology in business that are well received and later writes The Theory and Practice of Advertisina 1903 Doesn t think much of consumer s intelligence consumers often not rational so can be influenced easily should use emotion sympathy and sentimentality to sell products recommends using direct commands text example is Use Pears Soap 17 World War I offers skills to Army 2 at first not well received 3 takes skeptical army general to lunch wins him over 4 later is given Distinguished Service Medal Created The Scott Company consulting firm Does good work with employee selection Hawthorne Study 1927 seen as the true beginning of HO psychology It extends eld to human relations motivation morale It leads to study of quotbehavior of leaders informal work groups employee attitudes communication patternsand other factorsquot Hugo Munsterberg 18631913 Hired by James to run the laboratory at Harvard A natural air for self promotion shows immediately when he publishes a popular book entitled American Traits in 1902 Munsterberg becomes involved with forensic psychology Writes articles on crime prevention eyewitness testimony and false confessions 0n the Witness Stand 1908 discusses psychological factors in jury trials Munsterberg damages credibility with incorrect predictions about jury trial outcomes Industrial Organizational Psychology 1909 article quotPsvcholoov and the Marketquot which applies psychology to quotvocational guidance advertising personnel management mental testing employee motivation and the effects of fatigue and monotony on job performancequot Psychology and Industrial Efficiency 1913 becomes bestseller Argues that selection is best way to improve productivity etc 18 Select using psychological tests on job applicants Conducts research on variety of occupations ship captain streetcar driver telephone operator and salesperson Showed that talking while working reduces productivity Solution put workstationsphysical barriers between workers Psychotherapy Psychotherapy 1 909 treated patients in his lab did not charge a fee believed power of suggestion could cure believed mental illness was behavioral maladjustment problem not unconscious conflicts as Freud said Miinsterberg there is no subconscious Womens Contributions to lO Psychology First person to get PhD in lO is Lillian Gilbreth from Brown University who with husband Frank Gilbreth promote timeandmotion studies Anna Berliner Wundt s only female student she works as industrial psychologist in Japan Remember that Functionalism never really died Many of its basic views and areas of research are still with us today 19
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