study guide test 3
study guide test 3 Psych 415
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Sullivan on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 415 at Clemson University taught by Edwin Brainerd in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 98 views. For similar materials see Systems and Theories in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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1 Knowledge Checklist Three Psychology 4150 Chapter 9 Behaviorism Antecedent In uences The In uence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism A Background 1 Watson Behaviorism is a direct outgrowth of studies in animal behavior 2 animal psychology product of evolutionary theory 3 the most important antecedent of behaviorism 4 in uenced by Romanes anecdotal method and Morgan law of parsimony experimental method B Rats ants and the animal mind 1 Willard Small 1900 introduced the rat maze 2 John Watson Father of Behavioral Psychology 1903 dissertation Animal Education The Psychical Development of the White Rat 3 Charles Henry Turner an African American 1906 paper on ant behavior Dr Brainerd is also an expert in this field thanks to his informal experiments in the basement of Hardin Hall 4 Margaret Floy Washburn a Titchener s first doctoral student b taught animal psychology at Cornell c 1908 The Animal Mind 1St comparative psychology book published in US 5 Interest in animals continues with investigation of Clever Hans a government investigation headed by Carl Stumpf found no fraud or deceit b conclusion Hans receiving some type of information from questioners 0 further experiments suggested that Hans was receiving cues from the audience such as leaning forward and or von Osteen himself C Animal research is still a hard area work in 1 Not popular with administrators because of cost and smell 2 Last hired and first fired Hard field in which to gain promotion or national reputation Many told to switch to better known applied areas such as education 11 Edward Lee Thorndike 1874 1949 A Thorndike s life 1 read James s Principles later studied with James 2 planned research with children but prohibited 3 ran chickens in James basement much to the delight of the James children 4 After a failed relationship went to Columbia 1898 PhD from Columbia University with Cattell a used cats and dogs b Animal Intelligence An Experimental Study of the Associative Processes in Animals B Connectionism 1 learning as connections between stimuli and response 2 mechanism behavior reduced to SR elements C The puzzle box 1 quantitative measures of learning a number of errors b time lapse 2 stamping inout 3 trial and error or trial and accidental success learning D Laws of learning 1 law of effect Acts that produce satisfaction in a given situation become associated with that situation when the situation recurs the act is likely to recur Acts that produce dissatisfaction in a given situation will lead to a stamping out of the SR bond and will be less likely occur in that situation a Thorndike s law of reward or punishment Single most important law in psychology Mechanistic law not mentalistic as many including Watson believed Mechanical because strongest SR bond occurs Thorndike could demonstrate only the satisfaction part of this law 2 law of exercise or law of use and disuse The more an act or response is used in a given situation the more strongly the act becomes associated with that situation Thorndike s law of practice or habit He was unable to demonstrate this law conclusively 3 law of readiness The animal must be in a state of readiness for the SR bond to be strengthened Later called the OK Reaction This was Thorndike s motivational law He failed to prove this law too 4 Thorndike s research reward more effective than mere repetition E Comment 1 beginning of the ascension of learning theory 2 his objectivism in uenced behaviorism 3 Thorndike s laws of learning were to be this most modern and advanced for the next 30 years though they were overlooked by many other theorists III Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov 18491936 A Pavlov s life 1 intended to study for the priesthood 2 read about Darwin chose to study animal physiology 3 Extremely poor but developed the Russian peasant work eithic 4 total dedication to research bought animals and equipment with meager salary 5 Critical of Stalin but survives purges 6 Famous temper that would quickly are up and die down Still beloved by graduate student and laboratory staff 7 allowed women and Jewish students to work in his laboratory 8 1904 Nobel Prize for work on digestion B Conditioned re exes Re exes that are conditional or dependent on the formation of an association or connection between stimulus and response 1 Pavlov s three research areas a function of coronary nerves b primary digestive glands c conditioned re exes most relevant to psychology i first preparation was external stomach ii later used tube in salivary glands 2 5 6 serendipitous finding when studying natural re ex of salivation a to study digestive glands in dogs Pavlov surgically diverted gland so salvia could be collected outside dog s cheek b dogs salivated when food placed in mouth c noticed that dogs soon salivated at sight of food or sound of feeder s footsteps d unlearned salivation re ex now conditioned connected to stimuli associated with food delivery e Pavlov turned his attention to studying how this comes about stchic re exes developed through learning a Occurred in individual animals because of experience or conditioning b Unlike physiological re exes that occurred in all animals innately c Had Pavlov not turned his attention to these re exes he would have been unknown today gave Descartes credit for concept of re ex salivating to the food in mouth is innate unconditional re ex salivating to the sight of food is learned conditional re ex 7 painstaking research and control of unwanted variance 8 9 The tower of silence Classical conditioning is much more important than most teachers realize 10 Basis of emotional behavior in humans 11 Be sure that you can identify components of a classical conditioning study including the unconditioned stimulus the conditioned stimulus the unconditioned response and the conditioned response Stimuli Food UCS amp Tone CS 0 Tone needs conditioning in order to work 0 Food gives automatic response no conditioning ResponsesSaHva on o If tone causes salivation CR 0 If food causes salivation UCR Most of our emotional reactions are classical conditions reacations Pain will cause a fear response C A note on EB Twitmyer 18731943 1 American 2 1902 dissertation on re exes 3 1904 presentation at APA a topic kneej erk re ex b findings kneej erk elicited by other stimuli present when the original stimulus tap of hammer just below knee c suggested this as topic worthy of further research d no one in audience expressed interest e findings ignored f due to Zeitgeist Twitmyer s inexperience inability to continue his work scheduling of his talk just before lunch James failure to allow time for comments or some combination of these reasons Twitmyer missed out on making one of the most significant findings in the history of psychology IV Vladimir M Bekhterev 18571927 1 may have been assassinated at Stalin s request 2 Associated re exes Re exes that can be elicited not only by unconditioned stimuli but also by stimuli that have become associated with the unconditioned stimuli 3 interested in the motor conditioning response whereas Pavlov concentrated on conditioning glandular responses 4 his basic discoveries associated re exes Chapter 10 Behaviorism The Beginnings I John B Watson 1878195 8 Father of Behavioral Psychology B Overview 1 Watson credited the work of others as originators of behaviorism 2 saw himself as bringing together the emergent ideas 3 Willing and enthusiastic spokesperson for the new school of behaviorism C Watson s life 1 delinquent behavior in youth because of mother s extreme religion and fathers deplorable behavior 2 determined to be a minister to fulfill mother s wish a enrolled at Furman University studied philosophy math Latin Greek Told people he didn t graduate from Furman because of last exam 3 1900 enrolled at the University of Chicago a planned to pursue graduate degree in philosophy with Dewey b attracted to psychology through work with Angell c 1903 at age 25 earned PhD from University of Chicago 4 1908 offered professorship at Johns Hopkins University a reluctant to leave University of Chicago b new job offered promotion salary raise and opportunity to direct the psychology laboratory 5 1913 Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It launched behaviorism 6 1914 Behavior An Introduction to Comparative Psychology a argued for acceptance of animal psychology b described advantages of animal subjects c discussed importance of ridding psychology of the remnants of philosophy Value on animal research 7 1919 Psychology From the Standpoint of a Behaviorist a most complete account of behaviorism to date b argued methods and principles of animal research are appropriate for study of humans quotbible for early behavioristsquot focus on only what you can see not emotionthoughts ect measures malefemale arousal amp pattern of behavior they show 8 1920 forced resignation from Johns Hopkins University a marriage deteriorated and led to divorce due to his infidelities fell in love with Rosalie Rayner graduate assistant astonished when forced to resign married Rosalie but still banished from academia Titchener one of the few academics who reached out to comfort him everyone else blamed Watson for ruining psychologists repuations 9 second career applied psychology in advertising becomes very successful in advertisitng 0999 a mechanistic View of humans controlled by emotions b Watson was so successful that he was paid 50000 a year when full professors often made less than 2500 a year 10 1925 Behaviorism introduced plan to perfect the social order which could cure all the problems of society and the world Watsons beliefs of the 3 basic emotions people have Love rage fear appies these when selling products 11 1935 his wife died he became a recluse 12 1957 at age 79 awarded APA citation for his Vital and fruitful work lifetime achievement award from APA a refused to go inside to receive award b Watson afraid that he would show his emotions and cry c son accepted it in his place 13 burned all of his papers prior to his death V The Reaction to Watson s Program A His major points the science of behavior a purely objective experimental branch of natural science both animal and human behavior are studied discard all mentalistic concepts use only behavior concepts 6 goal prediction and control of behavior VI The Methods of Behaviorism A Adoption of the methods of the natural sciences B Verbal reports C Conditioned re ex method U PP N VII The Subject Matter of Behaviorism A Items or elements of behavior SR Theorist 1 goal understand overall behavior of the total organism 2 acts versus responses a act complex behaviors b response act accomplishes some result c capable of being reduced to simple lowerlevel motor or glandular responses explicit versus implicit responses a explicit is overtly observable b implicit happen inside organism ex glandular secretions 1 must be potentially observable 2 must be observable through the use of instruments 9 P simple versus complex stimuli a complex stimulus situation can be reduced to simple component stimuli b example of simple stimuli light waves striking retina specific laws of behavior a identified through analysis of SR complexes b must find elementary SR units 6 major topics instinct emotion thought 7 all areas of behavior must use objective SR terms quotLaw of Recentcyquot last thing you did becomes the strongest bond quotLaw of Frequencyquot the more frequently you do something the stronger the bond becomes U turns watsons theory into quotpositive feedback loopquot 1916 president of APA praises Pavlov for work in classical conditioning amp declares classical conditioning a major marvelous success 1920 Watson does most famous classical conditioning study in psychology Little Albert presented rat to little boy wasn39t initially afraid of rat but paired it with a noise amp after 6 pairings albert was afraid of rat quotArti cial Neurosisquot Mary Cover Jones counter conditions Little Albert B Instincts 1 1914 Watson described 11 instincts unlearned behaviors that are there at birth 2 1925 eliminated the concept of instinct a an extreme environmentalist and radical behaviorism b denied inherited capacities temperaments talents c children can become anything one desires a view that gives us one of the most famous quotations in psychology Give me a dozen healthy infants and my own specified world in which to raise them and d a factor in his popularity with the American lay public 3 seemingly instinctive behavior is actually a socially conditioned response there are no instincts no inherited capacities no temperaments no inherited talents Extreme Environmentalism amp or Radical Behaviorism Watson s famous quote Give me a dozen healthy infants well formed amp my own environment in which to raise them amp I will take any one of these children amp make it into a doctor lawyer merchant theif Regardless of heritage ethnicity w the right environment child can turn into what he wants 4 psychology can only be applied if behavior can be modified C Emotions 1 fear love and rage are not learned emotional response patterns to stimuli a loud noises or sudden lack of support lead to fear b restriction of bodily movements leads to rage c caressing rocking patting lead to love D Albert Peter and the rabbits 1 Albert study demonstrated conditioned learned emotional responses 2 Watson adult fears are learned do not arise from Freud s unconscious con icts 3 Mary Cover Jones a Counter conditioned little Albert and Peter who was conditioned to fear white rabbits Her method was later modified and used by Joseph Wolpe who became famous for counterconditioning E Thought processes VIII IX 1 traditional view a thinking occurs in the brain With an absence of muscle movements b not accessible to observation and experimentation 2 Watson s view a thinking is implicit motor behavior such as counting on fingers b involves implicit speech reactions or movements c reduced it to subvocal talking d same muscular habits as used for overt speech e thinking silent talking to oneself Behaviorism s Popular Appeal A Watson called for a society based on scientifically shaped and controlled behavior 1 free of myths customs and convention 2 The Religion Called Behaviorism Berman 1927 read by Skinner B Emphasis on childhood environment and minimization of heredity C Conditioned re ex experiments 1 implied emotional disturbances in adulthood due to conditioned responses during earlier years 2 implies proper childhood conditioning precludes adult disorders D Experimental ethics 1 based on behaviorism 2 part of a plan to improve society 3 a framework for research 4 elaborated by Skinner An Outbreak of Psychology A Product of a public already attentive to and receptive of psychology and Watson s considerable charm and vision of hope for behavioral change and the betterment of society Criticisms of Watson s BehaviorismThe Battle of Behaviorism A William McDougall 18711938 1 1924 debate With Watson a agreed data of behavior are a proper focus for psychology b argued data of consciousness also necessary c questioned Watson s tenet that human behavior is fully determined d critical of Watson s use of the verbal report method Chapter 11 Behaviorism After the Founding A Overview 2 1924 Titchener conceded that Watsonian behaviorism had engulfed the United States 3 1930 other varieties of behaviorism emerged B The Stages of Behaviorism 1 19131930 Watsonian behaviorism Major figure Watson himself 2 1930 1960 Neobehaviorism Major figures Hull Tolman amp Skinner a core of psychology is the study of learning b most behavior can be accounted for by the laws of conditioning c psychology must adopt the principle of operationism 3 1960present sociobehaviorism and the return to cognitive processes Major figures Bandura amp Rotter I Operationism C Purpose and definition 1 a key feature of Neobehaviorism 2 purpose a to render the language and terminology of science more objective and precise b to rid science of pseudoproblems 3 text definition the doctrine that a physical concept can be defined in precise terms relating to the set of operations or procedures by Which it is determined 4 basic principle the validity of a finding or construct depends on the validity of the operations used to achieve that finding XI Edward Chace Tolman 18861959 A Career 1 studied engineering at MIT 2 Harvard PhD in 1915 3 graduate school a trained as Titchenerian structuralist b became acquainted With Watsonian behaviorism 4 professional experience a 1918 hired by the University of California at Berkeley 1 taught comparative psychology 2 conducted research on learning in rats 3 formed his own form of behaviorism after becoming dissatisfied With Watson s B Purposive behaviorism 10 1 1932 Purposive Behavior in Animals and Men a rejected introspection b had no interest in any presumed internal experiences unless accessible to objective observation c purposiveness 1 defined in objective behavioral terms 2 all behavior is directed toward some goal 3 behavior reeks of purpose C Intervening variables 1 the initiating causes as well as the results of behavior must be observable and operationally defined Hunger can t be seen an intervening variable but the initiating causes hours without food can be seen and the results eating fast and eating a lot can be seen 2 causes are independent variables a environmental stimuli b psychological drives c heredity d previous training e age 3 resultant behaviors a a function of the five causes independent variables b relationship expressed in a mathematical formula 4 intervening variables a connect the stimulus situation with the observed response 1 SOR 2 not SR b useful only if clearly related to both the observable independent variable and the observable behavior 1 allowed Tolman to operationally define unobservable internal states c initially called this approach operational behaviorism D Learning theory 1 learning was central in Tolman s purposive behaviorism 2 rejected Thomdike s law of effect a reward has little in uence on learning b proposed a cognitive explanation of learning in its place 3 repeated performance of a task strengthens the learned relationship between environmental cues and the organism s expectations a called these relationships sign Gestalts 11 1 are learned 2 cue expectancy associated With a particular choice point either leads or does not lead to reinforcement 4 cognitive map a a pattern of sign Gestalts b animal learns a cognitive map not a set of motor habits place versus response learning E Comment 1 a forerunner of the cognitive movement 2 intervening variables a engendered scientific respect for operationally defining internal states 3 the rat as an important research subject a 1930 s1960 s primary subject for neobehaviorists b assumption that one could generalize from rats to other animals and humans c simple easy to study readily available XII Clark Leonard Hull 18841952 Major goal was to develop a mathematical equations to predict behavior A Hull s life 1 Early challenges a ill health b poor eyesight c polio at age 24 2 early work revealed continued interest in using objective methods and developing useable laws a concept formation effects of tobacco on behavioral efficiency tests and measurements applied area Aptitude Testing 1928 practical methods of statistical analysis invented a machine for calculating correlations g thnosis and suggestibilitv 10 years 32 papers 1 book Hypnosis and Suggestibility 1933 3 1929 research professor at Yale 4 interested in developing a theory of behavior based on Pavlov s laws of conditioning thrDFLPP a 1927 reads Pavlov b 1930 s articles about basic conditioning and its usefulness in understanding complex higherorder behaviors 5 1943 Principles of Behavior an ambitious theoretical attempt to account for 12 all behavior 6 1952 A Behavior System the final form of Hull s theory B The spirit of mechanism a the hypotheticodeductive method 1 establish postulates 2 deduce experimentally testable hypotheses 3 submit them to experimental test 4 is the method necessary for psychology to be a science C Hull s behavioral equation 1 drive a an intervening variable b defined as a stimulus arising from a state of tissue need that arouses or activates behavior c drive reduction is the only basis of reinforcement d Usually measured by length of deprivation e Changes with time and internal state of the subject 2 Habit strength is measured by the number of trials in which drive reduction has occurred Each case of drive reduction leads to a permanent increase in habit strength 3 Incent K also increased the likelihood of behavior occurring if the reinforcer value was high Added because of the Crespi Study Named K for Ken Spence a favored graduate student 4 Some things decreased the likelihood of behavior a Reactive Inhibition which increased whenever a behavior was emitted regardless of reinforcement or not Decreased as time passed Like boredom or fatigue b Conditioned inhibition which occurred anytime a response was made and no reinforcement occurred Each unreinforced trial lead to a permanent decrease in the likelihood of behavior c Oscillating factor which varies over time and from subject to subject Somewhat of a copout admitting that was really hard to predict D Learning 1 has a key role in Hull s system 2 focuses on principle of reinforcement Thomdike s law of effect 3 law of primary reinforcement When a stimulusresponse relationship is 13 followed by a reduction in a bodily need the probability increases that on subsequent occasions the same stimulus will evoke the same response E Comment 1 Hull was a major figure in behaviorism during the 1940s and 1950s Behaviorism could be divided into two camps those who waited to disprove Hull s latest work and those who waited to confirm it 2 Semesterlong behavioral courses were taught on Hull and his behavioral equations and his postulates 3 pronounced effect on psychology through a the amount of research generated and provoked b the achievements of his students and followers 0 defending extending and expounding objective behaviorism 4 called a theoretical genius XIII BF Skinner 19041990 A one of the most in uential psychologists in the 20th Century 1 beginning in 1950 s the major embodiment of behaviorism 2 large and loyal group of followers 3 developed and wrote about subjects that had considerable impact a behavioral control b behavior modification 0 utopian society Walden Two 1 Beyond Freedom and Dignity a national bestseller 4 became a celebrity in his own right B Skinner s life 1 recalled early childhood environment as affectionate and stable 2 same small community and school as attended by parents 3 built things as a child and worked with and observed animals 4 used his early life experiences as a base for his system of psychology a a product of past reinforcements b seemingly predetermined lawful and orderly 0 his experiences traceable to environmental stimuli 5 unhappy undergraduate career at Hamilton College NY 6 1925 Hamilton College NY degree in English no courses in psychology Phi Beta Kappa Nearly expelled for attitude and pranks 7 worked at writing for two years after favorable feedback from Robert Frost 14 8 depressed by lack of success as a writer and in romance 9 read about Pavlov s and Watson s experimental work 10 1931 PhD from Harvard 11 dissertation a re ex is a correlation between S and R 12 1938 The Behavior of Organisms covered basic points of his system 13 1953 Science and Human Behavior basic textbook for his system Also wrote Walden II which describes life in a community based on behavioral principles Token Economy 14 toward end of life a lived in a controlled environment b enjoyed writinga source of positive reinforcement c published an article Intellectual SelfManagement in Old Age d described his feelings of dying with leukemia in a radio interview 15 1990 vigorously attacked the growth of cognitive psychology in a paper delivered at the Boston meeting of the American Psychological Association eight 16 1990 final article Can Psychology Be a Science of Mind 17 Died in 1990 at the age of 86 Wrote his autobiography at the request of friends several years before his death Particulars of My Life C Skinner s behaviorism 1 in some ways a regeneration of Watsonian Behaviorism 2 although as rigorous as Hull important contrasts exist a Hull emphasized the import of theory b Skinner advocated a system with no theoretical framework 1 not averse to all theorizing 2 warned against premature theorizing devoted to the study of responses concerned with describing behavior rather than explaining it dealt only with observable behavior the task of scientific inquiry a to establish functional relationships b between experimentercontrolled stimulus and the organism s response 7 no presumptions about internal entities a the emptv organism approach b internal physiological and mental events exist but not useful to science 8 singlesubject design a large numbers of subjects not necessary b statistical comparisons of group means not necessary c a single subject provides valid and replicable results 991 93 15 1 cannot predict behavior of a particular individual from knowledge of the average individual 2 Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior established because mainstream journals did not accept an n of one D Operant Conditioning 1 contrasted With respondent Pavlovian conditioning Which is elicited by a specific observable stimulus 2 operant behavior a occurs Without an observable external stimulus b operates on the organism s environment c the behavior is instrumental in securing a stimulus such as food d more representative of everyday learning e most effective approach to science of behavior the study of the conditioning and extinction of operants 3 studied bar pressing in the Plexiglas Skinner box the rate of response 4 law of acquisition the strength of an operant behavior increases When it is followed by the presentation of a reinforcing stimulus a key variable reinforcement b practice provides opportunities for additional reinforcement c differs from Thorndike s and Hull s positions 1 Thorndike and Hull explanatory 2 Skinner strictly descriptive 3 Hull internal drives Skinner empty organism E Schedules of reinforcement Conditions involving various rates and times of reinforcement 1 reinforcement is necessary in operant behavior 2 reinforcement schedules a continuous b intermittant 1 fixed or variable time of delivery or rate 2 ratio of responses 16 3 Schedules discovered accidentally because of food pellet shortage Skinner tried to save food pellets by using intermittent reinforcement schedules instead continuous reinforcement schedules and the pattern and rate of behavior chanced in unique but predictable patterns Another important serendipitous finding 4 Schedules more like real life salary on intermittent schedule 5 Intermittant schedules take longer to extinguish F Successive Approximation AKA shaping 1 lever pressing is simple behavior most operant behavior more complex 2 See examples from IQ Zoo at chapter s beginning 3 With shaping behaviors that come closer and closer to the target operant behavior are reinforced 4 Skinner says that is how children learn language G Aircribs teaching machines and pigeonguided missiles 1 2 1945 aircrib a brought Skinner public notoriety b mechanized environment invented to relieve menial labor c not commercially successful d daughter reared in it with no ill effects teaching machine a invented in the 1920 s by Pressey not enthusiastically received 1 surplus of teachers 2 no public pressure to improve learning b resurgence of interest in 1950 s When Skinner promoted similar device 1 excess of students 2 public pressure to improve education so US could compete With Soviet Union space c 1968 The Technology of Teaching Skinner summarized his work in this field d after the 1960s computerassisted instructional methods became dominant 3 pigeonguided missiles a developed by Skinner during W11 1 guidance system to steer bombs from warplanes to ground targets 2 pigeons housed in missile nosecones 17 a trained through prior conditioning to peck at target image b pecking affected angles of missile s fins c resultant adjustments kept missile on target d pigeons very accurate e military not impressed H Walden Two 1948 a behaviorist society 1 program of behavioral control 2 a technology of behavior 3 application of laboratory findings to society at large 4 novel of a 1000 member rural community 5 behavioral control through positive reinforcement 6 outgrowth of Skinner s midlife depression expressing his own con icts and despair 7 re ected mechanism of Galileo Newton and the empiricists 1 Behavior modification 1 uses positive reinforcement 2 applied in a variety of settings 3 works with people in same manger as with animals by reinforcing desired behavior and extinguishing undesired behavior J Criticisms of Skinner s behaviorism 1 9593 his extreme positivism his opposition to theory his willingness to extrapolate beyond the data the narrow range of behavior studied his position that all behaviors are learned a problem of instinctive drift tendency to substitute instinctive behaviors for behaviors that had been reinforced 1 introduced by the work of the Brelands 2 innate behaviors stronger than learned behaviors even when latter delayed access to food 6 his position on verbal behavior successfully challenged by Noam Chomsky K Contributions of Skinner s behaviorism 1 shaped American psychology for 30 years 2 his goal the improvement of society 3 strength and ramifications of his radical behaviorism 18 XIV Sociobehaviorism The Cognitive Challenge A social learning or sociobehaviorist approach 1 primarily are behaviorists 2 re ected the broader cognitive revolution in psychology 3 marks the third stage of behaviorism XV Albert Bandura 1925 A Background 1 experience with the psychopathology of ordinary life 2 1952 PhD from the University of Iowa 3 1981 APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award B Social cognitive theory 1 behavioristic a less extreme than Skinner s behaviorism b re ects current zeitgeist in its interest in cognitive variables 2 research focus observation of the behavior of humans in interaction 3 emphasizes the role of reinforcement in learning and behavior modification 4 cognitive aspect stresses the in uence of thought processes on external reinforcement schedules 5 reactions to stimuli are selfactivated personinitiated rather than automatic 6 reinforcer effective if a person is consciously aware of what is being reinforced b person anticipates the same reinforcer if the behavior is repeated 7 vicarious reinforcement learning by observing how other people behavior and seeing the consequences of their behavior rather than directly experiencing the consequences of one s own a assumes human capacity to anticipate and appreciate those outcomes b one can regulate one s behavior by 1 imagining those consequences and 2 making a conscious selection of the behavior to manifest c is like the SOR model with 0 being equal to cognitive processes 8 cognitive processes distinguish Bandura s views from Skinner s a actual schedule of reinforcement less important that what the person believes it is b who controls behavior 1 Skinner whoever controls reinforcers 2 Bandura whoever controls the models in a society 19 9 salient characteristics of in uential models a same age and sex as self b peers With similar problems c high in status and prestige d exhibit simple behaviors e display hostile and aggressive behaviors 10 a social learning theory a behavior as formed and modified in social situations b criticisms of Skinner s work 1 use of single subjects 2 did not study humans interacting C Selfefficacy our sense of selfesteem or selfworth our feeling of adequacy efficiency and competence in dealing with problems 1 high versus low selfefficacy persons believe they can cope With diverse problems expect to overcome obstacles seek challenges persevere confident of ability to succeed f exert control over their life 2 low selfefficacy persons a feel helpless or hopeless about coping b do not expect to overcome or even affect obstacles or situations c give up initial attempts fail d believe nothing they can do Will make a difference e believe they have little or no control over their fate 3 Wide range of effects of selfefficacy beliefs 4 research shows that high selfefficacy persons experience positive outcomes in most aspects of life 5 diverse groups develop collective high efficacy levels Which affect their outcomes in a manner similar to that found with high selfefficacy persons D Behavior modification 1 Bandura s goal change or modify socially undesirable behavior 2 focus external aspects of abnormality ie behavior 3 the use of modeling 4 Bandura s form of behavior therapy is Widely used in diverse settings and has strong research support E Comment 1 criticized by traditional behaviorists Who maintain that cognitive processes do not cause behavior 2 positive aspects of Bandura s theory a Widely accepted in psychology 9909 20 consistent with the functionalism of American psychology objective amenable to precise laboratory methods responsive to the current cognitive Zeitgeist applicable to practical problems thrDFLPP XVI Julian Rotter 1916 A Background 1 grew up comfortably in Brooklyn 2 father lost his business in 1929 crash 3 read Freud and Adler in high school 4 learned that jobs scarce in psychology B Cognitive processes 1 1947 the first to use the term social learning theory 2 cognitive approach to behaviorism 3 invokes the existence of subjective experiences 4 deals with cognitive processes more extensively than Bandura a both external stimuli and the reinforcement they provide affect behavior b cognitive factors mediate the nature and extent of that in uence 5 four cognitive principles determine behaviors a expectation of amount and kind of reinforcement b estimation of probability the behavior will lead to a particular reinforcement c differential values of reinforcers and assessment of their relative worth d different people place different values on the same reinforcer C Locus of control beliefs about the source of our reinforcers 1 beliefs about the source of one s reinforcements 2 internal locus of control belief that reinforcement depends on one s own behavior 3 external locus of control belief that reinforcement depends on outside forces such as fate luck or the actions of other people 4 is learned in childhood from the ways one is treated 5 Rotter s 23 item forcedchoice test 6 product of a chance discovery D Comment 1 Rotter s theory attracts followers who a are experimentally oriented b think cognitive variables in uence behavior 2 a great many studies support his theory particularly regarding internal and external locus of control XVII The Fate of Behaviorism A Cognitive challenge to behaviorism from within modified the behaviorist movement 21 B Sociobehaviorists still consider themselves behaviorists 1 are called methodological behaviorists because they employ internal cognitive processes 2 are contrasted With radical behaviorists like Watson and Skinner Who do not deal With presumed internal states a Skinnerian behaviorism peaked in the 1980s b declined after Skinner s death in 1990 C Today s behaviorism particularly in applied psychology is different from forms it took from 1913 Watson to 1990 Skinner D In an evolutionary sense the spirit of behaviorism still lives 22
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