Chapter 1 Principles of Animal Behavior
Chapter 1 Principles of Animal Behavior BIOL 515
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erica Leonard on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 515 at Kansas State University taught by Eva A Horne in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 174 views. For similar materials see Behavioral Ecology in Biology at Kansas State University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Chapter 1 Principals of Animal Behavior Behavioral ecology ethnology amp sociobiology o Defn the study of why and how animals do the things they do in response to their surrounding Foundations of behavior AR Wallace amp Charles Darwin Natural selection not all offspring survive to reproduce some leave more offspring than others Evolution change in genetic makeup of population over time Genetics and inheritance o Gregor Mendel 18221884 inheritance and how natural selection can favor some traits over others pea plant crossing Learningnature vs nurture o Ethologists behavior is genetically programmed through natural selection 0 Psychologists innate inherited traits don t matter to development of learning 0 12 nature genetic makeup of genes you are born with o 12 nurture environment you are raised in and surroundings that build your personality 0 Innate behaviors those that are unlearning and instinct 0 Problems innate behaviors can be modified through learning similar environments lead to similar behaviors o Learned behaviors acquired through experience amp modified as new conditions develop 0 Problems instinctive behaviors sometimes disrupt training animals evolve to make certain associations more easily than others Cultural transmission 0 Seen in social animals individuals learn behavior by observing others Social behavior 0 Ultimate questions why Why live in groups why give up reproduction to help dominant 0 Survival pass on gene by helping raise offspring o Proximate questions how How do you become the dominant How do dominants prevent others from breeding 0 Larger and older individuals are dominant males use aggression to prevent others from breeding females use a combination of aggression and hormonal control Conceptual approach 0 Making connections between different concepts that better fitness Fitness how many of your alleles get into the next generations through your offspring Inclusive fitness 0 Direct fitness individuals own offspring 0 Indirect offspring offspring related to them because of something they did to help them survive Sociobiology 0 Combined a number of fields to help explain social behavior Theoretical approach 0 Creating mathematical models of a process to generate testable hypotheses o Optimality theory 0 Optimal behavior distance between benefits and costs is greatest 0 Problem 03 in 1 thing may not translate into greater fitness doesn t guarantee more offspring 0 Ex Great tit birds have highest survival rate in clutches with 8 eggs larger don t receive enough food Empirical approach 0 Scientific method 0 Background information data collected or observations 9 used to form hypotheses predictions about what is going to happen 9 observation and experimentation is used to test the hypotheses 9 new data is collected 9 hypothesis is then accepted or rejected 9 if accepted make conclusion and formulate a theory f rejected start over 0 Experimental methods I Field manipulate naturally occurring factors I Lab carefully controlled encounters in controlled environments more control but less real behavior I Control all factors are the same except for the 1 that you are testing 0 Observational methods field I Observe animals in the wild amp compare observations to another source I Describe behaviors amp under what conditions they occur Basic experimental design 0 Cannot ever prove anything indefinitely o Null hypothesis no difference between treatment want to falsify o Behaviors o Aggressive submissive neutral 0 Independent data 0 Compare individuals together and separately to see change in behavior 0 Cannot reuse an organism for multiple trials or they will gain experience and familiarity of experiment and results won t be accurate or consistent Tracking capturing marking 0 Can track what an organism eats by comparing the ratio in their tissues to the stable isotopes in order to determine differences in populations food sources migration routes etc 0 Can analyze trails from satellite imagery and identify travel routes migration etc Major methodology problems 0 Perception 0 Most animals cannot hear see smell etc the way humans do 0 They use ultraviolet ultrasound too high for humans and infrared infrasoundtoo low for humans I Example elephants talk to each other in infrasound They use low vibrations in the ground by stomping their feet in order to communicate with each other 0 Correlation vs causation o 2 things that are correlated doesn t mean 1 causes the other to occur I Example female collared lizards get larger in the summer because 1 They stock up on eggs to reproduce or 2 They just eat more if compared to males you can easily separate the hypotheses to see what the cause is 0 Differential observation 0 Some individuals are more easily seen and therefore more easily observed than others o Territorial males are easily identified found and observed satellite males may not be seen as easily and therefore harder to observe Statistics 0 Parametric vs nonparametric o Parametric is more powerful but needs more assumptions and data must be evenly distributed
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