Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide PSY101
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elena Behrman on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY101 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Kimberly Fenn in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Chapter 1 The Science of Psych 0 Psychology The study of the mind brain and behavior 0 Pysch phenomena 0 can be approached and analyzed by biological social cognitive cultural and individual differences 0 unconscious in uences thoughts feelings emotions 0 Ex red is seen as a more desirable color A Historical Roots 0 Outgrowth of psychology and physiology 0 Scientific study Philosophical 0 Socrates pay attention to mind and soul 0 Plato humans born with innate knowledge nativism 0 Aristotle humans born with blank slate learn thru experience empiricism 0 Rene Descartes mind and soul not connected but interact dualism 0 Francis Gall felt bumps on head to discover meaning beneath the skull phrenology 0 first theory of localizations on the functions of the brain 0 Darwin origin of the species Early Psychologists 0 Helmholt 0 first to employ method of observation to study behavior 0 Wundt O Founder of psych as a science 0 Consciousness decomposed into underlying elements 0 Believed that mental experiences can be inspected introspection 0 Early form of structuralism 0 Titchner O formalized Wundt s theory that the conscious experience can be broken down in elements structuralism 0 Introspection is descriptive but very subjective 0 Reliability when concepts are difficult to describe in concrete terms it s important that multiple observers can agree on phenomenon 0 Ex solving anagrams made participants walk slower Early Psych functionalism Functionalism concerned with the adaptive purpose or function of the mind and behavior William James 0 1st American psychologist 0 believed in the study of function of consciousness fanctionalism 0 wrote the first psych book Sigmund Freud 0 main contribution studied the unconscious causes of symptoms and personality recognized the unconscious process psychoanalysis 0 techniquebrought the unconscious to conscious 0 two motivators of behavior pleasure and aggression 0 dream interpretations and free association Behaviorism our behavior is a response to our environment 0 developed by James Watson 0 stimulus response 0 our mind is a black box the learner is a black box and nothing is known about what goes on inside 0 BF Skinner O focused on the consequences of responses 0 denied the existence of mental states 0 conducted the pigeon experiment B The Cognitive Revolution 0 humans have a mind and it is able to be studied 0 our thoughts in uence our behaviors 0 started cognitive neuroscience 0 measures neural activity 0 enables cognitive processes 0 social neuroscience 0 social interaction changes the way that we think 0 enables social processes Today 0 the components of psych are philosophy biology genetics neuroscience 0 2 broad sub disciplines 0 Basic generation of new knowledge which later is applied I Ex behavioral and social psychologist researchers 0 Applied applies knowledge to solve human problems I Ex counselor clinical psychologists Chapter 2 Methods of Psych A Goals of Psych research I describe humans and how they act in the world 0 make predictions 0 identify causal relationships I psychSCIENTIFIC 0 h 0 our expectations tend to in uence interpretation 0 Pseudoscience horoscopes Biases 0 Hindsight Bias 0 I knew that all along 0 things are predictable once they happen 0 Confirmation bias 0 look for actions that support your prediction Theories I What makes a good theory 0 10gica1 as simple as can be but no simpler O precise O parsimonious simple 0 falsifiable 0 Test theories thru 0 Descriptive amp Correlational studies B Types of Research 1 Descriptive 0 aka observational I observe and describes variables of behavior to analyze that behavior objectively 0 no manipulation 0 Case studies an in depth study of behavior of 1 person or a small group I disadvantages I small sample size generalization I Patient HM O Naturalistic observation in depth study of creature in natural habitat I Ex Jane Goodall I advantage 0 may have good generalizability I Disadvantage 0 being observed could alter behavior 0 can t infer the cause of behavior 0 Survey Research I ask questions of many to gain info on attitudes and behavior I people may not answer truthfully 0 RECAP 0 may be the only way to investigate 0 can t determine the cause of behavior 0 biases 2 Correlational Research 0 measures variables 0 determines how they are related correlation O correlation coefficient r strength or direction 1 to 1 negative correlationhigh variable amp low variable CORRELATION DOESNT EQUAL CAUSATION PERFECT CORRELATIONS RARELY EXIST OOOOO 3rd variables Ex In summer BBQs increase shark attacks increase correlated but not causal 3 Experimental Research 0 highly controlled investigation of variable of interest 0 establishes causal relationships 0 isolates the effect of the indpt Variable IV manipulated DV effect of IV 0 Population group you re interested in studying 0 Sample individuals taken randomly from the population 0 Control group group similar to experimental group but is not exposed to the experiment 0 necessary because other factors vary With IV like 0 previous experience 0 testing 0 regression to meanbad people balanced With good 0 RECAP 0 strongest type of research in psych I disadvantages 0 random assignment often impossible or unethical O bias 0 placebo effect ex Dumbo 0 solution single blind Issues in Experimental research Experimenter Bias 0 solution double blind I Rosenthal Effect 0 2 groups of rats smart and dumb put thru maze at same times 0 researchers approached rats differentlyexpectation of rats came out in the data 0 later replicated in childrenteacher attentative to kids intelligence Replication not sufficient to be demonstrated a single time Demand characteristics 0 participants guess the focus of the study 0 alter their behavior to provedisprove 0 solution add fillers to distract Ethical Issues of experimental research I informed consent the researcher must say some description of the study I all research human studies must be approved by the IRB 0 Risk must be low 0 Behavioral Study of Obedience Stanley Milgram 1963 I teacher gives learner shock for wrong answer unhealthy voltage I learners are actors I interested to see Who gives full shock I response to authority I 66 give full shock I unethical experiment Methods of measuring brain functions 1 single cell recordingsmeasures electrodes in brain 0 micro electrode planted near axon detects action potential 0 benefits 0 direct observation of a single cell s activity 0 excellent temporal resolution 0 brain damage 0 limited of cells 0 animals only exceptionepilepsy 2 Electrical Flow 0 EEG O electrodes on scalp to determine neural activity 0 electrodes measure the summed electrical activity 0 ERP 0 looks at activity of specific stimulus 0 excellent temporal resolution 3 blood ow in brain fMRI 0 magnetic resonance imaging to look at blood ow of brain 0 benefits 0 good spatial resolution 0 limits 0 poor temporal resolution Chapter 3 Neuroscience 0 psych processes affect your mind and your mind affects your pysch processes 0 Genes and biology can affect these processes 0 Facts Brain weighs 3 lbs 55 Wide 37 high Surface area 25 ft 100000 miles of blood vessels Neuron 400 microns 100 bill neurons 000000 A Neurons 0 Specialized for communication 0 Basic unit of the nervous system 0 Receive transmit and integrate info 0 Operate thru electrical impulses 0 Communicate With other neurons thru chemical signals 1 Structure 0 Dendrites receive info from other neurons 0 Cell body creates transmitter molecules 0 Axon sends info to other cells 0 Terminal buttons release transmitter 2 Basic types of neurons 0 Sensory conduct impulses in sense organs to CNS 0 Motor output cells that activate muscles 0 Interneuron communicator bW sensor and motor 0 Have the most of these Glial cells not neuron but perform many important functions Glue to fill in spaces 0 Produce the myelin sheath that surrounds neurons 0 Myelin speeds up transmission 0 Slows down neural impulses in MS patients B Activation action potential 0 A neuron at rest is polarized negative charge 0 Activity state inside of a neuron is measured With voltage 0 Maintained by 0 Chemical fusion 0 Electrostatic force 0 Selectively permeable membranes Electrostatic force 0 negative and positives attract Diffusion 0 the uniform spread in the environment 0 diffusion thru selectively permeable membranes 0 some ions Potassium K can pass thru At rest 0 membrane potential is primarily affected by K 0 inside is negatively charged bc of anions 60 mv 0 more K inside of cell more Na outside 0 Electrostatic force AND diffusion drives Na into cell 0 Electrostatic force drives K into cell 0 Diffusion drives K out of cell Equilibrium Potential K balanced in and out of the cell C Neural Communication The Action Potential 0 When negative charge is applied to the neuron becomes hyperbolarized 0 adding a hyperpolarized charge makes it more negative I when positive charge is applied becomes depolarized I each neuron has a threshold for activation 0 a force must be enough to depolarize the neuron past its threshold for an action potential to occur I neuron fires With the same potency every time all or none phenomena 0 the moment the threshold is reached the Na channels open and K rushes into cell 0 this increases polarity Which causes K to leave the cell the K channels are inactive at this point absolute refractory period 0 relative refractory period cell can fire just needs bigger stimulus The SodiumPotassium Pump 0 too much sodium insdie I transports 3 Na out of cell 2 K in I expensive requires a lot of energy Importance of Action Potential 0 EX Puffer fish 0 Has toxin that blocks Na channels that suppresses respiration 0 Can cause death Importance of Myelin I Speeds up action potential significantly 7 ms vs 100 ms 0 Signal can jump from node to node Communication Between Neurons I Operate thru electrical impulses 0 Communicate thru chemical signals 0 Neurotransmitters O Molecules that are synthesized and released by presynaptic neurons 0 Use the Lock and Key method can only bind With particular receptor 0 Clearing the neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft I Reuptake neurotransmitter taken back into presynaptic terminal buttons via transporters I Degradation via enzymes I Autoreceptors signal When the release of neurotransmitters should stop How do neurotransmitters in uence emotion thought and behavior Common neurotransmitters 0 Acetylcholine motor control memory 0 Monoamines involved in affect arousal motivation 0 Amino acid general inhibitory and excitatory transmitters in brain 0 Inhibitory postsynaptic neuron less likely to fire GABA O Excitatory postsynaptic neuron less likely to fire glutamate Drugs can modify action at the synaptic cleft 0 Reuptake primary regulatory of monoamines O SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors 0 Increase serotonin O antidepressant 0 Degradation of monoamines by monoamine oxidase O MAOI monoamine oxidation inhibitors stop degradation of monoamines 0 Give you more monoamines serotonin dopamine norepinephren 0 Antidepressant 0 Degradation acetylchloinesterate breaks down Acetylcholine O Acetylchloinesterate inhibitors block breakdown of Ach 0 Alzheimer s Chapter 3 The Brain The Nervous System 1 Central Nervous System 0 Brain spinal cord 2 Peripheral Nervous System 0 Sense organs peripheral nerves 0 Autonomic Nervous System in uences action of internal actions 0 Sympathetic fight or ight response prepares body for action 0 Parasympathetic brings things back to baseline returns body to resting state lowers BP stimulates digestion A Basic structure of the brain 1 Forebrain higher life functions 2 Midbrain coordinates simple movements sleepwake cycle temp basic life functions 3 Hindbrain vital life functions respiratory swallowing arousal Hindbrain 0 Brain stem 0 m involved in respiration REM sleep 0 Medulla controls heart rate respiration CRITCAL TO LIVE 0 Reticular formation respiration heart rate wakefulness 0 Cerebellum coordinates smooth movements balance posture aka little brain The Limbic System 0 Above the brain stem surrounded by the cortex 0 Thalamus hypothalamus amygdala hippocampus 0 Thalamus relay system I Organizes info and sends it out I Olfaction only sensory system that has direct route to cortex 0 Hypothalamus regulates vital functions I Body temp I Hunger I Hormone release I Sexual functioning O Amygdala processes emotional info I Fear aggression O Hippocampus memory I Declarative memory info I Spatial memory I NOT permanent storage area Patient HM I Most famous memory patient I Had severe epilepsy in temporal lobe I Evidence for hippocampal involvement in memory I Hippocampus was removed 0 Resulted in anterograde amnesia can t form any new longterm memory 0 Retrograde amnesia same old memories stay in tact but temporally grade 0 Lost recent memories but kept very distant memories B The Cortex I Specialized for higher level processes 0 Higher level sensory cognitive social emotional I Not necessary to survive I Consists of gray matter cell bodies and dendrites I 2 separate cerebral hemispheres 0 Connected by corpus callosum Gyri amp Sulci I Gyrus bump outfodling I Sulcus valley infolding O Positioning differs from brain to brain I Purpose to fit more brain into the skull 0 Have more than other primates 4 Lobes of the cortex 0 Frontal parietal occipital temporal Regions 0 Frontal lobe thinking planning strategizing 0 Precentral gyrus motor skills 0 Postcentral sensory 0 Parietal high sensory function 0 Occipital entire portion devoted to vision 0 Temporal hearing learning memory Cerebral Lateralization relatively greater location of a function in 1 hemisphere Left hemisphere language 95 of people Right hemisphere spatial processing Contralateral control left side of the brain processes the right vice versa Broca s Area 0 Left frontal region of brain 0 Involved in language production 0 Damage affects ability to generate speech 0 Can still understand speech 0 Usually can t read or write 0 Know what they sound like 0 Broca s Aphasia O 1861 discovered by Paul Broca 0 known as tan Wernicke s Aphasia 0 involved in language understanding 0 patients speak long sentences but don t make sense 0 difficulty in understanding others Exam Review
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