Communication theory study guide for exam 2
Communication theory study guide for exam 2 20223
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carolyn Notetaker on Monday March 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 20223 at Texas Christian University taught by Andrew Ledbetter in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 107 views. For similar materials see Comm Theory in Communication Studies at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 03/21/16
LedbetterCommunication Theory Exam 2 Review Sheet Exam 2 Review Sheet Test format Truefalse matching and multiple choice questions same format as exam 1 Test length 50 questions 150 points total The test focuses chie y on the material in the A First Look at Communication Theory text The purpose of class time and presentations is to highlight key elements of the theories presented in the reading The following questions are intended to help you review the chapters discussed so far Social information processing theory Walther 3 How does CMC differ from facetoface communication CMC computer mediated communication text based communication no nonverbal cues CMC Face to Face Sip When you sip a soda through a straw you can still finish your drink it just takes longer to do SO Gulp you can finish a soda quite fast by gulping it all down at once Only verbal communication NONVerbal Cues face expression body language Extended Time much slower but with more time can achieve same level in relationship as through face to face Happens more quickly 1 c What is the role of nonverbal cues in CMC and what does this have to do with time Verbal and nonverbal cues can be used interchangeably verbal replaces nonverbal 0 Using emojis to show your emotional Need Extended time to reach same message as face to face 0 takes 4 times as long to communicate over the intemet What aspects of CMC might foster hyperpersonal communication HVDerDersonal Perspective the claim that CMC relationships are often more intimate than those developed when partners are physically together Sender Selective Self Presentation people who meet online have the opportunity to only expose their most attractive character traits sustain positive impression for longer Receiver gOverattribution of Similarity 2 in person we observe someone and try to figure out what they are really like CMC we base it off verbal communication EX Dating Profiles we LedbetterCommunication Theory Exam 2 Review Sheet assume the person is more similar to us based off of what they are saying and create idealized images 0 Channel Communicating on your time 0 Asynchronous channel nonsimultaneous medium of communication that each individual can use at her or his own time EX texting 0 Asynchronous interaction plan contemplate edit one s thoughts before expressing them speaking in a more mindful manner 0 Feedback Selffulfilling Prophecy 2 tendency for a persons expectation of others to evoke a response from that confirms what was originally anticipated 1 Warranting reason to believe that information is accurate typically because the target of the information cannot manipulate it e Social Presence Theory Earlier CMC theory that suggests that CMC deprives users of the sense that another actual person is involved in the interaction 0 Media Richness Theory Purports that CMC bandwidth is too narrow to convey rich relational messages 0 Cues Filtered Out Interpretation of CMC that regards the lack of nonverbal cues as a fatal aw for using the medium for relationship development 0 Joe Walther Communication professor at Michigan State University who argues that given the opportunity for sufficient exchange of social messages and subsequent relational growth faceto face and CMC are equally useful mediums for developing close relationships 0 Impression formation The composite mental image one person forms of another 0 Anticipated Future Interactions A way of extending psychological time the likelihood of future interaction motivates CMC users to develop a relationship 0 Chronemics The study of people s systemic handling of time in their interaction with others Media multiplexity theory Haythornthwaite seeks to explain how and why the strength of an interpersonal bond is associated with the number of media used to maintain the relationship a What are strong ties the people you are closest to rely on brother mom bf b Weak ties people you are not closely connected to coworker c What does tie strength have to do with media multiplexity 0 Tie strength is connected to media complexity communication content differs by tie not by medium LedbetterCommunication Theory Exam 2 Review Sheet 0 MMT locates tie strength as a cause of media use the theory also acknowledges that media use over time in uences tie strength d What do group norms have to do with media multipleXity Tie strength gt Media Complexity Group Norm use undimesional scale gt Media Complexity Media Comlexity gt Tie Strength 0 Communication privacy management theory Petronio a What are the five core principles of CPM 1 people believe they own and have the right to control their private information 2 People control their private information through the use of personal privacy rules 3 when others are told or are given access to a person s private information they become coowners of that information 4 coowners of private information need to negotiate mutually agreeable privacy rules about telling others 5 when coowners of private information don t effectively negotiate and follow mutually held privacy rules boundary turbulence is the likely result b What are two types of boundaries 1 collective Privacv Boundarv an intersection of personal boundaries of coowners of private infromation all of whom are responsible for the information 2 Mutual Privacv Boundarv a synchronized collective boundary that coowners share because they have negotiated privacy terms c What are different types of coownership 0 Shareholder fully committed to handling private information according to the original owner s privacy rules 0 Deliberate confident sought out private information 0 reluctant confidant coowner of private information who did not want it d What is boundary turbulence and how does it occur From where do our privacy rules come 0 Disruptions in the way that owners control and regulate the ow of private information to third parties 0 boundary turbulence occurs when coowner of private information don t effectively negotiate privacy rules Social judgment theory Sherif a What is egoinvolvement the importance of centrality of an issue to a person s life often demonstrated by memebership in a group with a known stance EX being member of recycle club b What are the three latitudes 0 Latitude of acceptance range of ideas that a person sees as a reasonable or worthy of consideration 0 latitude of reiection range of ideas that a person sees as unreasonable or objectable 0 latitude of noncommitment range of ideas that neither a person sees as acceptable or objectable undecided no opinion LedbetterCommunication Theory Exam 2 Review Sheet c How do they change based on egoinvolvement 0 Once judged a new message to be within latitude of acceptance or latitude of non commitment we will adjust attitude to accommodate the new input 0 contrast error a perceptual error whereby people judge messages that fall within their latitude or rejection as farther from their anchor than they really are 0 assimilation errors a perceptual error whereby people judge messages that fall within their latitude of acceptance as less discrepant from their anchor than they really are d What messages are most persuasive according to the theory 0 Latitude of acceptance or noncommitment most discrepant 0 Muzafer Sherif A psychologist associated with the University of Oklahoma who developed social judgment theory 0 Social judgment involvement Perception and evaluation of an idea by comparing it with current attitudes 0 Boomerang e ect Attitude change in the opposite direction of what the message advocated listeners driven away from rather than drawn to an idea 0 Reference groups Associations that members use to define their identities these groups can bring about the most dramatic widespread and enduring changes in attitude 0 Pluralistic ignorance The mistaken idea that everyone else is doing or thinking something that they are not Elaboration likelihood model Petty amp Cacioppo a What is the difference between the central and peripheral routes 0 Central route message elaboration the path of cognitive processing that involves a scrutiny of message content 39 Deripheral route mental shortcut process that accepts or rejects a message based on irrelevant cues as opposed to actively thinking about the issue b When are we motivated to process messages by each route 0 Motivated when we are highly egoinvolved c How is argument strength related to persuasion outcomes 0 Strong arguments claims that generate favorable thoughts when examined 0 Need for COgnition desire for cognitive clarity enjoyment of thinking through ideas even when they aren t personally relevant 0 Biased Elaboration top down thinking in which predetermined conclusions color the supporting idea 0 Objective Elaboration bottom up thinking in which facts are scrutinized without bias Cognitive dissonance theory Festinger 0 dissonance the distressing mental state caused by inconsistency between a person s two beliefs or a belief and an action a What are three mental mechanisms people use to reduce dissonance 0 Selective eXDosure tendency to avoid information that would create cognitive dissonance because it is incompatible with their current beliefs LedbetterCommunication Theory Exam 2 Review Sheet 0 post decision dissonance strong doubts experienced after making an important decision close call decision that is difficult to reverse 0 minimal justification the best way to stimulate attitude change in others is to offer just enough incentive to elicit counterattidudinal behavior I attitude gt behavior but minimal justification behavior gt attitude 0 Self perception theory c What is the theory s chief weakness according to Griffin 0 Dissonance thermometer reliable gauge of the dissonance a person feels as a result of inconsistency 0 self perception theory the claim that we determine our attitudes the same way outside observers do The Rhetoric Aristotle logos logical proof comes from the line of argument in a speech enthymeme incomplete version of formal deductive syllogism that is created by leaving out a premise already accepted by the audience or obvious to conclude general gt specific uses deductive reasoning 0 example Spinach is full of calcium fiber and folic acid 0 enthymeme you should eat healthy food Spinach is a healthy food 0 Conclusion You should eat spinach pathos Emotional appeal m perceived credibility which comes from the speakers intelligence character and goodwill revealed through the message What are the five canons of rhetoric 0 Invention speakers hunt for arguments that will be effective in a particular speech 0 Arrangement intro should capture attention establish credibility state purpose of speech 0 Style focuses on metaphor aids for comprehension or aesthetic appreciation help an audience visualize 0 Delivery audience reject delivery that seems planned or staged 0 Memory draw on collection of ideas or phrases stored in mind 0 Plato An ancient Greek philosopher who favored a philosophic mode of discourse known as dialectic over the public rhetoric of his day 0 Aristotle A student of Plato ancient Greek teacher and scholar whose Rhetoric represents the first systematic study of public speaking Sophists Early Greek speakers and teachers of public speaking whose training was practically useful yet underdeveloped theoretically Rhetoric Discovering all possible means of persuasion Inartistic Proofs External evidence that the speaker doesn t create Artistic Proofs internal proofs that contain logical ethical or emotional appeals LedbetterCommunication Theory Exam 2 Review Sheet Enthymeme An incomplete version of a formal deductive syllogism that is created by leaving out a premise that is already accepted by the audience or by leaving an obvious conclusion unstated Lloyd Bitzer A retired rhetorician from the University of Wisconsin who argued that the audience helps construct an enthymematic proof by supplying the missing premise Canons of Rhetoric The principal divisions of the art of persuasion established by ancient rhetoricians invention arrangement style delivery and memory Invention The speaker s hunt for arguments that will be effective in a particular speech Golden Mean The virtue of moderation the virtuous person develops habits that avoid extremes Dramatism Burke a what is the role of guilt 0 Term that covers every form of tension anxiety embarrassment shame and other noxious feelings intrinsic to the human condition getting rid of guilt is the ultimate motive for public rhetoric b What is identification and how is it related to persuasion 0 Common ground between speaker and audience overlap of physical characteristics talents occupation friend experiences beliefs attitudes the more overlap between substance of speaker and substance of listener the greater the identification c dramatistic pentad a tool critics can use to discern the motives of a speaker or writer by labeling 5 key elements of the human drama 0 Act 0 Scene 0 Agent 0 Agency 0 Purpose m relative importance of any two terms of the pentas as determined by their relationship god terms the word a speaker uses to which all other positive words are subservient devil terms sums up all that a speaker regards as wrong evil or bad Derspective bv incongruitv calling attention to truth by linking two dissonant or discrepant terms mortification confession of guilt and request for forgiveness victimage process of naming an external enemy as the source for all personal or public ills Scapegoating putting the blame on someone else and making youself look like the victim Act The dramatistic term for what was done Texts that emphasize act suggest realism LedbetterCommunication Theory Exam 2 Review Sheet SceneThe dramatistic term for the context for the act Texts that emphasize scene downplay free will and re ect an attitude of situational determinism Agent The dramatistic term for the person or kind of person who performs the act Texts that emphasize agent feature idealism Agency The dramatistic term for the means the agent used to do the deed Texts that emphasize agency demonstrate pragmatism PurposeThe dramatistic term for the stated or implied goal of an act Texts that emphasize purpose suggest the concerns of mysticism As you prepare for the exam I strongly suggest checking out the resources available on wwwafirstlookcom You ll find outlines of each chapter lists of key terms application logs video interviews with some theorists and perhaps most helpfully 20 selfhelp quiz questions per chapter Please let me know if you have any questions
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