Chapter 5: Learning
Chapter 5: Learning BIOL 515
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erica Leonard on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 515 at Kansas State University taught by Eva A Horne in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Behavioral Ecology in Biology at Kansas State University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Chapter 5 Learning Learning behavior modified by 1 Habituation learn stimulus is harmless amp stop responding to it a Habituate to shadows passing overhead i Habituation lasts longer in habitat where shadows are normal movement of grasses ii Shorter in habitats with open areas where shadows are likely to be predators 2 Associative learning conditioning association made between response amp stimulus not previously recognized a Classical conditioning Ivan Pavlov dog salivates i US something an animal has an innate response to ii CS something that doesn t initially elicit a response must be a formed link that happens majority of the time iii Extinction loss of association iv Advantage to conditioning 9 more prepared appear better increase reproductive rates b Operant conditioning BF Skinner rat shocked i Randomly occurring behavior reinforced ii Behavior increases with frequency iii Reinforcer increases probability that behavior will be repeated iv Positive reinforcement rat pushes lever amp is immediately reinforced v Negative reinforcement rat gets shocked until lever is pressed vi Shaping animal learns novel or complex behavior in series of steps vii Extinction loss of response due to removal of reinforcer viii Reinforcement schedule timing of reinforcer with response 1 Continuous each occurrence reinforced 2 Fixed ratio reinforcer presented after a certain number of responses 3 Variable ratio reinforcer presented after a random number of responses they don t know when reward is coming so behavior is repeated and is not at risk of extinction 4 lntervals fixed amp variable based on time c Cant train all animals to do any behavior rats can be conditioned to run in response to shock but can t be conditioned to stand on hind legs in response to shock 9 innate response to run from danger doesn t make sense to them to stand up on hind legs instead of running away d Foraging honey bees learn odors better than color 9 learn odor when sitting on flower once learned they can distinguish the scent out of 700 flower scents 3 Cognition thinking problem solving other higher level learning a Latent learning simplest learning something not immediately reinforced i Find your way home if familiar with area vs never been there before b Insight learning sudden realization how to solve a problem i Crows using bent wire to get food from inside a tube instead of straight wire c Rule and concept learning past experience allows animals to determine quotrulequot involved amp solve similar new problems i Alex the grey parrot can distinguish shapes and colors of blocks d Detouring finding alternate route to reward i Can choose direction by stepping back to scan target don t need to see whole pathway e Fast mapping in language acquisition i Fast mapping hypothesis of word meaning after single exposure ii Complex appearing language acquisition can be mediated by simpler cognitive building blocks 9 labeled objects exclusion amp memory Rico the border collie f Past memory needed by scrub jays for finding stored foods i Learned worms degrade after 124 hours 9 ate worms after 4hrs ate peanuts after 124hrs because they knew worms were bad ii Did not learn worms went bad after 124 hours 9 ate worms both times Evolution of learning 0 Genetic trait ability to learn 0 Learning occurs with high predictability within lifetime and low predictability between generations 0 Taxi drivers have better spatial memory 9 hippocampus better 9 need ability to navigate through town Learning amp fitness Learning amp sleep 0 Sleep controls heat regulation and appetite 0 Sleep increases memory and learning of new experiences 0 REM stage of sleep cycle dreaming stage 3 and 4 of cycle delta waves most brain cells are firing at same time 0 Learning new motor skills activates same parts of brain that are active during REM sleep 0 Same neurons firing in hippocampus during sleep fire when learning a maze 0 Left brain controls right side of body language logicalsequential problem solving 0 Right side of brain controls left side of body visualart intuitiverandom o Whales don t sleep with both sides of the brain at once 9 swim while sleeping for protection from predation I Color distrimination right eye closed 9 left brain asleep to categorize colors Position discrimination left eye closed 9 right brain asleep to analyze spatial information
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