Exam 1 Study guide
Exam 1 Study guide 101.0
Popular in Western Civilization I
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by josiepelham on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 101.0 at University of Alabama at Birmingham taught by Staci S Glover (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization I in History at University of Alabama at Birmingham.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Hammurabi Western Civ Exam 1 0 From Babylon 0 First written law 0 First public law code in civilization No more crime of ignorance o Lex talionis law of retribution eye for an eye Mesopotamia 0 Home of the first civilization 4000 1000 BCE o Emergence of cities City of Sumer Kings slaves invention of writing keep up with taxes and offerings Citystate 5 10000 people independent own government military religious practices Ur is an example King of city state called lugal ruled with a council wages war made tax laws Polytheistic multiple gods Myths and religion Cunnus wedge shape Cunneiform Kings nobles scribes very important people because they wrote the law and religious texts The Epic of Gilgamesh oldest piece of western literature Enkidu divinely created rival tale of the vulnerability of humans Ziggurats pyramids Most famous Tower of Babyl o Metals and Empire Making Egypt Sargon and the Akkadian Empire first to unite Mesopotamia Fall of the Akkadians 2200 BCE Ur Rulers and Political instability 21122004 BCE o Sargon spreading Mesopotamian culture 0 All empires fall 0 Akkadians fall after being attacked from the outside also fell from within common among all fall of empires 0 Amorites helped bring around demise of Akkad o Phoenicians develop alphabet o The first unified country 3050 10003CE o Menes unites upper and lower Egypt o Pyramids and afterlife pyramids to hold important people for the afterlife o Polytheistic o Hierarchy and order in Egyptian Society Dynasties ruling houses Monarchs divinities in human form Pharaohs Giza most famous pyramid Pharaoh 9 Vizier 9 priest 9 working class 9 slaves Priests communicate with gods Gender equality in status Own form of writing hieroglyphics pictures Papyrus first form of paper 0 The Middle Kingdom Kings restored period of disorder Territory expanded Diplomacy negotiation attempt to avoid war 1664 Hyksos invaded Egypt after being pushed out of territory by Hittites Hyskos bring technology to Egypt that they got from Hyksos War becomes more dangerous because of iron chariots iron smelting o Hatshepsut 1st capable female ruler of western civilization 1st female pharaoh Coruler with her son Kept empire s boundaries secure and built trade network Wife sister pharaoh incest was used to keep pure bloodline Skilled diplomat Her name was removed from everything because she became involved with a commoner this would jeopardize the pure bloodline and there was the possibility that she would be influenced by a commoner o Other rulers Thutmuse II o Stepson of Hatshepsut o Expanded Egypt s territory to its largest extent Amenhotep IV 0 1st monotheistic leader of Egypt 0 Believed in the sun god Aton Ramses Ramses the Great 0 1279121SBCE 0 Great builder o Hittites o Pharaoh at the time of The Exodus 0 Egyptian workers built the pyramids not Israel slaves Conquer northern Syria pushed Hyksos out Asia minor Syria Turkey Northern Mesopotamia ron Smelting weapons Introduced the horse to war Transmitted Mesopotamian culture throughout east Taken over by people of the sea Fell to Assyrians 0 Egyptian Gods Ra sun god most important Thoth god of knowledge and writing Ma at goddess of truth justice and harmony Anubis embalming of the dead Horus god of the sky Amun most powerful Osiris Atum o The Persian Empire 0 Cyrus the Great Defeated kings Conquered Chaldeans Unable to conquer Egypt Son Cambyses conquers Egypt Freed the Jews Persian rule marked by customs and religion Mithraism very similar to Jesus in the Bible Mithras born on December 25th returned to heaven etc o Zorostrianism chief religion of Persians Zoroaster philosopher from Zerio God called him to purify religion Magi priests studied astrology Christianity stamped out Mithraism Zoroastrianism excluded women from society so it didn t take off as a major religion 0 Darius Attacks Athens but loses Victory at Marathon 490 BCE Athens never informs Darius they disagree with his terms I 20000 Athenians defeat 100000 Persians I Silver discovered in 499 BC I Inspire Themistocles to embark on arms building journey o Satra pies O I Divided into 20 administrative provinces I Each province governed by satraps I Satraps had special supervisors that would travel through the provinces I Developed a communication system with highways I Way stations for royal messengers I Absolute power in kings I Standing army and superior cavalry I Had quotsecret service I Each satrapy had own military leader Fall of Persian Empire I Defeated by Alexander the Great from Macedonia during 3305 BCE I Established on of the 1st great world empires I Reached India and then ran out of supplies 0 The Phoenicians 0000000 0 Branch of Canaanites Modern day Lebanon Under rule of Egypt for a long time Navigated Africa Established colonies Carthage was most important Import metals food and slaves can t produce goods of their own City dwellers Culture carriers result of trade networks I Transmission of a true alphabet with 22 consonants Incorporated to Persians in 538 BC 0 Roots of Israel s history 0000 Nomadic tribes arrive in Palestine in 1900 BCE God told Abraham to build a great nation Israelites have a covenant promise with God that they are His chosen people Abraham settled in Canaan Sacrifice of Abraham I Abraham got tired of waiting for a son had child with a woman named Hagar Ishmael Arabs I Sarah Abraham s wife has son named Isaac Israelites Jacob Israel for quotGod ruled 12 tribes Some tribes settled in Egypt and became slaves 0 Moses and the Exodus Moses receives message from God 10 commandments on Mt Sinai Searched for promised land for 40 years 10 Plagues Moses parted Red Sea promised land Israelites make covenant with God 0 Kings of Israel Joshua 1230 BC invaded Canaan Saul 1020 BC 1st king then David then Solomon David captured Jerusalem and made it the capital Solomon built temple ofJerusalem Arc of the Covenant which held the Box of Torah 1st 5 books of old testament gave laws on life cleanliness food prep criminal matters Temple destroyed during Babylonian invasion rebuilt in 6th century BC destroyed again in 70 CE Israelites sent to exile in Babylon 0 3 main religions derived from Israel Islam Judaism Christianity 0 Nebuchadnezzar II The Babylonians worshipped Marduk Nebuchadnezzar the King of Babylon defeated Assyria and Egypt in 605 BCE During his 43year reign Nebuchadnezzar II expanded the kingdom of Babylonia by conquering much of southwestern Asia He also captured Jerusalem taking many of the captive Jews to Babylon He had the Temple destroyed and the Ark of the Covenant disappeared 586 Most of the Jews were forced into exile and Jerusalem became a wasteland 0 Geography and climate of Mesopotamia o The Greek homeland lay in and around the Aegean Sea a part of the Mediterranean dotted with numerous islands with the southern Balkan Peninsula on the west and the coast of Anatolia Ionia on the east The mountainous geography of the region isolated communities and contributed to 0 Athens OOOOO hostile relations between the citystates Many were small but those with much farmland and access to trade grew larger Cleisthenes Father of Athenian democracy Where the US got its idea of democracy Athenian naval power dominates They practiced direct democracy Freeborn male citizens could serve in government Elected archons magistrates 9 that ran judicial system but there were political rights to many Strong middle class Judiciary justice is swift citizens serve one year ofjury duty cases are brought before the whole jury case is done in 1 day time metered out by a water clock Ecclesia Assembly open to all citizens 6000 people any member can propose legislation meets 40 times a year votes on decrees and treaties practice ostracism o Peloponnesian War 000000 0 O Athenian Imperialism Athens pushes boarders and Sparta pushes back Sparta invades Atika Plague in Athens in 430 BC weakens empire Pericles dies Athens goes down Sparta allies with Persians and defeats Athens loses navy foreign possessions forced to alliance with Sparta Sparta sets up 1 year dictatorship 371 Thebes defeats Spartans ends Spartan domination o Sophists O 0000 O quotwise men Taught rhetoric persuasive speech Charged for their teaching complete appeal to ambition Truth is relative quotanything goes Agnostic Father of philosophy Thales o Socrates O O 0 Stone mason rejects sophism justice and ethics disdains materials Sh rewish wife Loyal service in war 0 quotMother delivered men into the world and Socrates delivers men s minds into the world Known as the wisest man in Athens Convicted of corrupting the youth because he taught them to think for themselves 0 Choice between death and exile chose death by poison 0 Student of Socrates 0 Born aristocrat o Founded the academy I 1st university I Purpose deep thinking Wrote dialogues of Socrates quotGood people do not need laws to tell them to act responsibly while bad people will find a way around the laws 0 The Republic I Plato s ideal society I Rule by philosophers I Not democracy I Theory of Metals 0 Gold Philosopher kings and queens 0 Silver warriors 0 Bronze everyone else I Absolute values goodness equality beauty love 0 Allegory of the cave Plato 5 ave 39 I Eh I I39 met quotquotquotquot 39quotquotquot391 fi h I I u I t i tl a r39 r 39 I I39 I l i I 39 y H Li I 3939w ll 5lI 39 39 HI1lt 339s 39 amp Effl39t tig I II a ma rm i IIIIII IIII39lhlllllH I ll 1IIIIELII II39IIIIII ill l 39i quotI39 rath i Fil 39fiilj III lI ll1I39ut iil39ljll i il39ri i l3 quotv T iii39439 atwljs39whtre Pugmt 39 WE I 39 I quot 39 39 5 WmEn pEI l l39l39l 39I I I Jll I J II lit I I 39 m ig39u 539 Prlsnners E35119 h 1 39 eII J 39 39 Tris 39 3971quot Iquot 39 quot 39 I 39 I t t I quot39 L39 I 39 II39 F 255EEnlli ht 5unllnht ilquotiquot l 1 I I 39r I LII It L LI I 39 I I E 39r 1 I I I I I I I I I I II 39I i l I 39I I 11quot LII51 I rquot I IIIIll I t 39l l I gp Li quotr1j39quot39l39i39 1 o Aristotle 0 Man is goal seeking 0 Son of a physician 0 From Macedonia OOOOOO Attended the Academy Plato s foremost student Left the Academy when Plato died Founded Ly Taught Alexander the Great Scientific Method observation confirms assumptions I Did not employ experimentation Plebians and Patricians 0 Early 5th century BC 0 Patricians I Land at Aristocracy I Important family names 0 Plebians I Don t really have heritage some people have made their own wealth I Tensions get strained and Plebians threaten to secede from Rome I To stop this patricians granted Plebains the right to elect officials known astnbunes I Originally 2 tribunes are allowed but increases to 10 as the republic grows I Tribunes have power in politics I Patricians still dominate I 367 BC Plebians force requirement that 1 consul had to be a plebian 12 Tables 0 Rome s first written law made law public and insures Plebian rights 0 Plebians could intermarry with Patricians I Marrying for love is a new concept 0 Plebians could hold any office 0 O 3rel century Plebians dominated the assemblies Plebians have the right to become priests Republic of Rome was broadening the base of political participation 000 O O Praetors judges in civil cases Censors census takers every 5 years Assessment of taxes Quaestors treasurers and tax collectors Centurial Assembly chief legislative body appointed consuls passed legislation tried all capital offenses Wealthy could vote first thereby directing legislation Conquered peoples were enslaved and that lead to the Roman Empire Dictators 0 Times of military crisis constitution allowed for the appointment of a dictator who wielded absolute power for a term of 6 months 0 Cincinnatus dictator of Rome twice I Accountable for the greater good Scipio Africanis Roman strategist that helped in Punic Wars Latifunda enormous plantation that was controlled by wealthy people after land was conquered Gracchi Brothers 0 Tiberius and Gaius Gracchi worked to limit the amount of conquered land an individual could hold Gave free grain to the poor welfare They met strong resistance from the wealthy and ruling classes and were both assassinated The two most important generals of the Roman Civil War were Gaius Marius and Lucius Cornelius Sulla o Marius sided with social reformers who favored redistribution of land 0 Sulla sided with the conservative and aristocratic classes Paterfamilias the role of the father strong leader of the home Julius Cesar murdered on March 15 44 BC 0 Caesar was a nephew of Marius and 0 he favored Marius liberal policies and social reform o In the 505 BC Caesar led an army that conquered Gaul and made him very popular 0 n 49 Caesar marched his army to Rome and by early 46 he had named himself dictator 44 dictator for life held the title of quotImperatorquot victorious general 0 instead of the constitutional six month term Caesar claimed to be dictator for life 0 Caesar centralized military and political functions and brought them under his control 0 He confiscated property from conservatives and distributed it among veterans of his army and other supporters He launched large scale building projects to provide employment for the poor He extended Roman citizenship to people in the imperial provinces 365 1A day Calendar Debt relief More civil crisis emerged after his death OOOOOO
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