Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide UAPP110
Popular in Changing the World and Public Policy
Popular in Public Health
This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Audrey West on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to UAPP110 at University of Delaware taught by Erin Knight in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Changing the World and Public Policy in Public Health at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Exam 1 Review What is Public Policy What is a policy A purposeful course of action that an individual or group consistently follows in dealing with a problem 0 Personal policies Groupscommunity policies roommates teams clubs etc Evaluation Criteria ways to judge the merit of the policy or proposed poHcy Effectiveness 0 Will it work How likely is it to achieve our goalpurpose o Ef ciency 0 How effective will it be bene ts RELATIVE or what it takes to implement costs An efficient policy is one that works well at low cost 0 Equity o Is it fair Feasibility possible to do easily or conveniently o Technicallyadministratively o Politically Need to know what problem you are trying to solve and what are the major causes 0 Lots of different ways to solve the same problem 0 Lots of different opinions regarding which is the best way 0 No quotrightquot way to decide Rarely possible to meet all needsall criteria need to balance andor prioritize some criteria over others Public Problems What is public policy 0 What government chooses to do or not to do about public groblems A PUBLIC policy is a purposeful course of action that a COMMUNITYSOCIETY consistently follows in dealing with a PUBLIC problem 0 Recall A POLICY is a purposeful course of action that an individual or group consistently follows in dealing with a problem watch HBO newsroom on slide 6 for 914 notes Is America the greatest country in the world Public problems Conditions the public widely perceives as unacceptable and requiring intervention quotFirst step in solving any problem is recognizing deciding there is onequot Wi McAvoy The Newsroom Deciding what is acceptable 0 Often depends on magnitudeevidence o Depends on who is affected 0 Depends on context 0 Depends on values often con icting and on public opinion Facts Myths Values and Opinions Public opinion our own opinions are based on facts myths and values FACT is veri able statement of what is true MYTH is something we think is a fact but isn t VALUES are opinions about how things SHOULD be but cannot be proven right or wrong Facts and Values are BOTH Important Both facts and values have a role in public policy Facts tell us what is Values tell us what SHOULD be or what we SHOULD do with those facts While both are important it is critical to distinguish between facts and myths we think are facts and values to make informed decisions Values Most policy debated stem from value con icts eg libertyfreedom vs safetysecurity in criminal justice Values are dynamic they can change Values are subject to interpretation can mean different things to different people Sometimes values are the endgoal of public policy eg equity freedom prosperity etc Because values play such an important role in PP it is important to know your own values Considering Values 0 Freedom Tolerance Equality Cooperation Secur y Justice Selfreliance Community 0 Stability Democracy 0 Others one of my top three Facts tell us what is values tell us what we do with those facts 0 Public opinion our own opinions are based on facts myths amp values all 3 play a role in PP Need to identify and dispel myths Need to distinguish between facts and values to have productive debates and make informed decisions 0 Policy decisions often require reconciling con icting values or making tradeoffs among different values eg give up a little of one to gain more of another Why Study Public Policy Why study public policy 1 Our generation a Our generation is being saddled with a lot of problems that we are going to have to address i Country debt ii Infant mortality falling in rank we are losing ground among industrialized countries with respect to important health indicators iii Global warming iv College tuition 2 Because of technological advancement the world is changing at a rapid pace a Technology boom b Internet users number of cell phones 3 Understanding public policy is essential in order to become an informed citizen a We want people to be involved and be able to make thoughtful insights i Who to vote for 4 Well crafted policies can solve big problems but wellintentional policies can create big problems a GI Bill Why does this matter 0 Technology is transforming the ways in which societies operate and policy is made 0 New policy issues centered around the ways in which we use technology Reasons for studying policy 0 Increase knowledge of substance and process 0 Improve citizens ability to participate and make choices 0 More informed arguments and analyses 0 Improve citizens ability to in uence policy decisions GI Bill Servicemen s Readjustment Act of 1944 0 Provided education funding home loans and other bene ts for WWII Vets Led to economic stability and prosperity in the 19505 Continues to provide a means to an education for thousands of veterans and active duty military personnel and family each year How to study public policy 1 Think critically a Gather more information from multiple sources 2 Finding and using credible sources of information Avoid poor reasoning and weak arguments Grimes 2014 0 Cause and effect fallacies Personal biases con rmatory information Anecdotes are evidence False balance Reduction fallacy Be careful of putting to much faith in quotPublic Opinionquot 0 The way individualspublic reacts to any given problem or policy proposal depends on how it is presented to them Sources of policy information People 0 Peers friends family Professionalsexperts Others Newspapers and other popular media 0 Entertainment Internet 0 Google 0 Wikipedia 0 Think tank 0 Government websites Library 0 Books Journalsdatabases 0 JSTOR Medline CQ Researcher Other 000 Evaluating the Quality of Information How can you tell a credible source 0 Who produced the information 0 Most credible source 0 What is the bias of your source Persuasive How objective is the information more than one side presented Transparency of methods author s name sources other information shared 0 Date 0 Other DATA Sources 0 Secondary sources 0 Census 0 Government agency sites Health data Crime data Traffic data 0 Think tanks studies and reports 0 Peerreviewed literature 0 Primary sources 0 New research collected to study the issue 0 Surveys observations interviews Policy Models Basic Concepts in Policy Making 0 Government Institutions and political processes through which public policy choices are made 0 Politics Process through which con icts are resolved exercise of power in uence of various stakeholders who gets what where and how Tends to be more value separating facts from myths 0 Policy analysis Breaking down something into its components to understand it better Why make public policy When does the government take action 0 When the public decides that PRIVATE action isn t workingenough 0 To promote the general welfare Politics The Good Bad amp The Ugly The exercise of power in society or in policy decisions 0 The process trough which con icts get resolved 0 How problems are de ned 0 How policy solutions are formulated and adopted 0 Including the role of elected officials interest groups and political parties Politics can also be thought of as how con icts are expressed and resolved in favor of one set of interests or values over another Ultimately deciding quotWho gets what when and howquot Red state predominantly Republican Blue state majority of population is registered as Democrat Republican est 1854 Conservative ideology Grand Old Party GOP 0 Individual Rights triumph The Deep South 0 Elephant 0 Red Democrat est 1824 0 Liberal ideology Community amp social responsibility to humanity Northeast 0 Donkey 0 Blue Policy ModelsTheories Two models of society for making policy decisions related to quotwho gets what when and howquot 0 Market model 0 Polls model Watch slide 8 quotThe West Wing on Ideologyquot 921 notes The Market Model 0 Actors 0 Rational selfinterested individual Marketplace 0 Competitive exchange of nite resources 0 quotPerfect informationquot Expectationsoutcomes 0 Efficient o Maximize utility 0 Promote innovation What is the role of government in the market 0 Create and protect basic rights 0 Place limits on itself and stay away from managing the market s quotInvisible Handquot 0 Limited government When does government intervene When there is a quotMarket Failurequot Monopoly 0 Information failureasymmetry Externalities Public goods Monopoly 0 Having monopolies violates the assumption of a competitive marketplace Information FailureAsymmetry 0 Information failuresasymmetries prevent the rational actor from acting rationally Public goods 0 Because of their very nature the market for public goods does not exist in the traditional sense 0 Good for which there isn t a private market Limited Government 0 Besides ensuring basic rights such as the right to property protection and political rights we ve got a number of governmental interventions in markets 0 Breaking up monopolies o Requiring informational disclosure 0 Regulating certain behaviorsactions 0 Investing in and providingprotecting public goods Policy Decisions quotWho gets what when and howquot How would a proponent of quotlimited governmentquot respond quotLET THE MARKET DECIDEquot Deborah Stone The Polls Model Unit of Analysis 0 Communities instead of individuals Nature of Social Analysis Cooperative in addition to competitive Motivation 0 Altruism in addition to selfinterest o Altruism the belief in or practice of disinterested and sel ess concern for the wellbeing of others Information Interpreted ambiguous contested and incomplete instead of accurate fuy available incontrovertible and complete 0 Ambiguous open to more than one interpretation having more than one meaning Nature of Resources 0 Special resources expand with use in addition to nite resources that diminish with use Public Interest 0 Shared belief in what is good for the community instead of the sum of all individual interests Chief Con ict Selfinterest versus public interest instead of selfinterest versus selfinterest Reasons for Government Intervention aka policy making 0 Political public opinion pressure 0 Economic market failures 0 Moral or ethical it s the quotrightquot thing to do Contexts of public policy factors that affect policymaking Social 0 Economic Political Governing Cultural context Context the way we elect how policies are made things that are happening at that time September 23 2015 Notes Guest Speaker The Roosevelt Institute The Plan for Today Values gt Outcomes gt Policy Outcome what you want to see happen by 2040 Values Cooperation Educann Animal Rights Racial Equality Healthcare Sustainability Gender Equality FormalGovernment Institutions amp Policy Actors Main Actors in the Policy Process 0 Formal actors statutory or constitutional responsibilities aka governmentsrepresentative o Informal actors participation with no explicit legal authority 0 Political parties 0 Media 0 Citizens community groups NGOs interest groups movements 0 Corporations and lobbyists 0 Think tanks How does out form of government impact policymaking By design Checks and Balances Goal of our Constitution set up a fair and equitable process of governing No government branch has too much power 0 Shared power between levels of government As a result we have a complex and timeconsuming policymaking process Policy Gridlock Can Occur Complex issues wicked problems CAN T SOLVE IT WITHOUT THERE BEING ANOTHER PROBLEM OR NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES NO PERFECT SOLUTION Sharp differences in ways to approach them 0 Shared power Competing values and priorities Incremental Policymaking Method of working by adding to a project using many small incremental changes instead of a few extensively planned large jumps 0 Government action that falls between gridlock and innovation 0 Health Care Mini Reforms o SCHIP 1997 o MMA 2003 0 Gun control 0 Other examples Checks and Balances in US Government Structure 0 Separation of power 3 branches 0 Power is shared by three branches of government at all levels fed state amp local o LEGISLATIVE MAKING Senate house committees 0 EXECUTIVE ENFORCING President executive office bureaucracy cabinet level executive agencies regulatory commissions o JUDICIAL INTERPRETING Supreme court appellate courts district courts 0 Constitution gt Legislative Senate House of Reps Executive President Vice President Judicial Supreme Court Federalism Federalism responsibility between federal government and lower governments states want the states to have abilities to govern Legislative Branch Committees 0 Primarily LAWMAKING Leadership in committee is very important Committee makes many decisions 0 200 committees and subcommittees o Initiate and research policy proposals 0 Standing committees 20 Senate health education labor and pensions committee hose energy and Commerce Committee Most of the work on Congress happens in committees o Committees are very important in Congress Congressional Staff 0 22000 staff members in the legislature 0 Personal staff 0 Committee staff 0 Leadership staff 0 Support agency staff 0 Congressional Staff Agencies Executive Branch 0 All aspects of policymaking o Primarily ENFORCING policy 0 Executive agencies 0 Cabinet level and all departments Politicalappointments Example Sect of Health DHHS Transportation DOT etc 0 Independent executive agencies 0 Independent regulatory commission 0 Armed forces Judicial branch cannot propose laws but can react to things that come to them have a nal say 0 Interpret laws regulations administrative rules etc 0 Court decisions become precedent for how policy gets enforced and future policymaking 0 Final say more reactive than proactive Federalism Shared power federal state local Envisioned as clear separation like a layer of cake Ended up with a marble cake instead of perfect layer cake Dual Federalism Shared state and federal policymaking control 0 Dual Federalism clear separation of responsibility 18th 19th century 0 States education and transportation 0 Federal national defense and trade Reality of Federalism in the 20th century and in the future Lines of authority and responsibility between states and federal government has blurred Weed example Federalism De nitions BLOCK AND CATEGORIAL GRANTS federal funding to states 0 Block grants substantial discretion left to states example community development block grants 0 Categorical grants more directive in terms of how funding is used example food stamps Medicare 0 UNFUNDED MANDATES federal requirement without for implementation Federalism going forward Decentralization amp Devolution Transfer of powerresponsibility to lower levels of government 0 Pros 0 Innovation quotlaboratories of democracyquot 0 Closer to the people more democratic 0 Different problems different solutions different context 0 Greater capacity for big changes Cons 0 Issues of equity THM 0 Complexity and confusion 0 Variable capacity 0 Issues that span state boundariesregions Our form of government aims to ensure good policy but slows and complicates the process Often hard to determine which level of government has responsibility or should have the responsibility to solve a problem KEY DEFINITIONS 0 Gridlock o Incremental policymaking o Federalism dualcooperative o Decentralization process of redistributing or dispersing functions powers people or things away from a central location or authority 0 Devolution the transfer or delegation of power to a lower level especially by central government to local or regional administration 0 Policy capacity reoccurring topics at meetings of the executive councils remain relevant and useful to government decision makers The Policy Process and Policymaker39s Toolbox Policy process cycle Agendasetting de ne the problem what is the problem that you re trying to address get people to think about the problem Formulate alternatives Legitimate alternatives Implement policy Evaluate policy Policy change AGNDA SE39ITING How to de ne the problem What is the current problem Why is it a problem Who is involvedaffected What is the scale of the problem What is causing it Why does it persist How did it develop o Etc Get people to think about the problem 0 quotOn the AGENDAquot active discussions about a problem and potential solutions 0 What issues are currently quoton the agendaquot 0 How to move something higher on the agenda 0 Best chances to get on the agenda 0 High salience most importantlow con ict Consider Different perspectives 0 Does everyone agree that it s a problem o Is the problem big enough to do something about 0 What s the cause 0 Whose responsibility is it 0 Problem de nition is always biased 0 Interest groups help frame problems 0 Media and public opinion help frame problems 0 Analysts help frame problems Watch A Place at the Table on slide 8 of 930 notes Agenda setting de ne the problem gt Formulate alternatives 0 What actions do we recommend to deal with the problem 0 Createidentify goals 0 Conduct analysis eg costbene t analysis 0 Formal and informal actors promote desired alternatives 0 Debate ensues over alternative policy choices gt Legitimate Alternatives 0 Give legal force to decisions 0 Bill becomes laws 0 Court makes a decision 0 Agency issues rulesregulations Often requires more than a vote 0 Political feasibility 0 Social acceptability Legal force may not be enough for effectiveness gt Implement Policy 0 Where actual intervention happens 0 Activities that put programs into effect 0 Laws carried out 0 Money spent 0 Services provided 0 Regulations formulated Done mostly by Executive branch through regulations 0 Funded by USDA o Administered through state DOE in partnership with local school authorities 0 Issues to resolve 0 Eligibility beyond federal program Famiy contributions 0 Charter schools Private schools Evaluate poicy gt policy change 0 Evaluation assessment of whether the policy is working well 0 Did it achieve its goals 0 Was it equitable o How much did it cost relative to bene ts 0 Were there unanticipated consequences Often disregard or contentious o Difficult to identify the goals of a program and whether they were achieved 0 lnvoves political judgment about worth 0 ldeally feed information back into the cycle to improve poicy Policy Typology The general ways policies address a problem 0 DISTRIBUTIVE policy 0 Individualized grants and programs paid by general income tax revenue 0 Example highways and bridges o REDISTRIBUTIVE policy 0 One group gains another pays 0 Example affirmative action unemployment SNAP o REGULATORY policy 0 Government restriction of behavior 0 Example workplace safety rules indoor air quality standards The Policy Process Agenda setting Policy formulation Policy legitimation Policy implementation Policy evaluation Policy change then BACK TO STEP 1 P P FP NE Citizens and Change Informal Actors and Institutions 0 Citizens Community and interest groups 0 POWER of interest group VARIES Knowledge money information Group size Intensity direct economic interest corporate exec ideological commitment Social MOVEMENTS broad based combinations of groups and citizens Often PROVIDE A COMPETING VIEW to status quo policy and politics ie PLURALISM Challenges to PublicIndividual participation Citizen Actions 0 Vote 0 Attend public meetings 0 Speak at hearings Call elected officials 0 Write a letter to the editor 0 Individual citizens can be ORGANIZED 0 Strength in numbers 0 Idea of power coming from numbers 0 Strategy involved Individual citizens can be MOBILIZED Community organizing A process by which a group of people work together to in uence the policies andor culture surrounding them Collectivegroup action 0 Common policy demands 0 Usually about POWER and in uence Why Organize To bring about change 0 Increase awareness 0 Increase in uence 0 Increase selfsufficiency 0 Increase social support 2 Theories of Power in Policymaking Elite theory 0 Group theorypluralism A theory is an abstract representation of the real world an attempt to explain how and why thinks work Elite theory EXPERTS OR ELITES dominate policy development 0 A small number of people Societal leaders bureaucrats and government leaders 0 Economic elites the 1 0 Public opinion is less in uential US policymaking is not so democratic Group theorypluralism Public policy dominated by quotinterest groupsquot 0 INTEREST GROUP collection of individuals or organizations that have a shared INTEREST and seek joint ends through political action 0 Group theorypluralism 0 Groups are continuously struggling o Counterbalancing competing interests 0 Power is widely shared amount different groupsinterests power is quotPLURALISTICquot rather than concentrated among elites Speaker 0 Power plant that is 7X what city uses now 0 Creating both temporary and permanent jobs 0 Community members have concerns 0 Met with governorJack Markell Integration of online amp of ine advocacy Technology makes it really hard to control resources a huge problem for policy issues 0 Elite want to control resources NRAPP movement data sets records of individual participants sign up in both online and of ine events records on le 0 2 people gt 4000 people by knocking on doors and online 0 10005 of people were being reached per day with Facebook
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