Midterm Notes/Study Guide
Popular in History of the Middle East, 600-1914
Popular in History
This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alex Kaatz on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HST 370 at a university taught by Dr. Serdar Poyraz in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 190 views.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Tuesday August 25 2015 The Sassanid Empire 224 651 Cyrus defeats the Babylonians and let the Jews return home quotmessiahquot means anointed a sign of being royal The only one referred to as messiah in the Bible is Cyrus Zoroastrianism In uenced Judaism with ideas of the afterlife heaven and hell Satan etc quotsacred historyquot how we imagine things were rather than how they actually were Clear idea of the beginning and end of history an idea that wasn t that common at the time for example BuddhismDaoismHinduism thought of life as a cycle Principle of evildarkness Ahriman principle of goodlight AhuraMazda absolute principles Problem of evil Theodicy how can a good and omnipotent god allow evil that question isn39t relevant in Zoroastrianism Christianity has an echo of this via Satan Good is always there but someone has to make it clear and you have to choose it heaven Zoroaster had a revelation from god who revealed himself to him there will be another in the future a messiah gure Adam and Eve chose knowledge Talmudic idea that this choice is all about consciousness lost primordial unity in favor of knowledgewisdom messiah will redeem at the end Read Mary Boyce and Robert Zachner for more information Zoroastrian Symbol Fa rava ha r Plumes represent duality of good and evil Three layers of wingstails choice of speech action and thought Go through the ring of transformationtruth Appear as pure spirit a new man with angelic wings Holds the ring of truth in his hand after going through it The Origins of Islam Prelslamic Arabia Most Arabs were settled in agricultural oases but Bedouin nomads had a role in the caravan trade linking Yemen to Mesopotamia and the Mediterranean 0 Mecca trade hub Quraysh tribe was the most powerful in Muhammed39s time Muhammed was in one of the Quraysh clans Banu Hashim oldestablished dominated trade Population of over 10000 Myrrh incense perfume Societal tension between rich and poor 0 YethripMedina o Merchants had most of the power Tribal affiliation identity and protection 0 Each tribe is a conglomeration of clans 0 Oral tradition of genealogy Tuesday August 25 2015 0 There39s no police forcecourts so your tribe provides protection if you get excommunicated you39re screwed 0 Generally have informal relationships with other tribes temporary agreements No central state or empire no central government no kingsprinces o Shayks ruled instead tribal leaders not permanenthereditary elder who is there because of a consensus among peers o Handled disputes between tribes regarding trade marriage 0 Intertribal warfare is limited to skirmishes mainly symbolic stealing a couple of camels or sheep limited casualties 0 Some tribes are more powerful than others 0 Agriculture is too dif cult practiced on a small scale didn39t produce enough surplus to support a strati ed society Both pure nomads and cyclical nomads who rotate between settlements First written mention of quotArabsquot from the Assyrians in the 8 c BCE Polytheism o Symbolsrepresentations of natural powers locations concepts intermediaries 0 Little sense of a cosmic moral order hierarchy o Allah means quotthe Godquot Muhammad s name was Abdullah quotservant of Allahquot o Allah exists but he39s highremote doesn39t interact with humans concept rather than a quotrealquot god 0 Earth gt Sphere of the gods gt Allah o AlUzza AlLat and Manat were the primary goddesses sometimes referred to as the daughters of Allah o Kaba quotcubequot was a shrine that had about 360 godsgoddesses that represented each day of the lunar year already a place of pilgrimage o Muhammad said that Allah was the only god that was real and that He was the same God that the Jews and Christians worship 0 There were also Christians and Jews in Arabia The Career of Muhammad 570 632 Orphan father Abdullah died before he was born mother Amina died when he was 6 lost his grandfather a prominent member of society at the age of 9 lived with his uncle a merchant after that Married at age 25 to Khadija she39s a 40 year old widow a very wealthy woman he39s her sales manager she proposes to him His later marriages are all after Khadija dies and are political AAmin The Trusted One nickname Meccah39s social transition from semiBedouin to commercial Revelation at Mount Hira 610 0 Frequently goes there to meditate at night 0 One night he feels a tremendous power he becomes breathless and he hears a voice who turns out to be Gabriel that tells him to recite he39s a merchant not a scholar this happens three times 0 The rst verses of the Quran are revealed that night actually placed in the middle Tuesday August 25 2015 0 He39s terri ed thinks he39s crazy goes to a cliff to end his life but Gabriel shows himself 0 Goes back and tells Khadija who says it might have actually happened 0 Kept getting revelations for 23 years Muhammad isn39t divine he39s just a person 0 They putjesus in the same category a messenger but not divine Monotheistic message against socioeconomic inequality 0 Early converts were Khadija the rst convert Ali nephew and soninlaw Abu Bakr friend Zaid freed slave 0 Very hard to nd future converts resistance from nobility 0 Early chapters are very antislavery full of equality against the traditions that existed o Reminded people that it39s not riches and possessions that make you valuable but rather it39s your faith 0 Migration from Mecca to YathribMedina called the Hijra 622 o Persecuted in Mecca because of the unpopular ideas 0 Fewer than 100 people at this point 0 Medina was the name given to it after it became the home of the Muslims o This is when the Islamic calendar starts they have their own political structure for the rst time they39re a protoquotstatequot o Muhammad becomes a political leader rather than just a religious gure society with rules 0 First half written in Mecca is about social equality second half written in Medina is about social life and how to behave Religious faith replacing tribal faith Asabiyya lbn Khaldun quotgroup feelingquot dif cult to transl 0 Trying to transcend tribal barriers o Tribe was the force that created unity originally o Transformed with an ideology 0 Arabic is starting to be written more the Quran is the rst major written work AlLat Leto Artemis39 and Apollo39s mom goddess of wealthplenty Night of Power the night when Gabriel revealed himself to Muhammad You can t name something beyond the realm of language 0 99 names of God are attributes quotThe Compassionquot quotThe Mercifulquot quotThe Knowledgeablequot quotHe Gives Lifequot 0 quotIn the name of God the compassionate the mercifulquot begins each chapter of the Quran Quran quotReading piecequot o It doesn39t matter where you start reading because there s no organization 0 Sometimes a chapter is about a single topic sometimes it39s on multiple topics Converts Fewer than 100 at rst 0 When he started preaching publicly it caused some problems 0 The message was upsetting for some people because it was egalitarian First Migration to Abissinia Ethiopia welcomed by the Christians there but it was too far from home Calendar adopted by second Caliph started when they moved to Medina Politicalorganization Mecca attacked the Muslims Mohammad decided to ght back 0 Battle of Badr 624 not a huge battle more of a large skirmish 0 War continues afterwards but Mohammad chose to make peace 0 Hudaybiya Truce 627 opposed by the Muslims bc they were winning but he convinces them that it39ll be better in the long run he agrees not to preach in Mecca o Afterwards some Meccans became Muslims 0 Muslims march to Mecca 630 Mohammad marches to Mecca with 10000 soldiers and takes Mecca without a ght lets people leave if they want The Creation of Umma communitysociety Even in the areas that they didn t control by the Umayyad Caliphate they were still in uential Sent an envoy to Beijing and asked the emperor to become a Muslim who doesn39t convert but allows him to build a Mosque Hui Chinese Han are Muslim about 15 million of them 0 There are also Turkish Chinese Muslims about 25 million Final pilgrimage to Mecca 632 makes a farewell sermon quotEvery Muslim is a brother unto every other Muslimquot o This wasn39t in the early message there was a verse in the Quran that said it was an Arabic Quran and wasn t translated up until modern times o If you lived in the Middle East in the 7t 8th centuries you published in Arabic even if you weren t Arabian Mohammad is an unusual combination of characteristics 0 political shrewdness most religious gures aren39t political didn39t have that power 0 religious and human compassion reforming mind Core of the Islamic tradition A continuation of earlier religion Allah Abrahamic tradition the Quran refers to Abraham as the rst Muslim 0 Muslim quotone who submitsquot lslam quotsubmittingquot your will to the will of God wholeheartedly follow God 0 There is a beginning created by God story similar to Adam and Eve but they immediately become repentant rather than hiding and God forgives them thus there is no quotfallquot like in Christianity so there39s no need for the redemption of a savior human nature is good Jesus isn39t killed on the cruci x the Romans thought they killed him but God didn39t allow it he39s alive in some dimension that we don39t see Chapter of Mariam only female mentioned in the Quran by name the virgin birth happens similar to Adam with no mother or father but he39s still human 0 There is a chain of messengers going back to the beginning Adam is the rst followed by thousands unknown there are only 28 mentioned by name not just in the Middle East humans have a choice for redemption from the start limited by human reason 0 Unity of God and creation Prophetic traditions Sunna and Hadith Not a new religion The quotsacred historyquot of Islam A chain of prophecy Unity tawhid Holy war Jihad War can39t be holy even though it can be a necessary 0 Holy war is a Catholic invention Jihad means quotstrugglequot not necessarily militarily 0 Coming from the small struggle of battle to the big struggle of engaging with yourself 0 Military application should be defensive declared by a state 0 The concept gets abused Prophet vs Messenger Messenger is a subset of Prophet special 0 240000 prophets Some messengers come with major revelations only 5 come when the old religion becomes corrupted by humans and no longer works 0 Noah Abraham Moses Jesus Mohammad OOOO The New Political Social and Moral of Islam Quran as the Word of God Literal vs Metaphorical 0 Different schools take it differently some more literal and some more metaphorical o The Muslims who take it more literally have an understand that it39s not all literal 0 There are literal verses like quotdon39t stealquot and metaphorical ones like heaven and creation with symbolic meaning Prophet nabi and Messenger rasul 0 All messengers are human including Jesus and Mohammad they39re not worshipped Revelation wahy messenger as an intermediary God Allah as ultimately transcendent and absolutely unique tawhid but also merciful and compassionate O O 0 How do you reconcile transcendentunique with mercifulcompassionate The godly attributes are different than the human attributes because he is unlimited God created man in his own quotimagequot that39s not a literal form but rather an essence that is divine which you can ignore if you so choose This means god is both distant and close quotEnough theology I m already bored with itquot The New Political Social and Moral of Islam There39s no quotoriginal sinquot no story of the fall 0 O No need for redemption Humans aren39t inherently good or evil they can choose Humans angels and spirits jinn O O O O O O quotThe lord of worldsquot plural There are parts of creation we may not see Jinn are like humans beings but they live in a different dimensionworld Angels don39t have the ability to choose they just do good things therefore Satan isn39t and never was an angel he39s a jinn Angels are created of light humans of clay and jinn of re God tells the angels to bow to his new creation man but Satan a jinn who was living with the angels refuses because he thinks he39s better than them and quotfallsquot These verses are seen to be metaphorical rather than literal a fundamentalist view is very modern The point is to use your freedom of choice for a better society life is a test Striving towards the establishment of a just society Vision of an afterlife both spiritual and physical O O O O O The image is very vivid with explanations and descriptions Idea of 72 virgins came from a medieval book not a part of Islamic theology Spirit doesn39t die what makes you alive is the breath that God breathed into Adam Body is resurrected and reunited with the spirit at the end In the meantime some theologists talk about a world of spirits quotSignsquot ayat of God in nature history and scripture O 0 He isn39t just revealed in a book that39s just a special revelation Normal revelation continues throughout life on an ongoing basis Pillars of Islam practical guides emphasizing equality and social cohesion rather than holding deep theological meaning 0 O O Testimony shahada There is no God but Allah and Muhammed is His messenger Ritual prayer salat ve times a day very ritualistic while doing certain things with your body and readingreciting speci c verses Charity zakat if you have a place to live a vehicle and no debt you39re considered to be minimally rich and need to pay 25 of your annual income every year to the poor and needy Fasting sawm once a year during the month of Ramadan don39t eat or drink from sunrise to sunset time of celebration socialization only for healthy people Pilgrimage hajj visit the kaba in Mecca during a speci c time of year which falls after Ramadan once in your lifetime if you39re able set of rituals one after another annual market for the exchange of news and ideas creates trust and helps the trade networks Very exible theology towards other faiths o Christians and Jews were called quotThe People of the Bookquot any book revealed by God 0 As long as they followed the laws they were tolerated Jihad 0 Doesn t mean quotholy warquot that39s a more modern interpretation 0 Greater and lesserjihads Muhammad39s marriages and marriage in Islam 0 Contract rather than an inherently religious idea legal construct o It was a good system speaking relatively to the rest of the world until the 18th c 0 Women39s rights 0 Patriarchal religion like Judaism and Christianity lslam formed in this type of society rather than creating it 0 Excess production leads to accumulation of goods which can be passed on conception of property and land ownership social strati cation 0 Their rights are further than in other religions and cultures of the time but are still limited 0 Women have the right to own property rather than being property themselves but their inheritance rights are limited 0 When they marry their nancial obligations are transferred to the husband and if he can39t provide they have the right to divorce 0 However divorce was still easier for men because they didn39t need a reason 0 It39s not her obligation to take care of the household via cooking or cleaning 0 Islamic law froze in the 13th century and stopped advancing missed the advances of the 18th century Arabia at the time of Muhammad map The Caliphate and the Early lslamic Conquests Caliph khalifa successor 0 Lead after Muhammad died 0 Political or religious o The Four quotRightly Guidedquot Caliphs were all close to Muhammad Abu Bakr 632 634 Mechant best friend Pulled the community together after Muhammad died Wars against tribal chiefs who didn39t want to pay taxes Beginnings of a standing army continuation of central treasury Umar lbn alKhattb 634 644 0 Parts of the Sassanian Empire Syria and Egypt 0 Merchant fatherinlaw Transforms into a proper state Uthman One of the richest guys in Medina Ali Soninlaw married to Fatima cousin Thursday September 3 Jizya poll tax for nonbelievers how they paid the military Sunni vs Shiite Tuesday September 8 Ibn Khaldun 1332 1406 How should one write history quotMuqadimahquot is a work written at the end of the philosophical development of quotwesternquot Islam 0 Quran tradition the meaning of the verses Tafsir tradition talking about something in detail Haddith tradition the sayings and behaviors of Muhammad o Kalam philosophical approach to theology uses reason and logic 0 Falassifa direct continuation of Greek philosophical thought 0 via Plato39s academy Aristotle was an advisor of Alexander the Great Roman empire took over the Greek areas Christian thought became dominant the people who had been teaching at the academy ended up moving to the east which was controlled by the Persians o Educated in practical sciences like medicine 0 Created a school associated with a hospital in the Sassanid empire Go into a school study with a master come to a gradual understanding it39s a way of life You have to understand this in its own context rather than in ours Ours is a shadow world a re ection of the real perfect world which we can see through philosophical thought and meditation You can t come to revelation just through reading previous works you have to experience things and discover them for yourself 0 Khaldun belonged to this philosophical tradition 0 quotHouse of Wisdomquot created during the Abassid period as a research institution and library sponsored by the state ca 7605 Initially were translating Greek and Sanskrit works After the transition they began to work off of the tradition and produced their own scienti c advances such as algebra The concept of zero was invented in India quotdigitalquot ten symbols to write everything 09 as opposed to Roman numerals which keep introducing new symbols to keep up with the different places and try adding while using them AlKhwarizmi Algoritmi his book was Latinized as quotalgebraquot Xhay quotshayquot thing that39s why we use quotxquot in algebra The concept changes from numbers representing things to an abstraction o quotmysticalquot does not equal quotreligionquot it39s a concrete system 0 A philosopher is a scientist teacher life coach etc o It doesn39t seem to have a predecessor or successor quotManquot as a social animal in need of cooperation Arabic or Greek origin 0 Man cannot be alone only an animal or god can 0 Human nature is different we have language logos reason 0 Makes cooperation possible 0 The Greeks thought that the citystate was natural the perfect state 0 Khaldun We didn39t used to have advanced societies cities We39re never secure never know when we39ll be attacked by other humans therefore we need to stick together and there is no end to cooperation The process comes from human nature and the need for security quotUrbanizationquot tamaddun as a social consequence of cooperation quotCivilizationquot umran as the highest state of the process of urbanization 0 Everyone started out like the Bedouins in a nomadic environment 0 This process will drive his writing 0 What is the quotsurfacequot of history 0 Historians just report facts and events without thinking about it o No critical thinking involved no context 0 What is the inner meaning of history 0 Philosophical speculation 0 Explanation of causes and origins of things cause and effect 0 The question isn39t quotWhat happenedquot but rather quotWhy did it happenquot Exoteric for public consumption esoteric personal not meant to be pubHshed o A lot of the ancient philosophers39 writings were esoteric Science according to Aristotle 0 Theoretical mathematical geometry arithmetic astronomy and music physical zoology mineralogy botany and physics and metaphysical literally quotafter physicsquot based on his lecture notes this is where the deep questions come from What is time What is movement How are they related Fundamental questions about timemovementmatter 0 Practical ethics economics household management politics 0 Poetical Also called Production making things poetry theatrical tragedy comedy satire medicine Where is logic In all of them Therefore you have to study it rst 0 What about history It cannot be a science because it39s haphazard with no similarities anything that is similar is a coincidence rather than following speci c rules Why is there a connection between the past and present Linear vs cyclical view of history we try to make it linear rather than cyclical by learning from the past Ancients didn39t see the movement of history it just was Herodotus39 Historia is a collection of stories to explain the PersianGreek wars with the purpose to entertain and teach but not to the same extent not necessarily accurate Even Thucydides39 Peoponnesian Waris journalism rather than history Khaldun claims that history should be accounted as a branch of philosophy and thus is a science 0 o This is the creation of history as we know it today lbn Khaldun 1332 1406 0 Angry about the blind trust in tradition 0 People aren39t questioning o No methodology just stories 0 How does he refute several historical claims such as the army of Moses being 600000 strong How does geography constrain history 0 There aren39t enough people in the area 0 Even if they had enough people they wouldn39t t in the valley where the battle was fought quotA hidden pitfall in historiography is disregard for the fact that conditions within nations and races change with the change of periods and the passage of timequot p 24 o The eventsfacts themselves aren39t important they39re just surface material On a deeper level is politics 0 Royal authority government The next level is economics 0 Production of goods 0 Different areas have different methods The next level is sociology After that is the fundamental level of geography or biology Speculates that humans could have evolved from monkeys not a full theory Eg Bedouins are nomads because the area wasn t conducive for agriculture 0 Anachronistic mistakes Assuming that people would have thought and acted like we do today They had different morals and ethics different context than we do Medieval Christian paintings of Muslim scientists make them look like Christian monks because that39s what their doctors looked like 0 quotThe normative method for distinguishing right from wrong in historical information on the grounds inherent possibility or absurdity is to investigate human social organization which is identical with civilizationquot p 38 0 You have to investigate sociology 0 There is a scienti c process to follow 0 The quotOriginal Sciencequot of Ibn Khaldun 0 Not a science of collecting events but by going to deeper levels to nd out how things work lbn Khaldun A Comprehensive Theory of Civilization Necessary character of human social organization biological need food etc Aggression is natural For defense against aggression humans have their hands and the ability to think 0 quotRoyal authorityquot is established as a restraining in uence on natural aggression 0 Link to Thomas Hobbes 1588 1679 Leviathan In the quotnatural statequot there s no security because humans are aggressive The Leviathan is the state delegate your powers to someone else who provides security in return for freedom Talked from the standpoint of an individual rather than a society 0 The ancient identity was societal the worst punishment was exile rather than death 0 Even the gods live together 0 Royal authority is the same concept 0 Departure from the ancients quotPhilosophers are wrong when they assume that prophecy exists by necessity The existence of prophecy is not required by logic lts necessary character is indicated by the religious law p 48 0 Doesn t this make the religious law illogical 0 Logic doesn39t require religion 0 The religious law says that it s necessary for a different set of reasons but if it39s not actually necessary why is it there o It comes from fear our need to feel more secure quotBedouins are the basis of and prior to cities and sedentary peoplequot 0 The evolution of cities comes from a nomadic lifestyle a simpler form of life 0 When you change to a more civilized lifestyle you lose autonomy and become more subservient o How are Bedouins more courageous and better in character They don39t have luxuries fancy clothes food etc to distract them Arti cial surroundings cause us to get weaker Lazyfatetc Lower morality because we no longer know the people around us so we re not held to standards by our neighbors and we don39t care about them anyway 0 In a large society you don39t steal because there are legal repercussions In a small one there are social repercussions He lived with Bedouin society for seven years after he had to leave north Africa also visited the nomadic Turks but ultimately had to turn an advisor position due to age quotGovernmental and educational laws destroy fortitude because their restraining in uence is something that comes from outside The religious laws do not destroy fortitude because their restraining in uence is something inherentquot p 96 Group feeling quotAffection and willingness to ght and die for each otherquot p 123 0 Shared experience is the driving force 0 Small tribes have similar feelings that siblings do because of the shared experiences they live and die together 0 We lose this as we enter civilization there are plenty of people that you ll only ever see once 0 Smaller society gt more interaction gt more group feeling 0 Rule of four generations 0 quotReligious propaganda gives a dynasty another power in addition to that of the group feelingquot 0 Religio Latin for combine September 29 2015 A Diverse Islamic Society 800 1258 0 Center and Provinces Limits of an Empire 0 Overexpansion of the Abbasid empire 0 Center Iraq Syria Iran 0 Provinces were under the control of different local dynasties Samanids 819 1005 Tulunids 868 905 Rustamids 777 909 Caliphs39 increasing reliance on the professional army 0 Rise of Buyids 945 o Tightly controlled bureaucracy ruling the empire 0 Increasingly looking more like the Persian and Roman empires Rival Ismaili Caliphates o Fatimid Dynasty 1000 Rules from Cairo Sevener Shiism Major rival to the Caliphate Defeated c 1100 by Saladin who created his own shortlived Ayyubid dynasty Overthrown by its own slave army which created the Mamluk dynasty Which was eventually taken over by the Ottoman Empire 0 New Umayyad dynasty in Spain 0 Muslims in Spain 710 1492 0 New cosmopolitan society of Muslims Christians and Jews in Cordoba Kurtuba and Seville o Abd alRahman III 912 961 held a court that encouraged education 0 Ferdinand Aragon and Isabella Castille defeated the Granada 0 Muslims and Jews either had to convert or leave so most of them ended up in the Ottoman Empire which was the only place who would accept the Jews 0 By 1000 the Muslim world was not united around a government but was united by culture and trade 0 China India and the Middle East 0 Indian Ocean trade network was subsidiary to the Silk Road 0 Pepper and other spices porcelain furs sugar paper silk tea from India and China Spice for medicine and preservation o Textiles carpets ivory salt gold from Africa 0 Perfume and distilled alcohol from the Middle East 0 Civilization is based on trade so as the trade centers shift so does the hub of power 0 Rise of coastal cities Basra Siraf o Persian Arab and Jewish merchants Mediterranean Trade Spain Egypt Syria and later on Venice 0 Venice produced glass a substitute for porcelain Didn39t change the avor of what was inside Porcelain was more expensive although glass wasn t cheap September 29 2015 0 Middle East is the middle man sending items from the east to the west New crops in the Middle East rice sugar cane watermelons apricots 0 Also had waterwheels and qanats underground canals 0 Sugar cane from India used areas in north Africa to created plantations o Zanj Rebellion in the plantations where the slaves revolted lasted about 15 years led to the abolishment of plantations but not slavery 0 Portugal got the plantation idea from their arrival to Africa led to their reinstitution of chattel slavery as opposed to military and household slavery 0 Children of slaves were legitimate it was typical for the man to marry the mother and free her Tangent Harem 0 Used to make sure there are enough male heirs but the majority would never see the sultan only the inner harem 0 Provide an environment for the kids to thrive servants 0 Musicians educated etc o Eventually got married off to highranking bureaucrats Gold and silver coins and a system of credit 0 Gradual quotlslamizationquot of the Middle East in the 9th 11th centuries BBC Documentary Science amp Islam Episode 2 The Empire of Reason Translation movement Sent scholars around the world to collect books and have them translated into Arabic Large area large tax revenue funds for the search for knowledge Grand architecture such as mosques and palaces Cordoba was a center for science Built a device to measure the oods of the Nile 0 Large colonnade pillar with notches in a chamber that leads to tunnels that connect to the Nile 0 Traditionally the level of the river has determined taxes because it s an indicator of how prosperous the farmers should be The Caliph elMamun funded lots of projects 0 A major one was mapmaking including a commission for a map of the world 0 Wanted to know how big the Earth was so he could determine how much he ruled 0 Also helped with knowing the direction of Mecca from far away 0 alBiruni was a great scientist who combined algebra trig and geometry to calculate the size of the Earth he got it within 200 miles an error of less than 1 0 They used lots of math and science including the calculations above and practical experiments Caravansarai resting place for merchants hosted bazaars o Took the rst steps towards mass production 0 Thursday October 8 2015 HST 370 The Middle East Islamic Theology and Law 0 The Nature of God and the Problem of Evil Mu39tazila and quotReasonquot Aql Rationalist Theology 0 Of cial ideology under Caliph alMa39mun r 813 833 0 Absolute oneness taWhid of God and reluctance to attach any attributes to his essence 0 God is quotboundquot by his justice 0 Human action is radically free 0 Qur39an is not the quotspeechquot of God and is quotcreatedquot Sunni reaction to Mu39tazila o Ahmad ibn Hanbal 780 855 and the period of quotmihnaquot 833 848 Scholars not sponsored by the state formed in opposition to the state rather than the Shi39ite belief Acceptance of divine quotattributesquot compassion will beauty Rejection of the analogical approach of the issue of the quotjusticequot of God Qur39an is the quotspeechquot of God and is eternal Sunna means tradition of Muhammad quotPeople of tradition and communityquot AlSha i and the sources of law Sharia o The Qur39an o Hadith prophetic traditions alBukhari 810 870 o Quiyas analytical reasoning o ljma consensus of community and Aq pure reason Ijtihad using reason to nd an answer and the consequent classi cation 0 Obligatory farz 0 Recommended vajib o Permissible mubah o Reprehensiblemakruh 0 Forbidden haram Pillars of Islam as practical guides of action 0 Testimony shahada There is one God and Muhammad is his messenger 0 Prayer saat Five times a day 0 Fasting sawm As long as you39re healthy enough to do so You ll make it up afterwards once you39re well 0 Charity and almsgiving zakat Own a residence and vehicle No debt Able to take care of your family 0 Pilgrimate hajj Once in your life 0 00000 Science and the Translation Movement 0 Middle Platonists and NeoPlatonism 0 School of Alexandria Thursday October 8 2015 HST 370 The Middle East 0 Medical School of Gundishapur Persia Translated works from Greek Syraic Persian and Hindi into Arabic 0 Not a wholesale translation rhetoric poetry drama and history were left out 0 They had their own versions 0 They didn39t have the social context to properly understand a bunch of the stuff 0 The Basis of Learning at the quotHouse of Wisdomquot a state institution 0 Research wing at the Library of Baghdad o Spent millions of dollars to buy books from individuals cities monasteries etc and then copied them 0 Logic and quotquadriviumquot arithmetic geometry astronomy and theory of music and medicine were the focus Some of the rst works to be translated AlFarabi translated many works on logic 0 AlKhwarizmi 800 847 and India numerals algebra algorithms trigonometry Translated Indian mathematical works Created algebra Introduction of 0 0 Theory of Four Humors The humors bile blood etc were controlled by different parts of the body and would cause illness when out of balance Ibn Sina Avicenna 980 1037 Wrote quotQanunquot quotThe Principle of Medicinequot 0 Empirical work that criticizes the Greeks for being too philosophicaltheoreticaI Listed all of the illnesses he could nd and their treatments 0 Used until the late 17th century Circulation of blood wasn t discovered until later due to philosophical beliefs 0 Previously circular movement was a property of the heavens Five planets the moon and the sun were each their own transparent sphere in the slq Earth at the center then the moon then Mercury then Venus then the Sun and I m assuming Mars and Jupiter were the last two 0 The seven heavenly bodies give us the days of the week starting with Monday moonday and skipping one day Wednesday Odinsday Odin Mercury Spanish is Miercoles Physical sciences botany zoology and practical sciences politics ethics as well as metaphysics Rationalist philosophy 0 How to reconcile philosophy and revalation Islam 0 Is the universe eternal or was it created Thursday October 8 2015 HST 370 The Middle East The Quran talks about creation Aristotle said the world was eternal o Abu Bakr alRazi Rhazes 865 925 Discovered a treatment for smallpox and measles Distilled pure alcohol and realized that it was a good disinfectant Was an atheist who didn39t see the need to reconcile religion and science because religion was mythology o Abu Muhammad alFarabi d 950 quotThe Second Teacherquot the rst being Aristotle in the Arabic philosophical tradition Religion and science could be reconciled if you understood religion correctly 0 Religious language was symbolic you can39t read them literally You need to know the meaning of the symbols and aHegones Science however was literal When there s a contradiction you come up with a different interpretation of the religious text One truth in different forms Awamm common people couldn39t understand the high logic so they needed religion Hass electelite philosophers with superior minds 0 The sociology of the Translation Movement 0 Very organized long period of social movement 0 Supported by the entire elite of the Abbasid realms caliphs princes civil servants generals merchants and bankers o Paxlslamica quotReunionquot of East and West early globalization people and ideas could move without much trouble Agricultural revolution Trade 0 MulticulturalismL extensive cultural cooperation and intercourse o Baghdad Harran Carrhae Edessa Urfa and Marw Cultural centers Carrhae has the oldest university in the world regular curriculum teachers
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