Midterm Guide HIST 1500 - 01
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HIST 1100 - 01
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HIST 1100 - 01
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This 28 page Study Guide was uploaded by William Bartek on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1500 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Autumn Dolan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Discovering World History in History at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
History 1500 Midterm Exam Guide Ancient Egypt River Economy amp Culture 0 Heavy surplus of food due to Nile floods 0 River boats allowed quick travel along the river communication grew 0 High security from foreign invaders o Primarily rural society Main Periods 0 Old Kingdom 2680 2200 0 Middle Kingdom 2040 1720 0 New Kingdom 1550 1150 0 Each kingdom separated by intermediate periods of power struggle Old Kingdom 0 Upper and lower Egypt unite 0 Religious views expand Worldview o Heavily influenced by religion and the Nile s flood patterns 0 Ma at Philosophical idea of all thing s good order truth etc o The king sjob was to preserve Ma at Kingship 0 Egyptian king is a god of gods 0 Pyramids 0 Royal burial complexes 0 First pyramids built to King Djoser 2668 2649 o Giza Pyramids 2600 0 Administration amp Bureaucracy o Redistributive economy redistributes surplus among the populace o Vizier Steward to king quotJafar from Aladdin o Nomes amp their Nomarchs Separate mini governances Kinda like states amp governors o Priests Educated and respected advisors to the king Science and math 0 Engineering skills pyramids 0 Astronomy created the solar caander 0 Medicine 0 Incantations for religious healing 0 Also had practical healing for broken bones casts herbal medicine Daily Life 0 Artisans were highly prized 0 Not a slave economy 0 Women held a lot more equality in marriage and courts than we see in other parts of the world Collapse of the Old Kingdom 0 Droughts amp famine made people mistrust king faiure to uphold Ma at 0 First intermediate period 0 Change in worldviews o Afterlife amp final judgement 0 Book of the Dead Middle Kingdom 0 Restoration centered in Thebes 0 Political landscapes shift 0 King becomes quotshepherd of his people not god 0 Noble power increases Trade amp Diplomacy 0 Trade connections 0 Gained control of Kush Nubia modern Sudan 0 Immigration increased as Egypt became a global stability icon mm o 1720 1650 Second intermediate period 0 Semitic people Hyksos began invading o Assimilation Began taking Egyptian names and gods Changes 0 Brought the bronze age to Egypt 0 Bronze age brings war 0 Administration and imperial stability introduced New Kingdom 0 Pharaoh Ahmose 0 Egyptian identity and expansion 0 Military superiority taken from Hyksos example Bureaucracy o Vizier handled infrastructure and treasury o Officially call the king by the title Pharaoh 0 Imperial continuity overrules gender roles International Bronze Age Bronze Age Mediterranean Minoan Crete o Maritime economy 0 2600 BCE Evidence of trade with Egypt 0 Language Linear A no one able to translate o 1700 BCE Palace culture at Knossos Culture and Demise o Matriarchy or patriarchy Evidence points to either or 0 Military no evidence of siege defense 0 Then again might be a mainly naval military o 1400 BCE Mysterious demise Bronze Age Greeks amp Mycenaeans o Kingdoms on mainland Greece 0 Palace culture Near East Hittite Empire 0 ndoEuropeans from Anatolia o Pushed into Syria amp Canaan 0 War with Egypt Hittite Culture 0 Cultural transmission 0 Hittite Technology Iron and Steel 0 Origins of the iron age mostly used for ceremonial purposes not war Imperial Diplomacy and Trade 0 Diplomacy became a sign of power 0 Diplomatic ritual 0 Specific ways to write letters and endearments o Formalized gift giving 0 Economic protectors Imperial Networks Conquest and Client States 0 Conquest amp imperial power dominated this period 0 War as a business became normal 0 Client states provided many benefits to the conqueror 0 Almost all Bronze Age cultures were palace cultures End of Bronze Age End of the Bronze Age 0 Political instability and migration 0 Mediterranean coast falls to the quotsea peoples Causes 0 Economic uprisings and the Habiru o Habiru People in debt who skipped town and went into the hills to become rebels 0 Climate setbacks Phoenicians c 1000 BCE 0 Reputation as amazing sailors invented the Bireme mainline Bronze Age ship 0 Wealthiest kingdom King Solomon relied on the Phoenicians o Culturally take in customs from many areas 0 Their alphabet became the basis for our language Greeks added in vowels later Iron Age 0 NeoAssyrian expansion 0 Huge amounts of wealth in these client states 0 Became largest empire seen up to this point NeoAssyrians 0 Imperial administration 0 Built royal roads and set up complex mail system 0 Expansive military 0 quotCalculated Frightfulness So brutal to enemies that no one messed with them Ashurbanipal s Library 0 Dedicated to collecting any and all Mesopotamian literature 0 Cataloged organized and culturally preserved NeoBabylonian Empire 0 Expansion follows similar to NeoAssyrians o Babylonian rule and economy 0 Treats foreigners nicely o Creates vibrant economic exchange 0 Also preserved ancient Mesopotamian culture Persian Expansion and Greek Identities Persian Empire 0 Largest empire up to this point 0 Expanded under Darius but most expansion contributed to Cyrus the Great 550 BCE o Heavily Administrated o Persians had policy of tolerance towards captured cultures Zoroastrianism 0 Prophet Zarathustra 1400 900 BCE no exact dates known 0 Ahura Mazda quotThe one creator represents all good 0 Angra Mainyu Antagonist of Ahura Mazda represents all evil 0 Begins a linear concept of human life 0 Adopted by the Persians as imperial religion wasn t forced on the citizens Darius the Great 522 486 BCE 0 Expansion for most of the empire 0 Administration 0 Standardizes coin and weight systems 0 Satrapies nomes amp nomarchs of the Persian empire Archaic Age 750 479 BCE 0 Greek Identity of heroism and humanism 0 Political Developments 0 Polis Poleis Independent city state 0 Greek unity Greek Colonization o Mainland is hard to settle 0 Agricultural challenges related to topography Commercial expansion 0 Coinage spread across Mediterranean Sea 0 Culture expands Poh caIConsequences o Oligarchic few wealthiest citizens ruling the rest Sparta o Peloponnese 0 Political System 0 Spartans focused on war not farming o Helots captured farmers to work Spartan farms 0 Extreme militarization o Spartan Citizenry at top then free citizens then helots at the bottom Spartan Values 0 Obedience and discipline 0 Cult of manhood o Spartans prefer isolationism m 0 Political organization more towards expansion 0 Draco 7th c BCE punitive laws punishing and oppressing the poor 0 Civil war of rich v poor Solon c5941 0 Written law 0 Political reorganization o Archon and High Courts at the top 0 Political offices in the middle 0 Landless thetes attempt to give poor more voice 0 Boule large assembly for all classes 0 Courts People across all social classes can participate in justice 0 Economic development 0 Agriculture switched to olives for oil 0 Economic policy focused on trade 0 Artisanal class becomes more prominent Reforms o Tyrant leader elected by the people temorarily o Flaws o Corinth son took power and started killing off political opponents o Boule further expanded o Ostracism Every few years they would kick someone out who they were afraid was gaining too much power Persian Wars 0 Battle of Marathon Greeks defeat Persians Darius humiliated o Xerses r 486 466 BCE Reinvigorates fight against the Greeks 0 Athens begins focusing on naval warfare puts Persians at a disadvantage o Spartans are the badass Greek land force 0 Battle of Thermopylae 0 Final defeat of Persia unites Athens and Sparta for a short time Classical Greece Rise of Athens amp Age of Pericles o Delian League Athens leading city states against Persia 0 Athens used Delian money for personal gain 0 Sparta amp Corinth begin complaining o Peloponnesian League created to fight Athenian Delian League Peloponnesian War 431 404 BCE o Spartan strategy land army with specialized Spartan fighters o Athenian resilience cut off naval trade to Sparta 0 Final battles resolve around Persia o Persia provides Sparta a navy to fight Athens Enemy of my enemy is my friend 0 Spartan Victory Classical Greek Culture Women 0 Legal rights 0 Dependence on husbands and fathers 0 Restricted in public not allowed to go to market boulle etc Philosophical Status 0 quotWomen were substandard men incapable of holding probable thought Hetairai Intellectual concubines or escorts used for public events 0 Aspasia 470 400 BCE Hetairai of Pericles wrote some of his literature 0 NonElites o 0 Lower class women could run a shop interact leave the house Classical Greek Culture Slavery 0 Athens 0 13 of the population were slaves o Slave society bolstered the other classes and their identity Religion 0 Dark age religion no real evidence 0 Homerian Epic Illiad amp Odyssey Gave 12 basic gods Zeus 0 City states had independent local gods as well 0 Mystic cults secret meetings Intellectual Life 0 Drama and Literature 0 0 Highly praised by Greek society Rock stars of the Greek world Scientific Thought 0 Intellectual exchanges o Rational causes 0 Cosmology o Atonomists PhHosophy o Sophists o Socrates 469 399 BCE o Plato 428 347 BCE o Platonic forms can t handle reality so quotwe just know what things are 0 Aristotle 0 Father of Inductive Reasoning minute gt big idea Hellenistic Greece Rise of Macedon o Macedonian society primitive compared to Athens 0 Politics 0 Began to urbanize 0 Establish friendship with Persia 0 Greek influence 0 Love Greek poets and playwrights Phillip 359 336 BCE o Brilliant military leader 0 Reformed Macedonian society 0 Gains loyalty of the soldiers by paying them in raids 0 Military innovations amp tactics infantry holds enemy in place while cavalry flanks Macedonian Expansion o Conquests and Alliances 0 Athens becomes fearful of Macedonian expansion 0 Ends the Poleis Age of Greece 0 Assimilate Greek culture as they expand 0 Take on Persian vendetta to solidify their Greekness Phillip s Death 0 Assassinated at daughter s wedding 0 No real heir apparent Alexander the Great 356 323 BCE 0 Rise to power 0 Alexander s rise attributed to his mother Olympia 0 Killed off all rivals to the throne 0 Immediately takes up his father s Persian campaign 0 Empire takes up 10000 square miles 0 Takes on quotGreat King of PersiaPharaoh of Egypt titles o Mesopotamia all the way to India Death 0 Caught Indian fever got drunk and died 0 After death no one man could keep the empire together Hellenistic Monarchies o Ptolemy got Egypt 0 Selucus got all of Persia o Antigonus got Macedonia Governance 0 Monarchy 0 General empire infrastructure as seen before 0 Professional armies only way to keep order 0 Revert to oligarchy of the king and his inner circle holding all the power Citizenship 0 Citizenship difficult to pin down 0 Women gain more citizenship than previous Greek rule 0 Women got education on par with men elites only 0 Hellenistic women no longer hidden away Responses 0 Macedonian response pissed off and exhausted 0 Cultural and social assimilation o Prefer to remain separate rather than assimilate o Conflicts on how to blend east and west Zoroastrianism o Conquered Persians cling to religious identity 0 Look for messiah to save them from Greek oppression Maccabean Revolt 167 160 BCE 0 Jewish revolt on Selucid oppressors o Maccabees win revolt against Selucids o 0 Gave them an autonomous kingdom m 0 Alexandria cosmopolitan for people of all types 0 Euclid 300 BCE Geometric proofs and math philosopher o Archimedes 287 212 BCE PhHosophy o Aristotle and Telos 0 Start as small acorn and grow into oak tree 0 Our potential was happiness 0 End of the Polis o Epicureanism Deal with stress through withdrawal enjoy simple life 0 Stoicism Just deal with anxiety life is painful deal with it o Cynicism Everything about life is worthless withdrawal from all life Roman Republic Italian Peninsula o 2 hours east coast to west 0 Mountain range passable not hindering like Greek 0 Rome starts as 7 hills surrounding a swamp o Neighbors o Surrounded by other tribes o Greeks and Etruscans are the big 2 Etruscan Influences 0 Religion 0 3 main Roman gods are actually Etruscan 0 City Planning 0 Etruscans started road building architecture and metallurgy 0 Cultural symbols 0 Idea of a throne 0 Gender hierarchy fairly balanced between men and women Monarchy o Overthrow of Etruscans c 509 BCE o Etruscans take advantage of Roman elite o Romans revolt o Rape of Lucretia 0 Birth ofthe Republic Roman Republic 0 Government 0 Consuls 2 men 0 Senate 300 aristocratic men 0 Centuriate Assembly comparable to Boulle Priesthood o Continues civic rituals protecting Roman virtues and heritage 0 NOT political figures 0 Oligarchy heavily balanced towards the elite Struggle of Orders 0 Foundation of Western law 0 Patricians aristocrats o Plebians lowermiddle class 494 287 BCE o Plebians complain about discrimination I More political rights for plebs I Discrimination in the courts I Tired of caste system 0 Tribunes elected in pairs from plebs veto power 0 Plebian assembly no legal authority Twelve Tables 0 Written law code c 450 BCE 0 Provides legal procedure to plebs 0 Foundation of civil law ius civilis Republic of Virtue o Simplicity based society 0 Moral responsibility 0 Gravitas sense of seriousness and stoicness o Pietas Respect for tradition and ancestors 0 Justice respect for the law and heavy punishments to those who break it Roman Society 0 Family at the core 0 Paterfamilias father held all the power in the family 0 Patron and client relationship 0 High class quotpatronquot gives advice and loans to a poor client 0 Early version of lobbying patron gets client s vote in office Women 0 Marriage 0 Cum manu When you marry all legal authority passes to your husband 0 Sine manu Women stayed wards of their fathers their whole life 0 Oppian Law 195 BCE o quotThe moment women become your equals they will be your superiors Cato Roman Expansion 0 Italian Peninsula 0 Alliances and wars 0 Pyrrhus of Epirus o Spent so much money fighting Rome had to withdraw o quotPhyrric Victory Punic Wars 0 Carthage rich port town 0 Outbreak of war 0 First Punic War 264 241 BCE Peace treaty sharing Sicily 0 Second Punic War 218 201 BCE Hannibal comes in from the North but defeated 0 Third Punic War 149 146 BCE Rome razes Carthage salts the earth Expansion and Political Order o Equestrians military middle class that begins asking for rights 0 Roman Slavery o 33 of the population 0 nhuman treatment 0 Slave Rebellions Hellenistic Identity and Culture 0 Reputation of quotbig brother like America everyone calls Rome for help 0 Art took Greek inspiration despite Romans not wanting to look Greek 0 Veristic Portraiture Forging Imperial Rome Social Crisis and Reforms 0 Rome suffers an agricultural crisis after the Punic Wars 0 Latifundia huge Roman plantations begin taking land away from farmers Gracchan Revolution o Descendants of Scipio Africanus o Tiberius Gracchus 166 133 BCE o Tried land reforms to get land back to poor peasantry and away from rich latifundia elite 0 Senate clubs Tiberius and 3000 of his followers for not siding with the patricians o Gaius Gracchus 154 121 BCE o Tries tax reforms to negate the extortion happening in the countryside 0 Wanted citizenship for Roman allies to have more people paying taxes 0 He kills himself as Senate kills 3000 of his followers Roman Army and Power o Gaius Marius 157 86 BCE 0 Army reforms o Loyalty of soldiers goes to the general not the Senate 0 Armies become private mercs for generals to command at their whim Social War and Revolt 0 Social War 90 BCE 0 Roman allies rise up to gain access to Roman privileges 0 Main aim is to gain citizenship o Revolts in Anatolia o Anatolian king leads antiItalian revolt o Italians in Anatolia massacred o Marius and Sulla fight over power of legions Civil War 0 Marian Massacres o Marius kills Sulla s followers in Rome while he s in Anatolia and declares him an outlaw o Sulla marches on Rome 0 Sulla as dictator 0 Killed all of Marius followers in Rome 0 Cut off the plebian assembly from having real power in the Senate First Triumvirate 0 Marcus Licinius Crassus 112 53 BCE o Wealthy banker and skilled leader 0 Ended the Spartacus rebellion o Pompey 106 48 BCE 0 Julius Caesar 0 Great orator to the Senate 0 Military prowess in Gaul grew his power 0 Senate tells Caesar to quotgive up his legions and return to Rome presumably to be killed 0 He marches on Rome to face the Senate with his army Caesar as Dictator o Reforms provincial governors to stop abuse 0 Reforms of the law code 0 Senate firmly under his power he adds his allies to drown out opposition 0 Citizenship extending out to work for tax reforms and have more soldiers for the army End of the Republic o Brutus assassinates Caesar 44 BCE 0 Second Triumvirate 0 Marcus Antony Caesar s most loyal general 0 Octavian Caesar s nephewadopted son 0 Marcus Lepidus 0 These three hunt down and kill Brutus and his followers 0 Civil war Octavian wins at Actium Roman Empire Imperial Authority 0 Octavian after Actium 31 BCE o Murders all adversaries o Renames himself Augustus and takes the title of Princeps to avoid looking like a monarch o Takes the religious title of Ponifex Maximus head of all religion 0 Takes control of the legal system Sustaining Order 0 Reformation of the army Rival generals all answer to him and must bow to his authority before all else Professionalization of the army 0 Auxiliaries Noncitizens fight for a certain number of years to obtain citizenship Pax Romana 27 BCE 180 CE 0 Stable rule 0 Expansion continues 0 Focus moves to the frontier instead of Rome 0 Roman Law 0 Legitimizing positions with trained judges 0 Law of Nations Universalization of legal identity quotinalienable rights 0 Prosperity at its height Poor and Enslaved 0 Poor fled to urban centers after Punic Wars Lived in awful conditions 0 Slaves gained more rights to some extent Women and Children 0 Expansion of women s liberties o Leges Julianes Women gain rights after bearing 3 kids 0 Encouraged childbirth but didn t work Consequences of Imperial Order 0 Popular Assembly drowned out and cut off from political participation 0 Jewish Revolt 66 CE 0 Heavy tax burden Pontious Pilot intolerant ofJewish culture 0 Threw off empire for 4 years 0 Jewish Diaspora Jews kicked out ofJerusalem and spread across the empire 0 Mishna c 220 CE Continues Jewish religion away from temple Later Roman Empire Politics after Pax Romana 0 Marcus Aurelius 180 CE and Commodus Think Gladiator o Severan Rulers 193 235 CE 0 Military moved to the forefront of imperial society 3rd Century Crisis 0 Military anarchy 28 emperors in 50 years 0 Military losses Huns invade Franks pass through Gaul escaping the Huns o Sassanid Empire Reincarnated Persians 0 First death of a Roman emperor at war 0 Frontiers become more important than Rome 0 Economic Crisis 0 Plague and natural disaster kill 13 of Roman population 0 Agricultural crisis as all the farmers die 0 Inflation of prices as supply decreases 0 Social Crisis 0 Romanitas cultural identity eroded by the military being made up of foreigners 0 Urban decay Religious Response 0 Mystery cults secret society bringing you into unity with the divine o Manichaeism o Merged Zoroastrianism and Buddhism Philosophical Response o NeoPlatonists 0 Interested in finding spiritual truth through knowledge 0 Ignore material world 0 Mystical end Emergence of Christianity 0 Jewish socialreligious climate in lst c CE 0 Conservatives Sadducees and Pharisees o Radicals Essenes and Zealots 0 Jesus of Nazareth 0 Doesn t like ritual talks about ethics and treatment of others 0 His death changes everything 0 Savior God Not typical of Judaism Spread of Christianity 0 Jewish Diaspora spread around the ideas 0 Paul of Tarsus Universalized Christianity by inviting outsiders in 0 Appeal 0 It s relatable and inclusive Diocletian Reforms 0 Economic Reforms 0 Tax reforms more streamlined and oppressive 0 Social mobility restricted born into a baker s family stay a baker your whole life 0 Edict of Prices Prices can never rise 0 Political reforms o Burden of imperial rule becomes too much 0 Reorganization of the empire 0 Expansive bureaucracy o 1005 of provinces gt 12 Diocese gt East and West Rome Tetra rchy 0 One big leader called the Augustus with another leader called a Caesar to keep him in check 0 Fell into civil war after one generation Formation of Christendom Religious Reforms o Persecutions against Christians and mystery cults to reassert imperial domination 0 Nero 64 CE Blamed Christians for sack of Rome 0 Political move by Diocletian Christians didn t live in constant fear of persecution Martyrdom 0 Christian history filled with martyrs o Allowed us to find a general location of Christianity given it didn t have any churches or temples at this time o Patron and Client relationship Martyrs are patrons citizens are clients 0 Similar to Rome held appeal to the masses 0 Christianity became portable through the spreading the bones of martyrs Constantine and Christianity 0 Successor of Diocletian 0 Conversion to Christianity from his mother and battle gains power through God Edict of Milan 313 CE Christianity legal Christianization of Rome was a slow conservative process 0 500 CE First Christian church built in Roman main square Pilgrimage o Constantine first to develop ideas of quotthe Holy Land and quotThe Holy Sepulcher 0 Christian geography finally begins to develop m o Secular clergy those related to the world 0 Bishops 0 Role of governance 0 Legal expertise in property and family law 0 Socially connected to world marriage allowed for now Monasticism and Regular Clergy 0 Birth of Monasticism faithful life had become too easy 0 Asceticism Christians could be athletes for Christ by limiting human desires 0 Anthony c 251 356 CE Went to Egyptian caves to avoid physical temptation o Simeon the Stylite c 390 459 Sat on a pillar to avoid the physical world 0 Coenobiticism communal monasticism o Benedict of Nursia c 480 547 healthy diet discourages travel exclusion from secular world 0 Opus dei Praying and scholarship 0 Opus labore Work for food and sustenance Women in Late Church 0 Women acted as patrons giving money to churches and bishops 0 Women also pursued the ascetic lifestyle 0 Restrictions on women mount as Christianity develops 0 quotWomen were pollutants and corrupted religious artifacts Christian Hegemony o Theodosius 347 395 o Pagan religion continue to worship into medieval era 0 Hypatia d 415 Murdered end of Hellenistic philosophical world Growing antisemitism Dominated by heterodoxy 0 Nature of Christ 0 Trinity of father son and holy spirit Council of Nicaea 325 CE 0 Council of Chalcedon 451 CE Authority in Christendom o Caesaropopanism o Ambrose of Milan Excommunicates an emperor and the emperor agrees with him Roman Primacy o 5 patriarchs o Petrine supremacy o Scripture placed Christian authority in Rome Christendom o Christianitas replaces romanitas o quotWhat does Athens have to do with Jerusalem AntiGreek sentiments o Dismissal of liberal arts 0 Vulgate First Latin Bible Christian Worldview 0 Crisis in Rome sacked by Visigoths o Augustine s City of God written in response 0 Human history would survive through Christianity instead of Rome Germanic People amp The Emergence of the Medieval West Fall of the Western Empire 0 Internal weaknesses 0 Demographic changes due to plague o Socioeconomic changes Diocletian s expensive reforms cost Rome too much 0 Decentralization from countryside farmers to city dwellers o Decline of romanitas new focus on the frontier Migration amp Invasion o Hunnic expansion 3705 o Visigoth migration into Roman territory 0 Battle of Adrianople 378 CE Rome defeated by Visigoths o Visigoths sack Rome 410 CE 0 Vandals 439 CE 0 Odoacer 476 CE Ostragothic leader conquers Rome amp rules for 20 years 0 Some say this is the official end of the Roman empire Why the West 0 Isolation from the Eastern empire 0 Military changes 0 Magister militum General taking over quotcommander in chief position of armies 0 People disenchanted with Rome Ostragothic Rule of Rome o Theodoric 454 526 CE Starts revolt against Xeno o Romanitas accepted by Theodoric o Marries his daughter to German king to spread romanitas o Encouraged preservation of classical heritage German Societies 0 Political system 0 Kinship and clan come first 0 Head of clan is warchief o Comitatus Warband of chief o Partible inheritance realm divided up between all your sons Legal Systems 0 Blood feuds dominate early medieval era 0 Salic Law Attempt to curb blood feuds o Wergeld Everyone has a price amp harming them costs you 0 Women 0 Cherished for reproduction o Morgengab Wedding gifts for good virgin wives such as land or rights 0 Became peace weavers in politics Christianity 0 Arianism dominates Germanic people 0 Frankish conversion Clovis 466 511 CE Age of Missionaries 0 Ireland no bloodshed in conversion 0 No cities until Vikings invade easy rural conversion 0 AngloSaxon England 0 Gregory the Great r 590 604 o Frisia and Germania 0 King Radbod of Frisia almost converts but doesn t bc it would sever ties to ancestors and family 0 Boniface 672 754 cut down sacred tree to convert people from paganism and was martyr d in Frisia Germanic Christianity 0 Urban and rural divisions o Syncretism o VirileChristianity Roman Christian Ties o Synod of Whitby 664 CE 0 Northumbrian Renaissance o Benedict Biscup 628 690 Brought Roman church law 0 Venurable Bede 672 735 Early Medieval Monasticism 0 Economy of penance warriors pay monastery to pray for their sins so God will still allow them to fight and get into heaven
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