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study guide exam 2

by: Ashlyn Peach

study guide exam 2 BIOL2013 001

Ashlyn Peach
GPA 3.6
Timothy Kral

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About this Document

Timothy Kral
Study Guide
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashlyn Peach on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL2013 001 at University of Arkansas taught by Timothy Kral in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at University of Arkansas.


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Date Created: 10/11/15
Monday September 28 2015 Exam 2 Notes Chapter 13 Viruses Viruses obligate intracellular parasites non living only purpose is to make more viruses replication Why aren t viruses living can only replioate inside of a host cell no ATP generating system no ribosomes contain only one nucleic acid no metabolism 1 1225 m I Bacteri bags 14 Babies virus Op 170 x 70 nm Adenovlrue 90 nm Bacteriophage M13 Rhinovlrue 800 x 10 nm 30 nm Chlamydia elementary body 300 nm 0 Tobacco mosaic virus Bacteriophage 250 x 18 rim 2 2 Virold 2 quotm 300 x 10 nm 0 Pr 0 Pollovirue 30 quotm 200 x 20 quotm Vecclnle virus 300x200x 100nm Plasma membrane of red blood cell 10 nm thick quot vc 39 Noel20Hf quotx Monday September 28 2015 Components of Viruses 1 Nucleic Acid can be DNA or RNA never both double stranded DNA herpes warts single stranded DNA not very common rodent viruses double stranded RNA reoviruses mild respiratory infection single stranded RNA most common flu polio common cold rabies measles 2 Capsid protein coat surrounding nucleic acid composed of many protein subunits called capsomeres protects the nucleic acid gives virus its shape contains the receptor sites for host cell in nonenveloped virus 3 Envelope surroudns the capsid in some viruses composed of host cell s plasma membrane or components it contains the receptor sites for the host cell in an enveloped virus spikes on envelope can be used for identification All viruses have protein coat and one nucleic acid some also have an envelope Virus Specificity animal viruses plant viruses bacterial viruses VHalShapes helical long rods that can be rigid or flexible polyhedral many sided most common is icosahedron 20 triangular faces an d 12 corners complex viruses bacteriophage virus that infects bacteria C Wm quot Hutton cod cu non vvuo a a A polyhedral tau 6 Kandahar a n quotJ 0a M nm 0 O Comm hood DNA 39 500cm 1quot quotDoc i Pm Mum In A Yovn bactunophoo Monday September 28 2015 Lysogeny Plaque formation by Bacteriophages Lysogenic Conversion imparting new characteristic to lysogenic cell bacteria that release botulinum toxin scarlet fever toxin and diphtheria toxin must be lysogenized in order to be able to produce the toxins VIRUSES DO NOT PRODUCE TOXINS What is an oncogenic virus How do we control viral infections Viroids naked RNA potato spindle tuber disease Prion proteinaceous infectious particle 3 Monday September 28 2015 scrapie kuru chronic wasting disease mad cow disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy Oreutzfeldt Jakob disease Chapter 5 Metabolism Catabolic and Anabolic Reactions metabolism the sum of the chemical reactions in an organism catabolism provides energy and building blocks for anabolism breaking down complex compounds into simple compoundsmolecules ex proteins into amino acids anabolism uses energy and building blocks to build large molecules building complex molecules from simple molecules ex amino acids into proteins both reactions involve enzymes and energy a metabolic pathway is a sequence of enzymatically catalyzed chemical reactions in a cell metabolic pathways are determined by enzymes enzymes are encoded by genes Enzymes all enzymes are proteins but not all proteins are enzymes catalyze SPONTANEOUS reactions ONLY Cofactor required by SOME enzymes for activity ex Mg Coenzyme organic cofactor ex B vitamins Enzymes Collision theory states that chemical reactions can occur when atoms ions and molecules collide Activation energy is needed to disrupt electronic configurations Reaction rate is the frequency of collisions with enough energy to bring about a reac on reaction rate can be increased by enzymes or by increasing temperature or pressure 4 Things about Enzymes f Enzymes are biological catalysts they change the rate of a reaction but are not changed in the reaction 2 Enzymes are specific for their substrates usually one enzyme catalyzes only one reaction Monday September 28 2015 BUT a substrate can have many different enzymes that can act on it each reaction and each enzyme may produce a different product 3 All apoenzymes the main portion of the enzyme are proteins 4 Some enzymes need an additional chemical component 2 cofactor organic cofactor coenzyme vitamins inorganic cofactor metal ions 2 Fe2 Zn2 Ca2 Enzyme Classifciation oxidoreductase oxidation reduction reactions transferase transfer functional groups hydrolase hydrolysis lyase removal of atoms without hydrolysis isomerase rearrangement of atoms ligase joining of molecules uses ATP Factors influencing enzyme activity 1 Temperature Heat denatures protein changes its 3D shape egg white albumin when fried cold slows molecular movement 2 pH lons H and OH can cage 3D shape resulting in denaturation the ions compete with chemical hydrogen and ionic bonds in the enzyme temperature and pH denature proteins 3 Substrate concentration there is a maximum rate at which a certain amount of enzyme can catalyze a specific reaction Saturation all active sites are full to increase the reaction rate the cell would have to make more enzyme for excess substrate 4 Inhibitors competitive inhibitors look like the substrate and compete with substrate for enzyme s active site noncompetitive inhibitors bind to another site on the enzyme 2 allosteric site Binding changes the shape of the active site so therefore substate won t fit or a noncompetitive inhibitor can bind to metal ion cofactors keeping them from helping the enzyme work cyanide bind iron permanently in iron containing enzymes Monday September 28 2015 Ho 0 l c NH2 NH2 Sulfanilamide PABA The antibiotic sulfanilamide is similar in structure to para aminobenzoic acid PABA an intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway for folic acid Sulfanilamide can competitively inhibit the enzyme that has PABA as it39s normal substrate by competitively occupying the active site of the enzyme Energy what is the energy currency of a cell 2 ATP adenosine triphosphate What about PEP phosphoenolpyruvate it has approximately twice the energy of ATP So why isn t PEP the energy currency of the cell because it costs too much energy to make it the energy currency molecule must be intermediate in energy level containing enough energy to carry out reactions but nots so much that it would be difficult to make 4 things to know about energy 1 Catabolic reactions release energy whenever food is catabolizedchemical bonds are broken which release energy 2 Anabolic reactions require energy whenever macromolecules are built energy is required 3 Adenosine triphosphate ATP is the principle energy molecule of the cell it has high energy or unstable phosphate bonds Typically when the 3rd phosphate is removed usable energy is released 4 ATP is generated in 3 ways from the ADP adenosine diphosphate by Monday September 28 2015 phosphorylation process of diphosphate by phosphorylation process of adding a phosphate substrate level phosphorylation ATP is generated when high energy phosphate is directly transferred from a phosphorylated metabolic intermediate to ATP ex ATP production in glycolysis oxidative phosphorylation the generation of ATP coupled with electron transport Electrons are passed from carrier molecules like NADH and FADH2 to 02 or other oxidized inorganic and organic molecules ex the electron transport chain photophosphyorylation the generation of ATP coupled with electron transport in photosynthetic cells Cells must have light trapping pigments Converts light energy into energy of ATP Nutrition required by the cell 1 Carbon source carbohydrates amino acids C02 2 Nitrogen source amino acids NH4 N2 3 Certain inorganic ions Mg2 PO4 3 4 Essential metabolites vitamins 5 Water Notice N2 in Nitrogen source some microorganisms can convert atmospheric molecular nitrogen into organic nitrogen which can be used by many organisms this is called nitrogen fixation Why isn t oxygen a nutrient because it is not broken down for energy or used in biosynthesis Is a protein a nutrient for a cell absolutely NOT proteins are much too big to get into cells Their breakdown products amino acids are the nutrients Growth how do we measure growth of microorganisms by increase in number Bacterial growth curve phases 1 Log phase bacterial cells try to adapt to the environment 2 Log phase division process more living cells than dead 3 Stationary phase cells used must of nutrients living cells living dead 4 Decline death phase dead cells more than living cells 5 Generation time the length of time needed for a cell to divide ex experiment beings with 4 cells and ends with before How many generations Requirements for Growth Physical requirements temperature Monday September 28 2015 minimum growth temperature optimum growth temperature maximum growth temperature most baoteria grow between pH 65 and 75 molds and yeasts grow between pH 5 and 6 aoidophilus grow in acidic environments osmotic pressure hypertonio environments or an increase in salt or sugar oause plasmolysis extreme or obligate halophiles require high osmotic pressure faoultative halophiles tolerate high osmotic pressure Chemical requirements oarbon nitrogen sulfur and phosphorous trace elements oxygen organic growth factor Measurement of Growth direot miorosoopio oount dilution and plating turbidity measurement Metabolism sum of all chemical reactions in a cell oatabolism break down anabolism build up Oxidation reduction reaotions oxidation removal of electrons reduotion gain of electrons redox reaotion an oxidation reaction paired with a reduction reaotion Oxidative phosphorylation energy released form transfer of electrons oxidation of one compound to another reduction is used to generate ATP in the electron transport chain Methods of ATP Generation 1 Substrate level phosphorylation phosphate donated from an organic compound to ADP to make ATP 2 Oxidative Phosphorylation uses an electron transport chain Monday September 28 2015 3 Photophosphorylation uses an electron transport chain ATP is generated by the phosphorylation of ADP ADP Adenosinc 00 Encrgyl o gt Adenosine 0oo ATP Substrate level phosphorylation energy from the transfer of a high energy PO4 to ADP generates ATP C C C 0 ADP 399 C C C ATP Photophosporylation light causes chlorophyll to give up electrons energy released from transfer of electrons oxidation of chlorophyll through a system of carrier molecules is used to generate ATP Carbohydrate Catabolism breakdown of carbohydrates to release energy glycolysis the oxidation of glucose to pyruvic acid produces ATP and NADH preparatory stage of glycolysis 2 ATP are used glucose is split to form 2 glucose 3 phosphate krebs cycle oxidation of acetyl CoA produces NADH and FADH2 electron transport chain a series of carrier molecules that are in turn oxidized and reduces and electrons are passed down the chain energy released can be used to produce ATP by chemiosmosis energy produced from complete oxidation of one glucose using aerobic respiration Monday September 28 2015 Substratelevel Substratelevel Oxidath phosphorylauon phosphorylatlon phoophorylauon WO WIM oi R Mumcm Pathway Eukaryote Prokaryote Glycolysis Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Intermediate step Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Mitochondrial Krebs cycle matrix Cytoplasm ETCElectron Mitochondrial plasma membrane transposrt inner membrane 1O Monday September 28 2015 Pathway ATP NAPH FAH2 Glycolysis 2 2 0 Intermediate 0 2 0 step Krebs cycle 2 6 2 Total 4 1 O 2 Fermentation any spoilage of food by microorganisms general use any process that produces alcoholic beverages or acidic dairy products general use any large scale microbial process occurring with or without air common definition used in industry scientific definition releases energy from oxidation of organic molecules does not require oxygen does not use the Krebs cycle or ETC uses an organic molecules as the final electron acceptor alcohol fermentation produces ethanol 002 lactic acid fermentation produces lactic acid only homolactic fermentation produces lactic acid only heterolactic fermentation produces lactic acid and other compounds Common End Products of Fermentation l Lactic acid streptococcus lactobacillus yogurt 2 Ethanol 302 yeast wine and beer 3 Propionic acid 002 propionibacterium swiss cheese 4 Acetone and lsopropyl alcohol clostridium industrial uses 11 Monday September 28 2015 5 ethanol lactic acid acetic acid succinic acid E coi missed acid test in micro lab 12


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