exam2.pdf ART H 201
Popular in Art History notes for exam 2
Popular in Art History
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alice Vergani on Sunday November 9, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to ART H 201 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Prof. E. Smith in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 165 views. For similar materials see Art History notes for exam 2 in Art History at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 11/09/14
Art History Exam 2 Porta Augusta Perugia Italy Etruscans 3rd 2nd c BCE Etruscan use of the masonry arch sets an important precedent for Roman architecture The trapeze shaped dungeons on either side make this an imposing structure Pont du Gard Nimes France Romans 2016 BCE Aqueduct bringing water to Nimes France The bridge has three tiers of arches standing 488 m 160 ft high The whole aqueduct descends in height by only 17 m 56 ft over its entire length while the bridge descends by a mere 25 cm 098 in which is indicative of the great precision that Roman engineers were able to achieve using only simple technology Plan of Timgad Algeria Romans founded c 100 AD It has the regular street grid typical of Roman cities with the main NS axis the Cardo and the main EW axis the Decumanus that are wider than any other street in the city This both lead to the centrally placed forum Maison Carr e Nimes France Romans c 10 AD One of the best preserved examples of a Roman temple with a front portico like the Etruscam tempes Maison Carr e is an example of Vitruvian architecture Raised on a 285 m high podium the temple dominated the forum of the Roman city It is a hexastyle design with six Corinthian columns under the Pediment at either end and pseudoperipteral in that twenty engaged columns are embedded along the walls of the cella Egg and dart decoration divides the architrave from the frieze The frieze is decorated with fine ornamental relief carvings of rosettes and acanthus leaves beneath a row of very fine dentils lnsula of Diana Ostia Antica Romans c150 AD Roman insulae were multistory apartment blocks Built of mud bricks or haf timber construction with wooden floors stairs and ceilings the tenement had no cooking facilities or prives remaining subject to collapse and overcrowded Unscrupulous landlords often built several additional floors in wood turning their buildings and the city into firetraps The rooms in the insulae weren39t defined and had many purposes at the same time since most people couldn39t afford many different rooms The ground floor of insulae usually hosted shops It presented a central courtyard that had an impluvium In the courtyard there are also quadripartite vaults made with brick columns This arrangement will become part of the vernacular architecture House of the Vetii Pompeii Romans 2nd c BC rebuilt 6279 AD after earthquake Destroyed 79 AD by eruption of Vesuvius In Pompeii one of the most famous of the luxurious residences domus is the socalled House of the Vetii preserved like the rest of the Roman city by the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD Its careful excavation has preserved almost all of the wall frescos which were completed following the earthquake of 62 AD in the manner art historians term the quotPompeiian Fourth Stylequot The house is built round two compluviums centers open to the sky into which a visitor would pass coming from a small dark vestibule that led from the street entrance and beyond perpendicular to the entrance axis a peristyle of fluted Doric columns surrounded on all sides by a richly frescoed portico The major fresco decorations enliven the peristyle and its living spaces oeci and the triclinium or dining hall House of Publius Fannius Synistor Boscoreale Late 1st c BC Now conserved in the Metropolitan Museum of Art New York Boscoreale an area about a mile north of Pompeii was notable in antiquity for having numerous aristocratic country villas The villa at Boscoreale is a variant of the so called villa rustica a country house of which only a small part functioned as a farmhouse The majority of the villa served as a residence for the owner a member of that class of wealthy Roman citizens who owned more properties of this kind and used them as country houses The painted decoration of the villa at Boscoreale which was executed sometime around 4030 BC attests to the original owner as a rich man with exquisite taste The surviving paintings are extremely fine examples of the late Second Style the most renowned style in Roman wall painting Throughout the frescoes from the villa at Boscoreale there are visual ambiguities architectural details such as rusticated masonry pillars and columns Objects of daily life were depicted in such a way as to seem real with metal and glass vases on shelves and tables appearing to project out from the wall Detail of frescoes in the 2nd or Architectural Style Cityscape perhaps inspired by theater scene painting Roman masonry Used a fill of pozzolana concrete with a stone or brick outer casing First invented in the 2quot 39 c BCE and used until the fall of the Roman Empire Romans By the 2nd c BCE Romans began using a new material POZZOLANA The Romans revolutionized construction and design with their perfection of concrete known as caementitium They improved this versatile material by adding Pozzolana a volcanic powder found in abundance near Rome and Naples The masonry had various solutions such as the irregular opus incertum the diagonally set bricks of opus reticolatum the thinly stacked bricks of opus testaceum and the alternating rows of stone and bricks of opus mixtum Concrete could formwork into almost any geometric configuration The Romans initially used concrete on service buildings but by the early first century CE it became the material of choice for most monumental structures prized for its strength and fireproofing Instructions on how to make concrete out of Pozzolana were written in the 6quot chapter of the 2quot 39 book of Vitruvius Roman theatre in Orange Orange France Romans 1st c AD In the theatre the main entrance was situated behind and below the stage Playing a major role in the life of the citizens who spent a large part of their free time there the theatre was seen by the Roman authorities not only as a means of spreading Roman culture to the colonies but also as a way of distracting them from all political activities Mime pantomime poetry readings and the quotatteIanaquot a kind of farce was the dominant form of entertainment much of which lasted all day For the common people who were fond of spectacular effects magnificent stage sets became very important as was the use of stage machinery The entertainment offered was open to all and free of charge Colosseum Flavian Amphitheater Rome Constructed by the emperors Vespasian and Titus 7080 AD Used to entertain the Roman populace with games animal slaughter and gladiatorial combat it is the empire s largest arena built by Romans The facade rose on three levels of piers and arches with half columns engaged into the piers The builders used concrete and pozzolana to construct it The Colosseum present a smart and great use of arches and voults relying on Etruscan Columns Ionic Columns and Corinthian ones One found Tuscan order at the base above it the Ionic followed by the Corinthian while the attic story of solid walls was articulated by Composite pilasters In the middle ages most of its travertines were stolen and reused in other buildings The central floor was made out of wood and covered with sand because it had thirtytwo elevators that would bring up the actors or the animals that were kept underneath it The floor covered hundreds of subterranean chambers on three levels The monument had to be stabilized in the 19quot century by a French architect because of all the pieces that were stolen from it As long as the Colosseum stands Rome will stand When the Colosseum falls Rome will fall When Rome falls the world will fall Venerable Bede 7th8th c AD quoting a famous proverb Tra39an s Forum Rome Italy Apollodorus from Damascus 100114 AD Trajan s Forum included a basilica two libraries four concealed exedras a historiated column and a posthumous temple The plaza gave into the broad prospect of the basilica Ulpia the largest meeting hall in the empire The plan is attributed to Apollodorus of Damascus a former military engineer Apollodorus used luxurious materials composed in contrasting colors with columns and pavers made of green pavonazetto golden gialo antico and gray granite It presents curved walls and it was largely excavated by Mussolini that wanted to copy Roman monuments to express the importance and greatness of his contemporary Italian Nation In the largest court was an equestrian statue of the Emperor Trajan ruled 98117 AD Off one side was Trajan s Market built into the hillside Tra39an s Market Rome Apollodorus from Damascus 100114 AD Attributed to Apollodorus of Damascus architect The building presented shops on multiple floors and its curved shape allowed the presence of a central half plaza The walls are made of pozzolana covered by masonry with a central body of stone to make it more resistant The ceiling is composed of groin vaulting using Roman hydraulic concrete covered with masonry that now has disappeared so we can easily see the internal structure of concrete of the ceiling The shops on the ground level opened directly on the street while those on the second level lined an annularvaulted corridor The third story shops turned inward to a street halfway up the slope Behind this building raises Torre dele Milizie that was built in medieval time Mausoleum of Hadrian Rome Hadrian 123 139 AD The Mausoleum of Hadrian usually known as Castel Sant39Angelo is a towering cylindrical building made out of concrete It was initially commissioned by the Roman Emperor Hadrian as a mausoleum for himself and his family erected as an Etruscan inspired tumulus mound The building was in the 6quot century used by the popes as a fortress and castle The Castel was once the tallest building in Rome Originally the mausoleum was a decorated cylinder with a garden top and golden quadriga Water Court Hadrian s Villa Tivoli Italy Hadrian 117138 CE Hadrian s Villa is a vast estate as large and as complex as an entire city with basilicas theaters baths and terraced gardens It have been partially excavated and restored The walls are made with Opus Reticulatum Therefore the walls and the vaults had an internal body made of pozzolana concrete that allowed some vaults to stand still until now because of the resistance of the material The water court also called Piazza d oro of Hadrian s Villa is a complicated courtyard with a fourlobed vaulted structure designed with reverse curves It presents an octagonal structure called vestibule on one side and on the other side of the courtyard we can see a huge structure that presented great engineering skills since we don t understand how it could possibly be constructed at that time and it was different from any earlier example The Pantheon Rome 118128 CE Built for the Emperor Hadrian The Parthenon the most unorthodox religious building of ancient Rome was a temple dedicated to all the gods but was later consecrated as a Christian church S Maria ad Martyres in the early 7th century CE It represented the ideal of sacred governance part temple part throne room its serene hemispherical space instilled a cosmic resonance to even the smallest of human gestures Although the inscription on the entablature identifies the patron as the consul M Agrippa minister under Augustus the Pantheon is securely dated to the reign of Hadrian by the stamps on the bricks When built the Pantheon was raised above the level of the court in front of it approached by a flight of stairs Nowadays though the building is partially under the ground because of sedimentation The exterior seemed quite conventional a temple front set within a colonnaded temenos According to MacDonald the controlling geometry of the interior surface of the rotunda is generated from a vertical center line an invisible axis that rises from the middle of the paving and passes up through the center of the oculus above MacDonald equates the spherical shape of the interior with continuity and inclusive security interpreting it as a metaphor for the overarching unity of the Roman Empire itself In fact the oculus serves both as the sole source of light and as a means of removing load at the most critical point Like a Keystone in an arch the oculus works as a compression ring to lock the structure The section of the dome thickens as it descends shifting from the light square patterned dome to formidable walls 6 m thick The door was single and was made of bronze The floor is paved in circles and squares of colored marbles and granites In time people removed many external valuable pieces of architecture the pediment originally had a bronze sculptural relief The Corinthian columns of the portico have monolithic shafts of gray and rose Egyptian granite with bases and capitals of white marble In fact the Pantheon was the repository of tribute from subject lands with granite and porphyry from Egypt colored marble for its paintings from North Africa white marble for the capitals from the Aegean and pavonazzetto from Asia Minor Forum of Augustus Rome Augustus begun c2O BCE consecrated 2 BCE Like the Pantheon originally the temple stands on a podium The Forum of Augustus was built to both house a temple honoring Mars and to provide another space for legal proceedings as the Roman Forum was very crowded The initial plan called for more space than the architects had Therefore the plans were altered slightly so some asymmetry is apparent especially in the Eastern corner of the precinct These land issues as well as numerous architectural mishaps prolonged construction The incomplete forum and its temple were inaugurated 40 years after they were first vowed in 2 BC Baths of Caracalla Rome Settimio Severo c 211216 CE Baths were a place where to relax and they usually contained a library and some palestras The spaces in these baths were huge and the vaults were enormous One of the fountains is now in Piazza Farnese because in medieval time a noble man asked toe pope to collect some art pieces of Rome The construction presented many fountains and marble statues as well as black and white mosaics cheaper than colored ones Basilica Nova Basilica of Maxentius or of Constantine Rome Italy Constantine 303313 CE It is a Roman Forum but only one third of it is still standing it rested on massive piers that supported three coffered transversal barrel vaults per side It presents four huge vaults and in one of them a giant statue of the emperor was conserved The central hall imitated the scale and fluid form of the frigidarium in the recently completed Baths of Diocletian The doors present a coffering of the vaults square pattern in order to make the wall lighter and distribute its weight Marble columns stood as a decoration on the front of the building but now one of them was moved in Piazza S Maria Maggiore Arch of Constantine Rome Costantine 312315 CE Erected by the Senate and People of Rome to commemorate the battle of the Milvian Bridge against Maxentius Constantine seems to have used reliefs from monuments of earlier good emperors Trajan Hadrian and Marcus Aurelius The Senate seemed to have configured a triumphal arch originally dedicated to Hadrian and Marcus Aurelius changing the portraits on the reliefs to depict Constantine and adorned it with recycled fragments or Spolia from other monuments In fact Constantine was emulating them and wanted to be accepted and beloved by the people and the aristocracy as they were Old St Peter s Basilica Rome Constantine begun in 326 CE but replaced in the 16quot century with the actual one because of the destruction of the old one Located near the Vatican Hill it served as a funeral basilica around the tomb of Peter the first Pope A nartex served as a vestibule between the atrium and the church interior The transept a large hall perpendicular to the nave was a new feature of this building The architects took this structure from the roman basilicas and provided extra space for the clergy and accommodated pilgrims visiting the tomb of St Peter that was kept in a crypt under the abside In fact the church was built on top of the crucifixion site of St Peter inside the Circus of Nero A sparkling mosaic of Christ the Redeemer flanked by peter and Paul and the palms of Paradise covered the semidome of the apse Church of the Holy Sepulchre Jerusalem Constantine c 326350 AD Constantine connected two churches with this huge construction The entrance presented a propyleia and an atrium then a pilgrim could enter the basilica which abside enclosure the tombs of important figures in an underground crypt The court behind the abside was a transitional space between the basilica and the Rotunda that presented 12 columns covered by a dome The Rotunda was constructed over the tomb of Jesus where the Resurrection took place The second story of the rotunda was used as an ambulatory for pilgrims to imagine and commemorate the event The church built by Constantine was replaced in the 12th c with a Crusader church but thanks to the contemporary description by Eusebius Constantine39s biographer the sequence of the 4th c building complex is clear Propylaeum Atrium Basilica Courtyard Anastasis Rotunda Church of Hagia Sophia Constantinople 532537 AD Emperor Justinian I Architects Isidore of Miletus Anthemius of Tralles Built for Emperor Justinian on the site of two burned earlier churches Hagia Sophia was located near his imperial palace and contained a minimum of flammable materials with arches vaultes and a dome made of stone bricks and limeiron and timber served only as ties between arches and clamps for bonding pieces of masonry The building had no real facade but was entered via a courtyard leading to the narthex or directly from the palace by a passageway The main dome was planned to rise more than 50 m above the nave and had a diameter of 326 m The dome was also pierced at its base by 40 windows and it seemed to be standing thanks to a chain from heaven It collapsed due to a series of earthquakes in 553557 and was rebuilt at a steeper angle to prevent future collisions Now it still stands in spite of another partial collapse and reconstruction in the 10th c The four curved areas in the corners are pendentives that channel the weight of the dome down to the piers Arching out from the main piers four huge buttresses support from the outside the dome Thanks to this buttresses the church can have multiple windows since the walls does not have to sustain the immense weight of the dome Two semidomes stepped down to three smaller arches sheltering scoopedout conches at the diagonals and a barrel vault at the center The importance of the church was all about the interior space from the nartex you could see grand doors with mosaics above them The use of gold had an amazing effect and mixed with the light that entered the multiple windows around the church it created a heavenly and divine setting Not many mosaics were preserved but all the columns of both the first and second floor had remained and they are important because they present the symbol of Theodora and Justinian Once the Arabs conquered the Byzantine Empire the church became a mosque and that39s why it nowadays presents four minarets Kostof suggests Hagia Sophia serves Constantinople as its genius loci or spirit of the place having survived nearly 1500 years San Vitale Ravenna C 520547 CE It was begun when Ravenna was under control of the Ostrogoths and it was completed under Byzantine rule San Vitale is a Martyrium church that got its name from the martyr to which it was dedicated that have also been the first bishop of the city It is made out of brick masonry and it presents two rooms that sides the abside as Sant Apollinare in Classe Its dome lays on an octagonal base with exedrae semi domes on the side of the central oneThe dome shows paintings from the 17quot century The construction has many windows and presents a nartex that is not strait in front of the abside The court was first configured as a cloister for a monastery which may explain the uncanny oblique rotation of the nartex 22 from the octagonal plan The abside presents many mosaics that were messages for the population since most of them couldn39t read Sometimes emperors were represented and in San Vitale we can see two mosaics that side the abisde representing the emperor Justinian and the empress Theodora The royals are holding the Gospel and some other icons The golden is used largely also for the main mosaic on the top of the abside representing Christ and some important angels and saints In this mosaic there are also represented St Vitale and the bishop Ecclesius that started the construction He is also represented with a model of the church to underline his importance towards the development of the church The Dome of the Rock Jerusalem Abd AlMalik 691 CE The structure of the building is circular with a double ambulatory and it is very important that the mosque was built in the site of the Temple of Salomon The exterior was covered in marble and mosaics and the dome made of copper is covered with golden tesserae Its interior is covered also with mosaics The inside of the building presents some inscriptions from the Qu ran a frieze of interlacing Kufic script encircles the base of the dome The new religion rejected the representation of people and things as idolatry favoring decorative inscriptions or alfiz instead of narrative scenes with human figures Pointed arches and ablaq alternating bands of differentcolored masonry double tone characterize the arcade The Great Mosque Cordoba Abd AlRasham 785988 The caliph wanted to make the city of Cordoba the new capital of the caliphate therefore he tried to make a connection between the mosque here and the one in Damascus The building was connected with the caliph s palace and was built on the site of an earlier church Its wondrous multitude of columns capitals arches and ceiling decorations folded into the endless repetition of more than 500 arcuated bays infusing the whole with a compelling sense of unity like the waves at sea It presents a double arcade with double tone black and white The mosque was enlarged four times In 961 the third time it was enlargedthe style of the arches changed into a new pattern and they also built a Maksura private space for the caliph and his court In fact the traditions had developed and a new procession was born the caliph had to bring the Qur an in the room at the beginning of important ceremonies The Maksura presents many golden mosaics that are typical of the Byzantine empire The building presented 3 vaults that are not perfectly circular but present a ribbed pattern In 987 4th edition they enlarged the mosque utilizing again the double tone style Charlemagne s Palatine Chapel at Aachen Aachen Odo of Metz architect 792805 This church reproduced the San Vitale church in Ravenna both in its outside and inside style but the construction method changed a little in order to fit it with the different construction methods of the Franks Built entirely in stone and not in brick its structural components remained thicker leaving the interior spaces darker than those in Ravenna The church presents a gallery and a dome that was enriched with golden silver and other precious materials The alternation of black and white voussoirs in the arches similar to ablaq patterns in the great Mosque of Cordoba is a peculiarity of the church When columns and marbles for the building could not be obtained from elsewhere he had them brought from Rome and Ravenna as Spolias The building underwent many changes in time and a cathedral was also attached to it In the center of Charlemagne s courtyard stood an equestrian statue of Theodoric taken from Ravenna a perfect precedent for a barbarian king of the Romans Charlemagne s biographer Einhard tells us The Christian religion in which he had been brought up was held by Karl as most sacred in it with the greatest piety For this reason he brought at Aachen a most beautiful church Plan of St Gall Sent to Goszbert Abbot of St Gall from the Abbey of Reichenau 816837 The drawing represented an utopian monastery that represented the ideal of monastery of that time Its plan in organized and gridded and resemble a miniature city Monasteries are communes in which everybody works for the community to be self sustained For the first time I is visibly used the notion of from related to function because monks thought a monastery had to be functional and well made and not based on esthetics to better accept sacrifice The structure of the building resemble a mixture between basilicas and vernacular architecture that became this way monumental The basilica presents 2 towers at the entrance a library and many altars because there will be many priests in a monastery Having many altars could have made possible to have different reliques and shrines If it can be done the monastery should be so established that all the necessary things such as water mill garden and various workshops may be within the enclosure so that there is no necessity for the monks to go about ourside of it since that is not at all profitable for their souls In fact it presented also a hostel for pilgrims but nobody other than monks and nouns could enter the basilica Monasteries in the west were seen as centers of learning and study and they were considered secure Corvey Abbey Corvey in Westphalia 822 AD The only Carolingian example of church intact anticipated the twin towers on the facades of most of the great cathedral of northern Europe built during the eleventh to fourteenth centuries Another distinct type the double ender church with full apses in both the east and the west is also very much used by the Carolingians It presents Corinthian capitals that are spolias from some roman ruins It also presents twin towers typical of the time and a projecting porch The church is very important because presents a second story with a chapel Abbey Church of Saint Riquier Charlemagne 799 CE Saint Riquier Known as the Monastery of Centula it was built with money from the Emperor Charlemagne c 799 in the Abbacy of Angilbert It soon became the most important monastery of the Empire housing 300 monks and 100 pupils The columns of the church were spolias from Rome and symbolically espressed the will of Charlemagne to be as great as roman emperors In 789 it was decreed that all monastic orders in Carolingian empire submit to Benedictine rule It had 30 altars throughout the nave and aisles and two choirs one in the east with an altar to Saint Riquier and one in the West dedicated to the Savior The western altar held 25 relics of the Life and Passion of Christ and looked like a miniature Holy Sepuchre The church was destroyed and rebuilt during the French revolution in 1789
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