StudyingPsych212Exam1.pdf Psych 212
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ali Slomba on Sunday November 9, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 212 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Hunt in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 289 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 11/09/14
gm 1 Psvcholo2V 212 Ch 1 Victor The Wild Bov a wild boy that was captured in France 0 He was the first attempt to study human development and first on how to educate developmentally delayed 0 Introduced fundamental questions nature vs nurture 0 He showed affection and the desire to please 0 But he never learned to speak had persistent language problems and his social life was difficult autistic features 0 Other Wild Children Genie John The Ugandan Monkey Boy Oxana Ukrainian Dog Girl Main Questions of Child Development How do people change from conception up through adolescence How do they stay the same 2 Types of Developmental Changes 0 Qualitative difficult to quantify and measure difficult to anticipate 0 Example changing from nonverbal to verbal communication 0 Quantitative or amount measurable 0 Example height weight size of vocabulary Babv Biographies observing own children 0 Tiedmann 1787 observed sensory motor language and cognitive behavior pre linguistic knowledge incorrectly thought sucking was learned and not re exive 0 Darwin I877 developmental similarities common ancestors introduced questions of nature vs nurture G Stanlev Hall Father of Child Psvchologv 0 first academic journal of developmental psychology 0 wanted to study children s minds 0 first to use questionnaires pictures 0 grouped development based on types of answers correct and not correct 0 first to consider follow up questions Trend of the 19 Centurv Medicine amp Science survival rates increased immunizations Child Protective Laws child labor laws mandatory schooling truancy more time in school testing but also more hooliganism Agricultural Education extension services helping farmer and then helping farmers wife birth of HDFS Psychology a better understanding of childhood in uences a change from needing to wanting children Four Modern Goals of Child DeveloDmentwant to meet all of them 0 00 Describe when do you say your first words 1st year what are typical first sex experiences holding handskissing 02 Explain Influences how do children learn to use language listening to others what causes precocious sexual behavior family context disorder unwanted contact 0 00 Predict important will delayed language development affect speech yes does precocious sex lead to more STD s yes 0 00 Modify not always a must can therapy help speech delays yes is sex education for preteens related to lower STD s yes Four Interactive Domains of Development 1 Physical includes growth of the body brain sensory capacity and motor skills 0 Example a sickly child tallfor their size children may be teased by other kids Cognitive thoughts feelings emotions memories mental abilities learning attention language 0 Example inability to express self frustration terrible two s increases cortisol levers and evokes negative reactions in others Psychosocial primarily deals with personality and social relationships 0 Example anxiety about friendships at school can cause bedwetting which leads to worries about sleepovers Normative vs Nonnormative Normative influences that affect many or most people an event or experience that is experienced similarly by most people example most kids hit puberty between 10 and 14 years old Nonnormative influences that only occur to a small number of people unusual events that have a major impact 2 Types 0 A typical event that happens at an atypical time pituitary problem that activates puberty early happens to the majority of people just at an odd time based on time 0 An atypical event being born with a birth defect or having a rare condition not many people go through this Example Precocious Development in females attention from males earlier than other cohorts at risk for early sexual behavior which leads to risk for STD s and pregnancy tends to lead to sexualization of girl prostitot prostito Periods of Lifespan social construction periods that are based on subjective perceptions or assumptions childhood adolescence all depends on your culture and society BUT are generally widely accepted as a reality CONTEXT OF DEVELOPMENT 1 Family What is family great changes over time and place Nuclear Fami y 2 generations biological parents and children history in farming not as common today Today family more defined as economic unit cognitive and psychological measures Who do you consider to be your family Extended Family a multigenerational kinship includes grandparents cousins auntsuncles etc social roles are flexible historically common in Asian African amp Latin American cultures becoming less common Birth Order what is your role in the family Baby mascot represents innocence of the family brat treated more leniently personality not as ambitiousintelligent I Oldest 3rd parent have a lot of responsibility independent guinea pig for parents I Middle Child lost child trying to stand out drug addict clown babysitter vs babysat I Only eggs all in one basket similar to both baby and oldest babied but also responsibility as Well 2 Socioeconomic Status includes income education and occupation poor children low SES are more likely to have emotional and behavioral problems and to have poorer school performance 3 Culture amp Ethnicity 0 Culture a Way of life customs traditions and artwork relics learned behavior passed on can have geological boundaries 0 Ethnic Group shared identityattitudebelief united by ancestry religion language or origin 4 The Historical Context unique time in which people live and grow up experiences tied to time and place 0 Generational Cohort group of people that experience certain things together 0 Cohort Effects similarity due to being of the same cohort Imprinting instinctive form of learning in which during a critical period in early development a young animal forms an attachment to the first moving object it sees usually the mother Critical Period specific time when a given event or its absence has a profound and specific impact on development if specific even does not occur during this period then normal development will not occur length not fixed can sometimes be reversed it s controversial if this occurs in humans Plasticity modifiability of performance Sensitive Period times in development when a given event or its absence usually has a strong effect on development Ch 2 Theories of Development some kids are better in one model over the other 02 Passive Development 0 Mechanistic model passive people are machines reacting to environment nurture based Locke tabula rosa child is born a blank slate on which society Writes 02 Active Development 0 Organismic mode active tame children children set their own development in motion children initiate events and not just react Rousseau noble savage 0 Example Maria Montessori used What she could and used curiosity of children to teach 0 Development is bidirectional people change their world as it changes them so the best is the balance of active vs passive mechanistic vs organismic Freud s Psychosexual Theory 1900 s 0 Importance of unconscious processes and the in uence of early childhood experience 0 Sexual and aggressive energy 0 Development expressed through activities associated with different body zones 0 5 stage model problems at stage leads to fixation and Ice Berg model 0 Chair joke 0 First one to really be interested in children 5 Stages 0fPsvch0s0cial Development Freud 1 Oral approximately the first year baby engaged with the World through mouth infant derives pleasure through oral activities nursing gumming sucking biting 2 Anal about 1 to 3 years pleasure is derived through elimination acquiring control over elimination potty training about control 3 Phallic about 3 to 6 years pleasure seeking is focused on genitals attention directed towards opposite sex parent Tom Boys Mama s Boy girls Want to marry dad and vice versa 0 Fixation unresolved developmental conflicts oedipal complex castration anxiety boys jealous of father penis envy girls blame mom for lack of a penis can t compete with mom for sexual attention from dad Want to be like him 4 Latency about 7 years to puberty the stress of castration anxiety and penis envy force the child into a latency stage sexual energy is dormant While you start to develop same sex peer friendships opposite sex gross 5 Genital adolescence through adulthood final resolution of the oedipal complex start to rechannel your sexual urges into mature adult sexuality Freudian Mind Structures Ice Berg Model 0 Unconscious amp Id I Energy is like a kID kids are controlled entirely by Id I Uses pleasure principle to make decisions I In all of us all the time but we tame it I Example I want my snickers and I want it now 0 Conscious amp Ego I Immediate awareness I Egg acts as a parent to the kID I Uses reality principle I Example You must wait until after class to get your snickers 0 Preconscious amp Superego I Superego conscience incorporates society s Values I Attempting to admonish the ego guilt I Example Good job ego Because in this society we Value education it is not okay for you to disturb the class Learning long lasting change in behavior based on experience Learning Theories O 00 Behaviorism we respond based on whether the situation is painful or threatening AVOID IT or pleasurable REDO IT 0 John Watson amp Little Albert classical conditioning I showed that emotion of fear could be classically conditioned I Albert 11 month old normal orphan baby brought to J ohn s Hopkins University I Albert like the furry rat presented rat with loud crash and Albert cried because of noise and fear eventually site of rat and later anything furry and white made Albert cry I John believed that you could give him whoever and he could make them into whatever he wanted NURTURE based theory 03 Operant Conditioning 0 Reinforcement INCREASES likelihood of behavior reoccurring usually pleasant experience for child social currency what is an effective operant for that individual highly dependent upon context Example teenager hugs vs money 2 types I Positive Reinforcement applying reinforcer that increases likelihood of behavior 0 Example baby parent smiling at you young child star for potty training teen car keys for good report card or stealing for acceptance I Negative Reinforcement removing something aversive result pleasant to INCREASE the likelihood of a behavior 0 Example baby removing dirty diaper when baby cries toddler if finish food out of high chair teens no chores for getting A on homework 0 Punishment DECREASES the likelihood of a behavior reoccurring usually an unpleasant to aversive experience for child also depends on context 2 Types I Positive Punishment use last adding something aversive to weaken a behavior 0 Examples child getting spanked for sassing teen extra chores for being rude teacher gives extra homework for being disruptive detention I Negative Punishment removing something pleasant result unpleasant to weaken a behavior 0 Examples baby taking food away so can t throw it from high chair toddler time out for being sassy removing attention not reacting to cursing teen taking away car keys for breaking curfew sensitive kid you lost my trust 0 Social Learning soc cognitive Theory Bandura 0 AKA Observational LearningModeling 0 Role models big sister momdad 0 NOT actual participant of behavior 0 Observe behaviors being punishedrewarded 0 Reciprocal Determinism between child and world back and forth process that is causally related 0 Bobo Doll Study 1965 modeling of aggression model beat up doll and then children who watched pretty much did the same exact thing kids also modeled compassionate behavior in later studies 02 Cognitive Stage Theory Piaget development is a product of the child s efforts to understand and act on their own world 2 Assumptions 1 Children are born with an instinctive ability to adapt to the environment re exes 2 These instincts become organized as baby starts to interact with environment 0 3 Stages of Cognitive Growth I Organization thinking that becomes more complex and integrated with age 0 Schemes organized patterns of behavior used in different situations 0 Examples infants amp sucking schema toddlers amp fourlegged schema Adaptation schemas change through two complimentary processes cannot do both at once seesaw 0 Assimilation taking in new information and organizing it with existing information example calling a cow a dog 0 Accommodation a modification in thinking when old schemas don t fit once you accommodate doesn t mean what was there was lost Equilibrium making a constant balance between assimilation and accomodation Evolutionary Psvchologvz sociobiology 0 Ethology study of behaviors AND mental traits that have adaptive value and encourage fitness the ability to survive and reproduce 0 Adaptive purposes of behavior amp traits 0 Neoteny retention of juvenile traits cute Physical traits large heads big eyes button nose plump mouth Adaptiveness engenders care from adults protects against abuse Research Methodologv 4 DescriDtive Methods 1 Naturalistic Observation observing people and other animals in natural settings don t Want to be detected because subjects will alter behavior 0 Subiect Expectancv Effects behavior changed due to being observed 0 Examples teenagers at rave children at playground filed Work 0 Advantages 0 Can observe behaviors that for ethical reasons cannot be manipulated Example bullying on a school playground PeplerCraig physical aggression occurred about one time every 11 minutes for boys and verbal aggression occurred every 5 minutes with girls runaway teens gangs prostitution 0 High generalizability findings represent real life more so than other studies 0 Disadvantages 0 Difficult to discount biases or other factors 0 Lack of control over settings and subjects 2 Case Studies intensive investigation of one person or small group less than 10 tend to study unique conditionstraitsevents often used clinically ex childhood schizophrenia get large amounts of information records school criminal medical interviews surveys with subjects and friends amp relatives 0 Advantages get a lot of information about a person 0 Disadvantages not generalizable 3 SurveysQuestionnaires method of cognitive psych people respond directly to a structured set of questions about cognitive processes structured response set common Likert Scale scale of agreedisagree 0 Examples I feel sadhorrible social constructs and also changed for kids so they can understand operationally define on a scale of l to 6 how do you feel today lreally happy and 6really sad 4 Correlational Studies examines relationships between two variables gives us predictive value 0 Correlational Coefficients a numerical indication of relationship 0 s close to l strong 087 094 090 and 090 are equally strong 0 s close to 0 weak 014 008 010 and 010 are equally Weak 0 Positive sign same directions increase increase OR decrease decrease 0 Negative sign opposite direction increase decrease OR decrease increase 0 Examples high correlations household stress amp abuse amount of sleep amp patience high correlations vocabulary amp frustration levels knowledge of sex amp amount of sex teens Cross Sectional different ages at one time susceptible to cohort effects 0 Example knowledge about computers at age 16 and at age 70 Longitudinal same people at different times same cohort 0 Example knowledge gains with age Sequential Design 0 Longitudinal Seguential following several cohorts longitudinally looks at same people over a period of time constant gathering of data waves of data OR 0 Cross Sectional Sequential several cross sections over time looks at different aged people on the same day for many days over period of time Contextual Perspective believe development can only be understood in its social context see the individual not as a separate entity interacting with the environment but as an inseparable part of it Bioecological Theory Bronfenbrenner there are five levels of environmental influence that range from very intimate to very broad to understand the complexity of influences on development we must see a child within the context of these multiple environments Microsystem a setting in which the child interacts with others on every day facetoface basis home school neighborhood Mesosystem linkages between two or more microsystems between home and school parentteacher conference between family and peer group parents become friends with friends parents Exosystem linkages between two or more settings one of which does not contain the child interactions between microsystem and an outside system effects are indirect but still have profound effect Macrosystem society s overall cultural patterns dominant beliefs ideologies political systems values customs social systems Chronosystem effects of time on other developmental systems change or constancy in the child and the environment changes in family composition place of resident parents employment wars ideologies political system economic cycles Person is not merely an outcome of development but a shaper of it people affect their own development through their biological and psychological characteristics talents and skills disabilities and temperament This approach helps us see a variety of in uences on development Ch 3 Conceiving a New Life Fertilization gconceptionz union of sperm and ovum to produce a singlecelled zygote Alleles two or more alternative forms of a gene that can occupy the same position on paired chromosomes and affect the same trait genes that can produce different expressions of a characteristic alternative versions of the same gene Example the presence or absence of dimples Homozygous when both alleles are the same Heterozygou when the alleles are different Dominant Inheritance the dominant allele is always expressed the person will look the same whether or not he or she is homozygous or heterozygous bc the recessive allele doesn t show Recessive Inheritance person must have two recessive alleles one from each parent in recessive trait is expressed that person cannot have a dominant allele 0 Examples of Dominant vs Recessive 0 Taco tonguetongue folding inability is dominant 0 Earlobes free is dominant 0 Folding hands left on top is dominant 0 Hair whorl in back of head clockwise is dominant Polvgenetic Inheritance the interaction of many genes pattern of inheritance in which multiple genes at different sites on chromosomes affect a complex trait Mutations permanent alterations in genetic material usually produce harmful characteristics but provide the raw material of evolution Multifactorial Transmission combination of genetic and environmental factors to produce certain complex traits nature vs nurture Sex Linked Inheritance certain recessive disorders affect male and female different X chromosome male more prone because only have on X chromosome whereas females have two Gene Expression 0 Genotype actual genetic makeup or allele combinations 0 Example tongue curling ability DD or Dd 0 Phenotype observable expression of genetic makeup product of genotype 0 Example genotype hair phenotype bald Mohawk etc Heredity if a trait has the ability to be inherited in sperm cell and trait has variation in the population trait is due to genetic influence 0 Examples eye color is highly heritable 2 blueeyed patens will have a blueeyed child having 2 arms is inherited but no variation not heritable
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