Test 2 Study Guide!
Test 2 Study Guide! CLP4143
Popular in Abnormal Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Marcinak on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CLP4143 at Florida State University taught by Jesse Cougle in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Florida State University.
Reviews for Test 2 Study Guide!
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/11/15
CH4 Test 2 Study Guide CH 46 1 Development and Re exes a Start Immobile with re exes End Coordinated movement across multiple senses b We now view infants as actively interacting with their world c Re exes i ii iii iv v Inbom autonomic response to a particular stimuli Reveal s the health of a baby s nervous system 1 Decreased re exes problems with PNS 2 Exaggerated re exes problems with CNS Form basis for motor skills They are adaptive for survival many were useful before we evolved Newborn re exes disappear when frontal lobe develops d Infants discover by acting on their environment new experiences allow for new affordances The action possibilities that a situation offers based on one39s motor abilities e Infants that experienced early deprivation are below average in physical and psychological development They also experienced emotional and behavioral problems It leads to lasting cognitive deficits f Overwhelming infants with unrealistic expectations also undermines development 2 Newborn States a 5 States of Arousal i ii iii iv v b Sleep i ii iii iv c Crying i ii Regular Sleep NREM 89 hours Irregular Sleep REM 89 hours Quiet Alertness 23 hours Waking Activity and Crying 14 hours Drowsiness Varies Sleep needs decline from 18 hours to 12 hours by age 2 Circadian rhythm begins to develop Newbom39s spend more time in REM sleep than they ever will again Patterns are affected by brain development they have implications on cognitive process and disturbed cycle can be a sign of CNS abnormalities First way of communicating Causes extreme discomfort in adults iii Young infants cry most frequently because of hunger iv More responsiveness from parents leads to less crying time V Nonwestem babies cry less possibly because they are carried more 3 Learning and Memory a Operant Conditioning i Responses are limited to head turning and sucking at rst ii Reinforcers include food patterns music and voices iii Newbom39s will suck faster to receive the stimulus they want b Retention increases dramatically from 2 to 18 months c Habituation Gradual reduction in response to a stimuli i Recovery Increased response to a nw stimuli ii Infants prefer novel displays but gradually shift to prefering familiar displays 4 Motor Development a Gross Motor Development i Crawling gt Standing gt Walking b Fine Motor Development i Prereaching gt Reaching gt Ulnar Grasp gt Pincer Grasp ii Ulnar Grasp Adjusts to grip objects moves objects from hand to hand Develops around 34 months iii Pincer Grasp Develops around 9 months c Dynamic systems theory of motor development Children acquire new motor skills by combining existing skills into increasingly compleX system of actions Four factors i CNS development ii Body s movement capacity iii Child s goal iv Enviormental support d New possibilities appear as systems develop 5 Senses a Touch i Welldeveloped at birth ii Enhances interactions between parents and baby important for emotional development and reinforcers neuronal development b Taste and Smell i Newbom39s have preferences from birth 1 Prefer sweet tastes 2 Around 4 months a preference for salt develops 3 Affected by mother39s diet ii Learn to like new tastes quickly iii Can locate odors and identify odors by smell c Hearing i Can hear a wide variety of sounds at birth and can learn sound patterns in days ii Preferences 1 Complex sounds to pure Women s voices over men s because of higher pitch Mom s voice over other women s Dad s voice other men s 9599 Heartbeat over dad s voice a Possibly because of prenatal in uence iii Prepared to learn language and sensitive to voices d Vision i Least developed at birth ii Unable to see long distances or focus 6 Perception a Speech Perception i Can detect sounds from any human language ii Multisensory communication helps babies associate words with objects iii By second half of first year they can detect word order which helps with grammar b Pattern Perception i 3 weeks Poor contrast prefers simple patterns ii 2 months Can detect details in complex pattern scans internal features of the pattern iii 4 months Can detect a pattern even if the boundaries are not present iv 12 months Can detect object even if 23 s of it are missing c Face Perception i Prefer to look at simple facelike stimuli that are arranged naturally ii Prefer mother39s face over other women iii Prefer to look at attractive and smiling faces d Depth Perception i 3 types of cues 1 Kinetic motion parallax birth to 1 month 2 Binocular binocular disparity 23 months 3 Pictorial linear perspective 57 months ii The Visual Cliff More crawling experience less likely to crawl off cliff e Intermodal Perception i Birth Detect amodal sensory properties ii 34 months Prefer matching sights and sounds iii 56 months Reaching for object in dark coordinating sight and touch f Amodal Sensory Perception i Rate rhythm duration intensity texture and shape ii Provides basic for detecting intermodal relationships g Differentiation Theory i Infants search for invariant features of the environment ii Infants note stable relationships between features Patterns and intermodal relationships iii Gradually can detect finer and ner features differentiation CH5 1 Physical Growth a We grow for 20 of our life because it gives us enough time to acquire knowledge and gather necessary skills for life It is a necessary cost for a highly complex system i Boys have growth spurt later and tend to have more muscle and less fat than girls ii Secular trends most children are taller and heavier than their ancestors and reach puberty earlier b Factors that Affect Physical Growth i Heredity ii Nutrition iii Infectious disease iv Emotional wellbeing Extreme emotional deprivation affects GH production c Hormonal In uence on Physical Growth i Endocrine system Pituitary gland and hypothalamus ii Growth Hormone iii TSH promotes thyroid to release thyroxine which affects brain development and body size iv Sex Hormones l Estrogen more in girls 2 Androgens more in boys testosterone 2 Gross Motor Skills a 23 years Walks rhythmically rigid upper body pushes toy b 34 years Walks up stairs exes upper body pedals and steers 45 years Walks down stairs runs smoothly skips throws ball an 5 6 years Increased running speed rides bicycle with training wheels wholebody throwing e 712 years Increases running speed increases vertical jump increases throwing and kicking speed accuracy and distance f Gender differences i Physical 1 Small differences in childhood 2 Adolescence Boys develop more speed strength and endurance while girls develop more ne motor skills balance and agility ii Social More athletic pressure on boys g Benefits of Team Sports i Regular physical activity ii Greater selfcompetence and selfesteem iii Emphasizes teamwork improvement and effort iv High parental pressure for performance is linked to emotional difficulties 3 Brain Development a Brain is disportionately large It is 25 the size of an adult brain while the body is only 5 By age 2 the brain is 75 developed but body is only 20 b Cerebral Cortex i Largest most compleX structure in the brain ii 85 of brains weight and contains the majority of the neurons iii Last structure to stop developing in brain iv Sensitive to enviormental in uences c Plasticity i All parts of brain are not specialized in young children ii Higher plasticity higher capacity for learning iii Early eXperiences greatly affect brain organization iv Stimulation is vital v Experience dependent growth 1 Additional growth as a result of a specific individual s eXperiences 2 AKA learning vi EXperience eXpectant growth 1 Ordinary eXperiences eXpected by brain to grow normally 2 Should be in typical environment d Lateralization i Left 1 Sensory information and control of right side of body Verbal abilities Positive emotion Sequential analytical processing Sensory information and control of left side of body Spatial abilities Negative emotions Holistic and integrative processing iii Handedness re ects dominant hemisphere l 2 90 right handed left hemisphere In uenced by heredity and environment a Prenatal position b Postnatal practice e Brain development in Adolescence 1 Neurons become more responsive to excitatory neurotransmitters ii React stronger to stressful events iii Experience pleasurable events more intensely iv Uneven brain growth prefrontal corteX is not developed v Adolescence are capable of rational thinking and learning 4 Nutrition Should eat all food groups by age 1 appetite becomes unpredictable by age 2 0 FD Prefer familiar foods social environment in uences food choice i Imitates admired people ii NOT pressuring from parents helps with food acceptance iii Food Restriction Children Will request a restricted food 3X more When restricted Breast Milk i Good nutrition starts with the mother39s milk 1 9599 Malnutrition Less likely to get sick Better vision Reduces risk of breast cancer in mother Nutritionally complete Easier transition to solid food i Marasmus Wasting condition low levels of fat loose skin ii Kwashiorkor Unbalanced diet low in protein protruding belly rash iii Food insecurity Uncertain access to nutritious food 15 of US Overweight i BM1253O f g ii Child above 85th percentile Obese i BMI over 30 ii Child above 95th percentile iii 25 of american children are obese iv Causes 1 Small part is heredity 2 Response to food cues 3 Television 4 Less nightly sleep BMI is criticised because people with a lot of muscle are classi ed as overweight i BFP body fat percentage can be used instead ii Individual39s with waist more than 50 of height are overweight h Nutrition in Adolescence i i Food intake increases dramatically ii Poor food choices increase with freedom iii More family meals are linked to healthier eating Eating Disorder i Anorexia Not eating out of fear of getting fat severely underweight 1 of girls ii Bulimia Binge and purge 24 of girls feel depressed and guilty about eating habits easier to treat iii Positive correlation between facebook use and eating disorder 5 Puberty a Attain an adult size body and become capable of producing offspring b Primary sexual characteristics involve sexual organ directly i Females Ovaries uterus vagina Menarche ii Males Penis scrotum testes Spermarch c Secondary sexual characteristics visible on the outside of body that serve as a sign of sexual maturity i Females Breasts under arm and pubic hair ii Males Voice change facial hair pubic hair d Psychological impact of puberty i Biological psychological and social forces in uence development ii Industrialized nations extend period of adolescence e ParentChild Relationships i Families with more con ict feel less close ii More con icts with girls because parents place more restrictions on girls f Timing of Puberty i Early development for girls makes them unpopular withdrawn and have a negative body image Also more prone to deviant behavior ii Early development for boys makes them popular con dent and have a positive body image iii Late development for girls makes them popular sociable and have a positive body image iv Late development for boys makes them unpopular anxious attentionseeking and negative body image 6 Sexuality a North American attitude is fairly restrictive but this is not portrayed in the media Most say premarital sex is okay with committed partners Recent increase in contraceptive use 20 of americans still do not use birth control 99057 Sexual Orientation i 4 are gay or bisexual ii Genetic and enviormental factors alter hormones iii Prenatal hormone exposure iv Sequence of coming out 1 Feeling different 612 2 Confusion 1115 3 Self acceptance some never make it to here 7 Ecological Systems Theory We encounter different environments that affect our development to certain degrees a Microsystem The direct environment that we live in including the individual39s that we have direct contact with b Mesosystem The relationships between the microsystems in our lives 0 Exosystem The person does not have an active role but it still affects them d Macrosystem The actual culture ie socioeconomic status religion etc that affects daily life but the person had no control over e Chronosystem The transitions and shifts in one39s lifestyle ie the parents getting divorced directly in uences the children CH6 1 Cognitive Development a Cognition is the inner processing of the mind that lead to knowing it includes all mental processes b Research i Goals are to chart the typical course of cognition examine differences and uncover the mechanisms c Theory i ii Constructivist approach We don t start out as cognitive beings we use perceptual and motor activities to make sense of things Four broad stages characterized by different quality ways of thinking They are universal and invariant d Core Knowledge Perspective Infants are innately equipped with core domains of thought that support rapid cognitive development 2 Organization a Schemes i ii Organized ways of making sense of experience Types of Schemes l Behavioral Used to represent and respond to objects and experiences 2 Symbolic Internal mental symbols that represent aspects of experience 3 Operational Internal mental activity that one performs on objects of thought cognition b Adaptation gt examples on exam i ii Building Schemes through direct interaction with the environment Consists of 1 Assimilation Using current schemes to interpret the external world used during equilibrium 2 Accommodation Adjusting old schemes and creating new ones to better fit the environment used during disequilibrium c Organization i Rearranging and linking schemes to create a strongly interconnected cognitive system occurs internally 3 Piaget39s Stages of Cognitive Development Children construct their own knowledge through their own activity Cognitive Constructivist Maturation before learning a Sensorimotor Birth to 2 years i ii iii Can t carry out many mental activities Circular reactions infant stumbles onto new scheme but intentionally repeats it Substages 1 Re exive schemes a Birth to 1 month b Newborn re exes 2 Primary Circular reactions a 14 months b Simple motor habits centered around own body 3 Secondary Circular reactions a 48 months b Repeat interesting effects in environment 4 Coordination of secondary circular reactions a 812 months b Intentional goaldirected behavior Coordinating schemes deliberately to solve simple problems c Object permanence Understanding that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight i Babies stare at new and surprising objects for longer ii Violation of expectation method proves babies are aware of their physical world because they stare at surprising stimuli for longer 5 Tertiary Circular Reactions a 1218 months b Explore properties of objects through novel actions 6 Mental Representations a 1824 months b Internal depictions of objects and events images of people places and objects Categories Can manipulate mind c Deferred imitation iv Categorization Helps infants make sense of experience by reducing the amount of new information constantly encountered Exploration of objects and environment leads to categorization skills v Symbolic understanding 1524 months can distinguish from object and image 1 Displaced Reference Using words to cue mental images of things not physically present vi Video Deficit Infants confuse video images with reality studies show toddlers who watch tv have poor skill performance deferred imitation word learning and poor problem solving Experts recommend to not exposed children until 25 years vii Recent research has showed that the timing of these may occur sooner b Preoperational 27 years i Big Increase in mental capacity 4 ii Make believe play Develops gradually and becomes more detached from real life less selfcentered and more complex iii Drawing iv Dual representation Viewing a symbolic item as both symbolic and an object mastered at age 3 V Limitations of thought Thinking is rigid and limited to one aspect of a situation at a time 1 Egocentric Unable to see things from others perspectives Starts to develop at 18 months 2 Animistic thinking Attribute thoughts and feelings to inanimate objects because of incomplete knowledge of objects 3 Reversibility Can not reverse steps 4 Have dif culty with hierarchical classi cation vi Recent research shows that logical thinking develops more gradually c Concrete Operational 7 11 years i More logical exible and organized cognitive processing ii Begin to understand conservation reversibility and class inclusion iii Seration Ability to order items quantitatively iv Spatial reasoning develops v Limitations of thought Have trouble with abstract ideas d Formal Operational 11 years i Capacity for abstract systematic and scienti c thinking ii Hypotheticdeductive reasoning Deducing hypotheses from a general theory 1 Possibility gt reality iii Deductive reasoning iv Consequences of abstract thoughts 1 Trouble with decision making IneXperience and overwhelming options 2 Selfconsciousness and selffocusing Sensitive to criticism v Recent research shows that school age children start to develop abstract thinking Development is not as stage like e Educational principles derived from these stages are Learning by discovery and acceptance of individual differences in learning Vygotsky s Sociocultural Theory Social interactions with others construct knowledge Sociocultural constructivist Learning can lead to development a Emphasized the importance of social eXperience and language development b Private speech A foundation for higher cognitive processing Helps guide behavior When tasks are difficult after errors and When confused gradually becomes more silent c Makebelieve play Helps children separate thinking from objects strengths capacity to think before acting Helps children understand norms and expectations learn important activities in their culture It does not occur spontaneously parents must encourage d Assisted Discovery Zone of Proximal Development Tasks children can not achieve on their own but can with the assistance of adults
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'