POLC 2300 - Mid Term Study Guide
POLC 2300 - Mid Term Study Guide POLC 2300
Popular in Introduction to Comparative Politics
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Notetaker on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to POLC 2300 at Tulane University taught by Professor Mark Vail in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Comparative Politics in Political Science at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
POLC 2300 Midterm Outline Week 1 What is Comparative Politics A Mill s Comparative Methods Of the Four Methods of Experimental Inquiry C humans are not reliable variables world is unpredictable can t predict but can examine other ways look at political history case studies statistical studies comparison 1 Method of Agreement when you have the same outcome there is a prior factor C in all cases being compared and C would then be the cause 2 Method of Difference when you have different outcomes the factor that was not in common was probably the cause William Sewell Marc Bloch and the Logic of Comparative History 1 Hypothesis everything must lead back to hypothesis 2 What to Compare historical contemporaries how they in uence each other similar origins 3 Limits of Comparative History a too general b places are sometimes too far in space and time to compare c can t just compare one factor of a society must take into account all different aspects d not always hard facts when comparing Lecture Notes Week 2 The CompleXities of Historical and Political Analysis A Stephen J Gould The Hedgehog the Fox and the Magister is Pox Mending the Gap between Science and the Humanities l Punctuated Equilibrium critical junctures small moment of extreme trail and change 2 science and artshumanities coeXist study both Darwin and Shakespeare even today George Orwell Politics and the English Language 1 Faults in English Language staleness of imagery and lack of precision dying metaphors pretentious diction 2 Political Speech the use of euphemisms question begging and cloudy vagueness Thomas S Kuhn The Structure of Scientific Revolutions 1 Structure of Scientific Revolutions episodic model periods of conceptual continuity in normal science were interrupted by revolutionary science paradigm 2 Normal Science and Paradigms Shifts Aristotle Politics 1 State is natural not made human society is inevitably and naturally hierarchal 2 Pairs eXist incapable of serving without each other malefemale for reproduction 3 Household gt Village gt State gt State and the Individual 4 Man is a political animal Lecture Notes Empiricism thinking facts are xe dan rigid blinds us to explanations and inferences not effective in studying people who are unpredictable Kuhnian Paradigms scientific insight is not sudden but develops slowly Aristotle Politics is what determines who gets what how much and from whom Week 3 Classical Approaches to Political Economy Liberalism the Birth of Capitalism and the Industrial Revolution A Max Weber The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism l 2 3 capitalistic spirit existed before capitalist development ideas drove capitalism calling religious task set by Gd to work comes from Martin Luther Calvinism created the spirit of capitalism to what degree did religion help form and expand spirit of capitalism 4 Asceticism self disciple in the name of religion frugality of life opposed spontaneous enjoyment of life duty to hold money and possessions condemned dishonestlyimpulsive greed led to idea of calling people became more secular but still wanted more and more money now all we want is material goods B Adam Smith Wealth of Nations l 4 5 Division of Labor time saved more specialized skill sets increase in worker dexterity machines facilitate labor derived from tendency to truck barter and exchange society is an organic entity develops over time Money circulates consumable goods value of use in daily use and value of exchange how many good it can buy People do what s in their best interest basis of market which in turn better society gt invisible hand Moral Sentiments humans are not naturally exploitative empathy Labor Theory of value value is the function of amount of labor put into it C Robert L Heilbroner The Wonderful World of Adam Smith 1 Economic Laws of the Market desire for wealth self interest and competition prevents overcharging these opposing law balance the market Capitalism balances itself out but not in our world too many interferences such as unions monopolies etc Law of Accumulation accumulation of profits which then go back into the market higher wages gt better quailty of life longer lives Law of Population higher wages gt longer lives results should reach promised reward where poverty and wealth balance out D EJ Hobsbawn Industry and Empire An Economic History of Britain since I 750 1 Britain was wellkept good navy a lot of exports 2 Sectors of Demand Domestic Market Exports textiles Government oversee 3 Materialism Interested in actions in history events rather than ideas 4 Industrial Revolution began with cotton 5 Industrialist population divides into capitalist employers and workers 6 gt quot profit and markets drove everything 7 Iron Cage rationalization of society people stop making money for Gd and instead use it to indulge for themselves E Lecture Notes Industrial Revolution beginning of modern world began in exile industry agrarian gt towncities bad condition for workers in cities social classes form class discussion middle class and working class proletariat and bourgeois feudalism ended after revolution no more obligation to workers timing of industrialization determines characteristics Britain industrialized because of labor market and capital labor enclosure acts spenalman laws markets not natural created by deliberate political processes capital gradual expansion of money money from government and Banks contributed Adam Smith not an advocate of laissez faire government should allow economic activity to the extent that society is not being undermined Classical Liberalism government should allow economic activity market is self regulating but not selfsustaining state must regulate economic so state does not destroy itself Max Weber Western Europe not great not many resources underdeveloped BUT stands apart because of Calvanist Protestantism IDEAS consistent with capitalist productivity rationalization demystification of the Church people want direct relationship with Gd predestination damned or saved but theologically compelled to work didn t know if good or bad ending accumulate money don39t spend invest bible translated into vernacular more people involved directly with religion BELIEFS at certain timeplaces are the cause of capitalism culture Week 4 Classical Approach to Political Economy II Marx and the Critique of Capitalism A Robert L Heilbroner The Inexorable World ofKarl Marx 1 Marx and Engel believed that capitalism would collapse because it overproduces one good and underproduces another 2 dialectal materialism surplus value 4 Marx explains history in terms of class struggle for survival exploitation of one class by another 5 Communist Manifesto states revolutionary aims of communism and maintains that capitalism must destroy itself 6 Das Kapital analysis of the means of capitalism destruction economically U 7 Agrees with Labor Theory if Value pro ts come from one product LABOR 8 How capitalism destroys itself more machinery labor supply up more people looking for work wages go down revolution situation gets worse and worse for laborers B Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels T he Communist Manifesto 1 Class struggles proletariat laborers exploited REAL revolutionary class eventually destroys bourgeoisand bourgeois revolutionary role to create communism own the means of production 2 proletariats must overthrow bourgeois Proletariats have nothing to lose but their chains They have a world to win C Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels The German Ideology 1 Private Property and Communism 2 social classes derive from property revolutionary struggle 3 Communist Revolution becomes an individual collective ideals appeal to humanity ideas appeal natural and universal 4 Egosim and Communism private interests develop into class interest theory that self interest is good D Karl Marx Capital 1 Fetishism of Commodities 2 Sale of Labor Power Surplus Value E Lecture Notes Marx agrees with Smith on the division of labor is de ning characteristic of economy and that society is an organic entity but differ because Marx see division of labor as exploitative and Smith believes that division of labor is good and allow people to do what they want Working Class Alienation dehumanizing labor workers alienated from the products of their labor state always represents the ideas of the ruling class politics only further their interests bourgeois Marx as an economist understood capitalism some people today question capitalism some don39t because of alienation consumers don39t think of labor behind the product Marx vs Smith 39 time periods were different industrialization that Smith 1776 saw was different than the economic situation that Marx 1848 saw as exploitative In Smith s world the owners are the workers and in Marx s world the owners employ other workers 39 Smith believed in moral sentiments and Marx believed in exploitation Week 5 Classical Approaches to Political Economy 111 Paths to Modernization and Economic Growth A Daniel Lerner The Passing of Traditional Society Modernizing the Middle East physical mobility gt social mobility The Mobile Personality empathy ability to see a situation from someone else s perspective Mobility Multipler Mass Media urbanization gt increased literacy rates gt media participation gt political participation critical limits to urbanization function of its population 6 participatory societies depend on individual desires to participate l Uth Alexander Gerschenkron Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective 1 development in a backward country tends to differ from that of an advanced country 2 industrialization in a backward country has faster development and is more productive organized WW Rostow The Stages of Economic Growth A NonCommunist Manifesto 1 Traditional Society limited production functions gt Preconditions for TakeOff intrusion of advance countries investmentgt TakeOff self sustainable growth gt Drive to Maturity sustained progress gt Age of High Mass Consumption consumer good and services Joseph R Gusfield Tradition and Modernity Misplaced Polarities in the Study of Social Change 1 Fallacies in the assumption that tradition and modernity cannot exist together is wrong Lecture Notes post war optimism CapitalismDemocracy seines optimal future America rescued Europe containment in the Cold War Marshall Plan Europe changes to free market and democracy not just because of US Capitalism and Democracy go together All Good Things Go Together postwar rejection of Marxism capitalism seen as the solution worked in Europe why not try in Latin America etc Alliance for Progress and USAID Modernization Theory Staged Conception of History stages lead to prosperity Rostow Dichotomous View of Change countries categorized into backward and advanced rural and urban Gerschenkron Notion of Inevitable Progress desirability of modern institutions Lerner kind of Interconnectedness of All Aspects of Change democracy and capitalism go together Limitations to Modernization Theory some countries advance in one way and not another no mechanism for change why do countries change no explanation of institutional differences no explanation of different rates or processes of change empirical counterexamples tradition and modernity can mutually exist Week 6 Competing Explanations of Revolutions A Theda Skocpol States and Social Revolutions 1 Social revolution lasting transformation of a society s state and class structures 2 Structural Perspective revolutions not made they come 3 Why Russia France and China countries has longlived state and class structures wealthy and political ambitious states rebellions by lower classpeasants attempts at mass mobilization political groups B Hannah Arendt On Revolution I viewed revolution as a result of their goal goal FREEDOM revolutionary cause of freedom revolution must aim for political freedom C Samuel P Huntington Political Order in Changing Societies l The political gap gap between developed and underdeveloped countries is increasing 2 not the form of government but rather the degree of government 3 economic and political development are independent 4 Revolution rapid fundamental and violent domestic hang in dominant values and myths of a society 5 Western Pattern of Revolution political institutions collapse new political groups more and create of new political institutions 6 Eastern Pattern of Revolution new political groups new political institutions and violent overthrow of old political institutions 7 Political Mobilization moderates liberals and radical revolutionaries 8 Prerequisites for revolution political institutions that do not provide a channel for participation AND individuals desire to participate 9 Less likely to occur in democratic societies people have input 10 Lumpenproletariat Industrial Labor Middle Class Intelligentsia and Peasantry D Lecture Notes revolution is overused term relatively rare occurrences why post medieval world used to be static hierarchal and must have a State political elite AND organized political institutions and groups that want change not a revolt or rebellion Revolts 39 shortlived usually unsuccessful less organized more spontaneous don39t necessarily change order definition of revolution lasting transformation in a country s politicaleconomic social order brought about by sustained and ordered changes Skocpol 39 Social Revolution class based revolts Russia China and France involves a class upheaval 39 product of structural instability and problems 39 state is an arena for competition Arendt s View on Revolution 39 lack of freedom in early life 39 revolution as a search for freedom positive and negative freedom positive human dignity negative ending constraint 39 de ned revolution by end result not process 39 pessimistic about chances of success 39 most radical revolutionaries gt become conservative in new order Limitations doomed to fail why try also hard to compare revolutions based on failed goals Week 7 Comparative Cases of Revolution England and France A Skocpol States and Social Revolutions 1 STRUCTURE approach con icts between autocratic monarchies and landed upper gentry in France 2 revolution explanations rise of the bourgeoisie and Enlightenment critique of traditional authority 3 Class con ict was not the cause of the revolution in France 4 War and Fiscal Dilemma 5 Agrarian Structures and Peasant Insurrections B EJ Hobsbawn T he Age of Revolution 1 France massive social revolution feudal reaction sparked the revolution 2 IDEAS played huge role in revolution C Michael Walzer T he Revolution of the Saints 1 Emergence of Radical Politics the saints oppositional men who wanted change 16th century 2 Calvanist politics radicalism modernization 16th17th century crucial phase in modernization
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