Exam 2 Health Study Guide
Exam 2 Health Study Guide HEA 102-010
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cassie Ferree on Monday March 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HEA 102-010 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dina Hayduk in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 101 views. For similar materials see Intro to Health/Wellness in Health Sciences at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 03/21/16
Study Guide for Exam 2 Addiction Process st - Most people use drugs for 1 time when they are teenagers - Youth who start using a substance before the age of 15, more likely to develop a problem - Drug abuse and addiction are major burdens to a society - Anhedonia: pleasure “deafness”- no longer able to derive normal pleasure from those things that have been pleasurable in the past Withdrawal - Alcohol has the worst, could be deadly - Different with each drug Natural Rewards Elevate Dopamine - Food - Sex Drugs effect on dopamine release - Amphetamine - Cocaine - Nicotine Non-addict vs. Addict - Non-addict; drug = drug - Addict; drug = survival Stages of Addiction 1. Trying (try one, build tolerance, look further for drugs) 2. Recreational (not priority, mild consequences) 3. Abuse (treatable, believes it is recreational, abuser knows about problem last) Ex. Shoplifting, stealing, worse consequences 4. Pinned down (addicted) Addict vs. Abuser - Addict blames others, use excuses - Abuser takes ownership, feels guilt Disease Model with Biopsychosocial Perspective - Addiction is a primary, chronic disease of brain reward, motivation, memory, and related circuitry. Leads to characteristic biological, psychological, social, and spiritual manifestations. Reflected in an individual pathologically pursuing reward and or relief by substance use and other behaviors James Olds, PhD. (1922-1976) - Discovers reward system in midbrain - Mice self-administer electric currents to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the mid brain - Stopped eating, having sex, until they died Medical Disease Model of Addiction - Voluntary drug-taking/behavior becomes compulsive - Addicts cannot control their drug use/behavior like: Ex. Depression, Parkinson’s disease - Addicts cannot be held accountable *most human’s brain works forebrain to mid brain, addicts brain works mid brain to forebrain 5 levels of risks for Addiction 1. Genetics (50-60% of risk of addiction is genetic) (26 genes appear to be implicated for alcoholism) 2. Reward- dopamine 3. Memory – glutamate 4. Stress – CRF contracts dopamine 5. Choice – hypofrontality Low vs. High Responders to alcohol - Low don’t feel effect as fast as high responders Addiction Difference between an addiction and a bad habit? - Addiction has to do with brain chemicals - Addiction from Greek word meaning enslavement Terminology - Drug use – using for drug’s intended purpose - Drug misuse – using a drug for a reason other than the intended use - Drug abuse – chronic use of a drug for a reason other than its intended use Addiction Continuums - Exposure – Compulsion – Loss of Control – Negative Consequences – Repetition – Denial *more you use the more likely negative consequences are to occur DSMO V: Addiction based on Criteria: - Withdrawal – different for every drug - Relapse – unsuccessful efforts to cut down/ control - Tolerance - Using/doing for longer time or in larger amounts than intended - Continued use despite harm to self and others - Important activities given up or reduced Additional Symptoms - Compulsion - Loss of control - Negative consequences - Denial Internet, Cell Phone, Facebook, Videogame Addiction Criteria: - Pre-occupation with the ______ - Withdrawal symptoms (restlessness or irritability) - Repeated unsuccessful efforts to control, cut back, or stop using _____ - Jeopardized or lost a significant relationship, job, or education or career opportunity because of ____ Helping vs. Enabling - Helping – things people cannot do for themselves - Enabling – doing for someone things that they should be doing for themselves Drinking What is ‘a’ drink? - 1 beer = 12 oz - 1 wine = 5 oz “table wine” - 1 cocktail = 1.5 oz of 80 proof distilled spirits *all have .5-.6 of ethyl alcohol 3 beers = 3 gin tonics - Both are 3 drinks Types of Drinkers Abstainer a. Never drink b. No drinks in past year c. Fewer than 12 drinks in a lifetime d. Drinks small amount once a year Small Amount - Male: 2 or less drinks - Female: 1 or less drinks Light drinker a. Females: 3 or fewer drinks per week over 3-7 day in past year b. Males: 4 or fewer drinks per week over 3-7 day in past year * Surgeon General says moderate drinking may be beneficial, Moderate drinking constitutes as - Male: no more than 2 drinks most days of the week - Female: no more than 1 drink most days of the week Only middle-aged and above receive benefits *If you don’t drink currently, don’t start for the benefits. Can receive benefits otherwise. Moderate - Females: 3-7 drinks per week (no more than 3 in a day) - Males: 4-14 drinks per week (no more than 4 in a day) Heavy - Females: more than 1 drink most days of the week - Males: more than 2 drinks most days of the week Binge-Drinking - Females: 4 or more drinks in one sitting - Males: 5 or more drinks in one sitting *Alcoholic won’t stop when they start to feel dizzy or nauseous like a non-alcoholic would Positive of Drinking Alcohol - Heart healthy - Thins blood - Relief of stress - Social reasons - Help to sleep- causes you not to get in certain REM sleep stages - Taste Negative of Drinking Alcohol - Lack of judgement - Tolerance level unknown - Death - DUI - Car accidents - Date rape - Crimes occur, whether victim or perpetrator *liver can metabolize only one drink per hour Blackout - .2-.25 Bac - Short term memory depletes - Caused by high consumption of alcohol - Cannot tell if someone is having a blackout - Cannot remember meeting people or how they got from point A to point B Skittle Party - Steals drug from medicine cabinet, prescribed or over-the-counter - Drops drug into bowl when entering party - Then sometime throughout the party you pick a pill from the bowl Critique: no idea what you are taking, or side-effects behind drug Vaping - Marketed to help quit smoking cigarettes Keep track of nicotine intake - Flavored and more likely to do it Some kids start younger due to flavors available - Could start smoking cigarettes because it is more convenient Negatives: multiple effects that you may or may not know are effecting you *cannot say a drug doesn’t have any “negative side effects” all drugs have a negative side effects Alcohol: other than drinking? - Alcoholics may drink anything containing any type of alcohol - Used to kill bacteria - Cooking - Mucus membranes: absorb alcohol, kids try to inject alcohol anally, vaginally, or through eye-balls Medical Marijuana - More pure than buying off the street - Knowledge of dosage (THC and CDC) - Types: oil, pill, ‘charlotte’s web’ - Many different types with different percent of THC and CDC - THC is euphoria - CDC counteracts the “high” - Treats certain problems Ex. – seizures *just because things are natural doesn’t mean there are no negative side effects Hangovers - Group of unpleasant symptoms that can develop after too much alcohol Symptoms - Dehydration - Immune system depletes - Blood sugar falls - Blood vessels expand (warm when drunk) - Congeners - Irritates stomach - Sleepy - Bloodshot eyes - Rapid heartbeat Cured by: - Time, rest, and pain medication Call 911: - Confusion or stupor, as if in a daze - Persistent vomiting - Seizures - Slow breathing - Irregular breathing - Pale - Low body temperature - Unconscious Alcohol Poisoning most common reason for death: choking Example: A man and women who both weigh 170 lbs. consume the same amount of alcohol in the same amount of time. Who will have a higher BAC? - Women because women have less of an enzyme that breaks down alcohol slower. *Asians tend to have even less of an enzyme that breaks down alcohol Example 2: Identical twins - Jennifer: heavy drinker - Angie: light drinker - Jennifer and Angie go out drinking, Angie lays her head on the bar and Jennifer doesn’t seem intoxicated at all. Who has the higher BAC? - They both have the sane BAC - Tolerance only hides how drunk you really are Intimate Partner Violence - “Domestic Violence”, pattern of abusive and controlling behaviors one person uses to establish and maintain power and control over another in a current or former relationship Types of Abuse - Physical - Sexual - Emotional and psychological - Economic (abuser has power, victim not allowed to have job or abuser makes more money) - Social isolation (take away friends/ family) - Stalking/ cyberstalking (current or former relationship) Warning Signs of Abuser - Family history of abuse - Verbal abuse - Quick involvement - Restraining movement - Previous abuse - Excessively jealous - Rigid expectation (non-realistic expectation) - Isolation Barriers to Seeking Help or Leaving an Abusive Relationship - Still think abuser loves them (honeymoon phase) - Religion doesn’t allow divorce - Money - Insurance - Kids - Immigration/ deportation - Threat to hurt loved ones or themselves - Isolation - Could out person (homosexual relationship) *victims have trouble leaving *worst time for victims is after the victim leaves *victims are commonly blamed
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