Chemistry II Study Guide 2
Chemistry II Study Guide 2 ANTH 1100 350
University of Memphis
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Date Created: 03/21/16
Chemistry II Study Guide 2 Chapters 16 and 17 Ch 16 Chemical Equilibrium Dynamic equilibrium 0 Both sides of a chemical equation are happening at the same rate Equilibrium constant 0 K K is unitless Ratio of products and reactants at equilibrium Changing the concentration of anything changes everything Law of mass action K CCDd AlaBb aAbBlt gtcCdD 0 K is products over reactants o Reciprocal of reverse reaction 0 As product concentration increases the reverse reaction rate increases 0 At equilibrium concentrations are constant Reactants and products aren39t necessarily equal in amount 0 There can be product or reactant favored reactions 0 When K is greater than one 0 Product favored reaction 0 Less reactants used c When K is less than one o Reactant favored reaction 0 Less product remaining 0 For gases 0 Kp PCC x Pdd Paa x Pbb 0 Partial pressures in atm o Kp KC x RTAn Delta n is the change in moles between reactants and products o If it is zero then prill equal KC Heterogeneous Equilibrium o Liquids and solids don39t count 0 H20l lt gt Hg OH39g Kc HOH39 When in equilibrium the reaction39s net change is zero 0 ICE table 0 l initial concentration 0 C change in concentration 0 E equilibrium constant 0000 A923 A B l 10 M 0 M C X 2X E 10X 2X Ch 17 Acids Reaction quotient 0 00000 O Q Concentration ratio of the products to the reactants Helps predict the direction of the reaction If QK then the reaction is in equilibrium If Q is greater than K the reaction will proceed in the reverse direction If Q is less than K the reaction will proceed in the forward direction Q CCD 39AaBb Le Chatlier39s Principle 0 O O O Acids o o o o Bases O O 0 If a reaction is at equilibrium and you change it it will try to get back to equilibrium If you add more reactant more product will be made When you reach the new equilibrium there will be more products and reactants than you started with The K value won39t change Adding a gas or removing a gas will change the partial pressures and the equilibrium Decreasing the container volume will increase the total pressure If you increase the pressure or decrease the volume the reaction will go towards the side with fewer moles For exothermic reactions adding heat causes the reaction to go towards the reactants Changing the heat changes K Endothermic reactions are opposite Catalysts don39t change the equilibrium and Bases Sour taste Ability to dissolve metals Can neutralize bases Turns blue litmus paper red Bitter taste Feels slippery Can neutralize acids H ions cannot exist in water because it is so reactive O The ions form H3O ions Arrhenius de nition 0 O Acids produce H3O ions in water Bases produce OH39 ions in water Bronoted Lowry De ntion O O O O Acids produce H3O ions in water Bases accept H3O ions in water Acids are a proton donor Bases are a proton receiver Lewis de nition 0 Acids need an electron pair o Bases donate an electron pair Acidbase Reactions 0 Acid base gt salt water 0 Any reaction involving a H ion being transferred 0 Acid base gt conjugate base conjugate acid Base becomes the conjugate acid Acid becomes the conjugate base Polar molecules are more strongly acidic o Stronger bonds make weaker acids 0 As you move to the right and down on the periodic table the acids get stronger o The stronger the acid is the weaker the conjugate base is Oxyacids 0 Acid hydrogens attached to an oxygen atom Electrolytes 0 Strong acids are strong electrolytes because they dissociate well in solution 0 Strong acids donate practically all of their hydrogen atoms 0 Weak acids only partially dissociate
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