Clinical Psychology PSYC 3145
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Chapter 4 Study Guide These are the same important terms and ideas that are summarized at the end of the chapter Additional information that I39ve added to these will be in italicized text l have also added additional important terms and ideas at the end of the alphabetical list As you study pay particular attention to 1 the definitions for which the titles appear in BOLD print 2 the italicized information I39ve added and 3 the additional terms I39ve added at the bottom of the list These are the most important ideas and the ones most likely to appear on the exams ABAB Designs Singlecase designs that observe systematic changes in the participant39s behavior as the treatment and notreatment conditions alternate The initial baseline period is followed by a treatment period a treatment reversal period and a second treatment period An ABA design would lack the reinstatement of treatment the second B phase The research question would be answered butit would be quite unethical to leave the subject in the no treatment condition if the treatment works Analog Study A study conducted in the laboratory under conditions that are purportedly analogous to real life To study depression we might try to induce depression in animals orin nonpatient humans how about college students The weakness of analog studies is their low external validity Does depression in all adults function the same as it does with college students BetweenGroup Designs Designs in which two or more separate groups of participants each receive a different kind of treatment They are often easier to design and conduct than within group designs Case Study Method A research method consisting of the intensive description or study of one person usually a client or patient who is in treatment The case of quotAnna Oquot was a famous case study reported by Freud and Breuer Confidentiality ln research on human subjects the principle of protecting individual participants39 data from public scrutiny Confound A situation in which extraneous variables are not controlled or cannot be shown to exist equally in one39s experimental and control groups When there is a confound one cannot attribute changes in the dependent variable to the manipulation of the independent variable Ifa confound is present the research cannot be internally valid Control Group The group in an experimental design that does not receive the treatment of interest In the perfect experimental design the experimental and control groups are similar on all variables except the treatment variable Controlled Observation A research method similar to naturalistic observation in which carefully planned observations are made in reallife settings except that the investigator exerts a degree of control over the events being observed Correlation Coefficient A statistic usually symbolized by r that describes the relationship between two variables r ranges between 100 and 100 its sign indicates the direction ofthe association and its absolute value indicates the strength Correlation Matrix An array that displays the correlations between all possible pairs of variables in the array Correlational Methods Statistical methods that allow us to determine whether one variable is related to another In general correlational methods do not allow us to draw inferences about cause and effect See Table 4 2 CrossSectional Design A research design that compares different groups of individuals at one point in time Debriefing ln research on human subjects the legal requirement that researchers explain to participants the purpose importance and results of the research following their participation Deception Deception is sometimes used in research when knowing the true purpose of a study would change the participants39 responses or produce nonveridical false data Though generally considered undesirable it is acceptable when no other method will work and when the potential bene t is considered to outweigh the risks Dependent Variable The variable in an experimental design that is measured by the investigator DoubleBlind Procedure A procedure for circumventing the effects of experimenter or participant expectations In a doubleblind study neitherthe participant nor the experimenter knows what treatment the participant is receiving until the very end of the study Epidemiology The study of the incidence prevalence and distribution of illness or disease in a given population Expectations What the investigator or the research participant anticipates about the experimental outcome Experimental Group The group in an experimental design that receives the treatment of interest Experimental Hypothesis The theory or proposal on which an experimental study is based Often the hypothesis predicts the effects ofthe treatment administered Experimental Method A research strategy that allows the researcher to determine causeandeffect relationships between variables or events External Validity An experiment is considered externally valid to the extent that its results are generalizable beyond the narrow conditions of the study A frequent criticism of studies that use college students as subjects or analog studies is that the results obtained may not be quotgeneralizablequot to real world situations involving people in general Factor The hypothesized dimension underlying an interrelated set of variables For example depression anxiety anger and vulnerability are all thought to be subfactors parts of the primary factor of quotneuroticism quot Factor Analysis A statistical method for examining the interrelationships among a number ofvariables at the same time This method uses many separate correlations to determine which variables change together and thus may have some underlying dimension in common For example on a multi scale personality questionnaire one groups of scale may correlate with each other extraversion liveliness impulsivity but not with scales from another group depression anxiety obsessiveness which correlate with each other See Table 4 3 Fraudulent Data Data that are fabricated altered or otherwise falsified by the experimenter Incidence The rate of new cases of a disease or disorder that develop within a given period of time Incidence figures allow us to determine whether the rate of new cases is stable or changing from one time period to the next For example in recentyears incidence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder has been increasing whereas incidence of Con version Disorder has been decreasing Independent Variable The variable in an experimental design that is manipulated by the investigator Informed Consent In research on human subjects the legal requirement that researchers inform potential participants about the general purpose ofthe study the procedures that will be used any risks discomforts or limitations on con dentiality any compensation for participation and their freedom to withdraw from the study at any point Internally Valid An experiment is considered internally valid to the extent that the change in the dependent variable is attributable to the manipulation ofthe independent variable Eg how sure are we that the people in a treatment outcome study improved because of the treatment and not because of some other unknown factor Longitudinal Design A research design that compares the same group of individuals at two or more points in time A good research method but costly time consuming and dif cult to conduct Subject quotattritionquot loss of subjects over time is a problem Matching A term used when research participants in the experimental and control groups are quotmatchedquot or similar on variables eg age sex that may affect the outcome ofthe research Mixed Designs Research designs that combine both experimental and correlational methods In this design participants from naturally occurring groups of interest eg people with panic disorder and people with social phobia are assigned to each experimental treatment allowing the experimenter to determine whether the effectiveness of the treatments varies by group classi cation Multiple Baseline Designs Design used when it is not possible or ethical to employ a treatment reversal period In this design baselines are established for two or more behaviors treatment is introduced for one behavior and then treatment is introduced forthe second behavior as well By observing changes in each behavior from period to period one may draw conclusions about the effectiveness ofthe treatments Naturalistic Observation A research method in which carefully planned observations are made in reallife settings For example visiting a classroom several times during the course of a day Placebo Effect The case where the expectations for the experimental manipulation cause the outcome ratherthan or in addition to the manipulation itself Placebo effects can be quire powerful Prevalence The overall rate of cases new or old within a given period oftime Prevalence gures allow us to estimate what percentage of the target population is affected by the illness or disorder eg substance abuse dependence is more prevalent among men while depression is more prevalent among women Retrospective Data Data based upon people39s reports of past experiences and events People 393 recall is often NOT very accurate Risk Factor A variable eg demographic environmental that increases a person39s risk of experiencing a particular disease or disorder over his or her lifetime Scatterplot A visual representation ofthe relationship between two variables The scatterplot consists of an xaxis labeled to re ect one variable a yaxis labeled to re ect the other variable and a number of data points each corresponding to one person39s scores on both variables It is a visual representation of a quotcorrelationquot See gures 4 1 and 4 2 Chapter 3 Study Guide These are the same important terms and ideas that are summarized at the end of the chapter Additional information that I39ve added to these will be in italicized text l have also added additional important terms and ideas at the end of the alphabetical list As you study pay particular attention to 1 the definitions for which the titles appear in BOLD print 2 the italicized information I39ve added and 3 the additional terms I39ve added at the bottom of the list These are the most important ideas and the ones most likely to appear on the exams Academy of Psychological Clinical Science An organization of clinical psychology programs and clinical psychology internship sites committed to the clinical scientist model of training The academy is af liated with the American Psychological Society APS American Board of Professional Psychology ABPP An organization that offers certi cation of professional competence in many psychology specialties ABPP certi cation may be sought after 5 years of postdoctoral experience and is granted on the basis ofan oral examination the observed handling of a case and records from past cases Not to be confused with basic quotState Certi cationquot this quotspecialty certi cationquot eg neuropsychology is more dif cult to obtain than certi cation orlicensure this enhances one39s stature as a clinician Certification A professional regulation that prohibits people from calling themselves psychologists while offering services to the public for a fee unless they have been certi ed by a state board of examiners A weak form of regulation Noncerti ed people some poorly trained can still offer services to the public so long as they don t call themselves psychologists or claim to offer psychological services Client Welfare An ethical principle that calls upon psychologists to respect the integrity of their clients and to guard the relationship from exploitation This principle encompasses ethical standards such as avoiding dual relationships with clients and discontinuing treatment when it is clearly no longer bene cial Clinical Scientist Model A training model that encourages rigorous training in empirical research methods and the integration of scientific principles into clinical practice To me your professor it doesn t seem all that different from the Boulder quotScientistPractitioner model Combined ProfessionalScienti c Training Program A training model that offers a combined specialty in clinical counseling and school psychology Competence An ethical principle that calls upon psychologists to recognize the boundaries of their professional expertise and to keep up to date on information relevant to the services they provide Confidentiality An ethical principle that calls upon psychologists to respect and protect the information shared with them by clients disclosing this information only when they have obtained the client39s consent except in extraordinary cases in which failing to disclose the information would place the client or others at clear risk for harm Con dentiality is the most frequent source of ethical dilemmas for psychologists Cultural Competence A knowledge and appreciation of other cultural groups and the skills to be effective with members of these groups It is the psychologist39s responsibility to obtain that competence Diversity The presence ofdifferences or variety as in quotcultural diversityquot Changing demographics indicate that in the coming years population growth will be lowest for nonHispanic Whites Caucasians So psychologists will need to learn more about dealing with clients from different cultures Doctor of Psychology PsyD Degree An advanced degree in psychology with a relative emphasis on clinical and assessment skills and a relative deemphasis on research competence Grew out ofideas developed at the quotVailquot conference Ethical Standards As pertains to psychologists enforceable rules of professional conduct identified by the APA The ethical dilemmas reported most frequently by psychologists relate to quotcon dentiallyquot Health Maintenance Organization HMO A managed care system that employs a restricted number of providers to serve enrollees In an HMO costs for all services are xed Licensing A professional regulation that is more stringent than certi cation It speci es not only the nature ofthe title and training required for licensure but also the professional activities that may be offered for a fee Managed Care A pro tdriven corporate approach to health and mental health care that attempts to contain costs by controlling the length and frequency of service utilization restricting the types of service provided and requiring documentation of treatment necessity and ef cacy quotHealth psychologistsquot will be welcomed by managed care focus on prevention as will quotMasters le velquot professionals more cost effective Doctoral level psychologists may confront fewer job opportunities lower wages and lower pro ts in private practice Preferred Provider Organization PPO A managed care system that contracts with outside providers to supply services to members These outside providers are reimbursed for their services at a discounted rate in return for an increased number of member referrals Prescription Privileges The legal ability to prescribe medication There is currently a heated debate among clinical psychologists as to the desirability of obtaining this privilege Pro would make psychologists independent of MDs would help underserved rural populations get better care would make psychologists more quotindependentquot of psychiatrists which they currently are not would save clients time and money see Patrick DeLeon pro le 3 2 Con would deemphasize psychological treatments would harm psychology39s relationship with psychiatry would increase professional insurance costs and lead to more liability problems lawsuits see Elaine Heiby pro le 3 3 Professional Schools Schools offering advanced training in psychology that differs from training offered by traditional doctoral programs In general professional schools offer relatively little training in research emphasizing instead training in assessment and psychotherapy Non university af liated usually for pro t more expensive than a state school usually offer the Psy D degree During the 1980s and 90s the proportion of doctoral degrees in clinical psychology awarded by professional vs state schools has risen dramatically ScientistPractitioner Model The predominant training model for clinical psychologists also known as the Boulder model This model strives to produce professionals who integrate the roles of scientist and practitioner ie who practice psychotherapy with skill and sensitivity and conduct research on the hypotheses they have generated from their clinical observations Tarasoff Case A landmark 1976 case in which the California Supreme Court ruled that a therapist was legally remiss for not informing all appropriate parties of a client39s intention to harm This case legally established a therapist39s quotduty to warnquot A psychologist has a duty to protect and must break con dentiality and notify all concerned parties if a client poses a danger to others Be sure to know all of the additional Chapter 3 information below Manifesto for a Science of Clinical Psychology In this work Richard McFall outlines his vision for the Clinical Scientist model Vail Training Conference of 1973 endorsed practice oriented alternatives to the Boulder model specifically the Psy D degree and professional schools Fee for Service client simply pays the privatepractice clinician directly for services rendered managed health care has virtually made this a thing ofthe past Case Rate Managed care pays a set fee for a psychologist to handle a case from start to nish Unfortunately this encourages the psychologist to use the fewest possible number of sessions Myth of Sameness incorrect assumption that cultures do not differ with regard nature of disorders and which treatments and methods will work best Psychologists on TV APA says OK if 1 statements are researchbased 2 ethical standards are observed 3 a professional relationship in not implied Do the TV psychologists you can think of meet criteria 3 Your professor thinks that psychologists on TV damage the integrity of the profession See Box 3 1 Dual Relationships a therapist and client becoming inappropriately involved in friendships businessemployment or worst of all sexual relationships
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