Introduction to Sociology
Introduction to Sociology SOCI 2110
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Coy Wilderman on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOCI 2110 at East Carolina University taught by Andrew Jacobs in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 118 views. For similar materials see /class/221291/soci-2110-east-carolina-university in Sociology at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Chapter 5 STRATIFICATION IN THE US AND GLOBAL INEQUALITY 0 Understanding Stratification o Stratification by Social Class Social Mobility The Global Divide Social inequality condition in which members of a society enjoy different amounts of wealth prestige or power Stratification entire groups of people that perpetuate unequal economic rewards and power Income salaries and wages Wealth material assets such as land stocks and other property Ascribed status a social position quotassignedquot to a person by society without regard for that person39s unique talents or characteristics Achieved status a social position attained by a person largely through his or her own efforts Slavery most extreme form of legalized social inequality for individuals or groups Castes hereditary systems of rank usually religiously dictated that tend to be fixed and immobile Estate system or Feudalism required peasants to work land leased to them by nobles in exchange for military protection and other services Class system a social ranking based primarily on economic position in which achieved characteristics can influence social mobility Max Weber39s View of Stratification Weber used the term class to refer to a group of people who have similar level of wealth and income He used the term status group to refer to people who have the same prestige or lifestyle Power The abiliTy To exercise one39s will over oThers THORSTEIN VEBLEN noTed ThaT Those aT The Top of The social hierarchy Typically converT parT of Their wealTh inTo conspicuous consumpTion purchasing more auTomobiles Than They can reasonably use and building houses wiTh more rooms Than They can possibly occupy ObjecTive meThod researchers assign individuals To social classes on The basis of criTeria such as occupaTion educaTion income and place of residence The key To The objecTive meThod is ThaT The researcher raTher Than The person being classified idenTifies an individual39s class posiTion PresTige The respecT and admiraTion ThaT an occupaTion holds in a socieTy EsTeem The repuTaTion ThaT a specific person has earned wiThin an occupaTion Socioeconomic sTaTus SE5 a measure of social class ThaT is based on income educaTion and occupaTion AbsoluTe poverTy a minimum level of subsisTence ThaT no family should be expecTed To live below RelaTive poverTy a floaTing sTandard of deprivaTion by which people aT The boTTom of a socieTy whaTever Their lifesTyles are Judged To be disadvanTaged in comparison wiTh The naTion as a whole FeminizaTion of poverTy women have consTiTuTed an increasing proporTion of The poor people of The US Many of Them are divorced or nevermarried moThers In 1959 female householders accounTed for 283 of The naTion39s poor by 2007 ThaT figure had risen To 53 Life chances The opporTuniTies people have To provide Themselves wiTh maTerial goods posiTive living condiTions and favorable life experiences Social mobiliTy The movemenT of individuals or groups from one posiTion in a socieTy39s sTraTificaTion sysTem To anoTher Closed sysTem allows liTTle or39 no possibiliTy of moving up The slavery casTe and esTaTe sysTems of sTr aTificaTions are examples of closed sysTems In such socieTies social placemenT is based on ascr39ibed sTaTues ThaT cannoT be changed such as race or family background Hor izonTal mobiliTy an airline piloT who becomes a police officer moves from one social posiTion To anoTher39 of The same r ank Each occupaTion has The same pr esTige r anking 60 on a scale ranging from a low of 0 To a high of 100 Ver Tical mobiliTy The movemenT of person from one social posiTion To anoTher39 of a differ enT r39ank InTer gener aTional mobiliTy changes in The social posiTion of children r elaTive To Their par enTs InTr agener aTional mobiliTy changes in a person39s social posiTion wiThin his or her adulT life Colonialism occurs when a foreign power mainTains poliTical social economic and culTur al dominaTion over people for an exTended per iod Neocolonialism conTinuing dependence and foreign dominaTion Today iT can be seen in The facTor39ies and assembly planTs ThaT serve more indusTr ialized naTions including Mexico39s maquilador39as and China39s elecTr onics planTs Wor ldsysTems analysis descr ibe The unequal economic and poliTical r elaTionships in which cer Tain indusTr ialized naTions and Their global cor por aTions dominaTe The core of The world39s economic sysTem Dependency Theor y even as developing counTr ies make economic advances They remain weak and subser vienT To cor e naTions and cor por aTions In an increasingly inTer Twined global economy GlobalizaTion The worldwide inTegr aTion of gover nmenT policies culTur es social movemenTs and financial mar keTs Thr ough Trade and The exchange of ideas MulTinaTional corporaTions commercial organizaTions ThaT are headquarTered in one counTry buT do business ThroughouT The world ModernizaTion describes The farreaching process Through which developing naTions moves from TradiTional or less developed insTiTuTions To Those characTerisTics of more developed socieTies ModernizaTion Theory The funcTionalisTs view ThaT modernizaTion and developmenT will gradually improve The lives of people in The developing naTions ChapTer 6 INEQUALITY BY RACE AND ETHNICITY o The Privileges of The DominanT o The Social ConsTrucTion of Race and EThniciTy o ImmigraTion and New EThnic Groups 0 Sociological PerspecTives on Race and EThniciTy o PaTTerns of Prejudice and DiscriminaTion Racial formaTion sociohisTorical process in which racial caTegories are creaTed inhibiTed Transformed and desTroyed STereoTypes unreliable generalizaTions abouT all members of a group ThaT do noT recognize individual differences wiThin The group Racial group a group ThaT is seT aparT from oThers because of obvious physical differences Refers To Those minoriTies EThnic group seT aparT from oThers primarily because of iTs naTional origin or disTincTive culTural paTTerns Symbolic eThniciTy an emphasis on such concerns as eThnic food or poliTical issues raTher Than on deeper Ties To one39s eThnic heriTage ExploiTaTion Theory explains The basis of racial subordinaTion in The US Racism keeps members of subordinaTe groups in lowpaying Jobs Thereby supplying The capiTalisT ruling class wiTh a pool of cheap labor Moreover by forcing These works To accepT low wages capiTalisTs can resTricT The wages of all members of The proleTariaT Workers from The dominanT group who demand higher wages can always be replaced by Those from The subordinaTe group who have no choice buT To accepT lowpaying Jobs Racial profiling any arbiTrary acTion iniTiaTed by an auThoriTy based on race eThniciTy or naTional origin raTher Than on a person39s behavior ConTacT hypoThesis sTaTes ThaT inTerracial conTacT beTween people of equal sTaTus who are engaged in a cooperaTive Task will cause Them To become less prejudiced and To abandon previous sTereoTypes Prejudice a negaTive aTTiTude Toward an enTire caTegory of people ofTen an eThnic or racial group Racism The belief ThaT one race is supreme and all oThers are innaTely inferior Colorblind racism use of The principle of race neuTraliTy To defend a racially unequal sTaTus quo DiscriminaTion The denial of opporTuniTies and equal righTs To individuals and groups based on some Type of arbiTrary bias InsTiTuTional discriminaTion The denial of opporTuniTies and equal righTs To individuals and groups ThaT resulTs from The normal operaTions of a socieTy This kind of discriminaTion consisTenle affecTs cerTain racial and eThnic groups more Than oThers ChapTer 7 INEQUALITY BY GENDER o The Social ConsTrucTion of Gender 0 Sociological PerspecTives on Gender 0 Women The Oppressed MajoriTy 0 Women in The Workforce of The UniTed STaTes Gender roles as expecTaTions regarding The proper behavior aTTiTudes and acTiviTies of males and females Homophobia fear of and prejudice againsT homosexualiTy MulTiple masculiniTies men play a varieTy of gender roles including a nurTuring caring role and an effeminaTegay role in addiTion To Their TradiTional gender role of dominaTing women InsTrumenTaliTy an emphasis on Tasks a focus on more disTanT goals and a concern for The exTernal relaTionship beTween one39s family and oTher social insTiTuTions Expressiveness denoTes a concern for The mainTenance of harmony and The inTernal emoTional affairs of The family MaTrix of dominaTion The convergence of social forces ThaT conTribuTes To The subordinaTe sTaTus of These lowsTaTus women Sexism The ideology ThaT one sex is superior To The oTher Sexual harassmenT behavior ThaT occurs when work benefiTs are made conTingenT on sexual favors or when Touching lewd commenTs or The appearance of pornographic maTerial creaTes a hosTile environmenT in The workplace Glass ceiling an invisible barrier ThaT blocks The promoTion of a qualified individual in a work environmenT because of The individual39s gender race or eThniciTy Second shifT The double burdenwork ouTside The home followed by childcare and housework ThaT many women face and few men share equiTably
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