Midterm Exam 2 study guide
Midterm Exam 2 study guide GEOL 3633
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Johnwilliam Carroll on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL 3633 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr. Michael Engel in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Oceanography in Geology at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
GEOG 3633 Exam 2 Study Guide Chapters 567 Chapter 5 Water is the universal solvent Electrostatic interaction produces an ionic bond Covalent bonds are when molecules share electrons Water has covalent bonds Van der Waals force Force between atoms Because of covalent Hbonds water freezes at 0 degrees Celsius instead of 90 and boils at 100 degrees Celsius instead of 68 Surface tension attraction between surface and water molecules Capillary action attraction between positive and negative charge which allows water to move in narrow space without the assistance of gravity Heat Capacity The amount of energyjoules needed to raise 1 kg of substance by 1 degree Celsius The changing state of water helps regulate the climate Latent heat Amount of energy that is needed for a substance to change states o It takes more energy to vaporize liquid to gas than to melt solid to liquid 0 Ice is less dense than water Salinity of the ocean varies by location 0 Atlantic Ocean has a consistent amount of carbon dioxide and oxygen Paci c Ocean varies Seawater is corrosive which is why the coastlines have a lot of corrosion Fresh water has a pH value of 7neutral pH values range from 0acidic to 14base Methane is a more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide and more effective when warmed Water stays in the atmosphere for 10 days Lighter isotopesoxygen16 are easier to move via evaporation than heavier isotopesoxygen18 Salinity levels are highest in the tropics and lowest at the poles Halocline The sudden change in salinity until 1km 1000 m under water Thermocline Temperature decrease through 01km Pyrocline Increase in density from 01km Chapter 67 Summer Solstice June 21 Winter Solstice December 22 Autumn Equinox September 23 Vernal Spring Equinox March 21 Stratosphere is heated by UV ultraviolet radiation Without the ozone layer more UV radiation will reach the Earth39s surface Low pressureMoist air rising High pressureDense cold dry air sinking Lots of low pressure occurs at the equator Hadley cells Atmospheric air that moves from the equator to the poles where it gains and loses heat in a convection cycle Coriolis Effect The effect where moving objects would naturally veer right because of the Earth39s rotation Wind current are named from where they originated Ocean currents are named for where they are going The Earth39s tilt creates seasons In the daytime cool air comes from the ocean heats up and rise as it reaches the surface At night time the opposite happens Hurricanes occur in the US Cyclones occur in the Indian Ocean and Typhoon occurs in the Paci c Ocean and Eastern Hemisphere Hurricanes become stronger over water and weaken dramatically when it reachesland Seawater freezes at a lower temperature than freshwater Seawater is dense and sinks Carbon dioxide water and ozone absorbs longwave radiation from the Earth reemits it to the surface This warms the planet Land can divide ocean current into two different directions This can create an upwelling zone which is great for shing GyreAs the Earth is spinning East the water is pushed to the West which creates a cycle in the Atlantic ocean The reverse rotation happens in the Southern Hemisphere The middle of the Gyre contains low amounts of nutrients North Hemisphere cycle N AmericaEuropeAfricaS AmericaCaribbean South Hemisphere cycle AfricaS AmericaNear Antarcticalefrica Ekman Transport Ocean currents move 45 degrees right of the wind current El Nino Trade winds abate air ow in the opposite direction which cause downwelling This sinks the nutrients in the ocean which hurts biologic growth
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