Study Guide for Test 2
Study Guide for Test 2 MSCI 302
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Heidi Stephens on Monday March 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MSCI 302 at Coastal Carolina University taught by Dr. Abel in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 116 views. For similar materials see Marine Biology in Marine Science at Coastal Carolina University.
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Date Created: 03/21/16
Material covered: Chapter 3.3: Photosynthesis and Primary Production I. Phytoplankton and cyanobacteria account for 95% A. sea grass, algae, etc. B. 40-50% of photosynthesis in the world comes from the oceans II. Primary Production A. production of new plant material through photosynthesis B. gross production— total amount of organic matter C. net production— amount of production left to support other trophic levels; amount left after respiration D. productivity— 1. the rate of production per unit time per area or volume 2. primary productivity— productivity due to photosynthesis E. Measuring primary production is done through light and dark bottle experiments III.Factors that affect Primary Production: 1. grazing— in marine communities, grazers can occur at such high concentrations that phytoplankton can be wiped out in a day 2. nutrients— a surplus can cause blooms a) lowest at the surface because they are constantly used b) silicate, nitrate, phosphate c) regeneration— due to mixing (turbulence), upwelling, and convective mixing (due to seasonal changes) 3. light— sufﬁcient intensity only in limited photic zone a) too much light can decrease photosynthesis b) pigments that allow the most light absorption will show (ex: green , re, and brown algae) 4. latitudes— a) polar: (1) highest production in summer (2) stable, warm top layer (3) not affected by nutrients— light limited b) temperate: (1) varies seasonally (a)summer— lots of light (b)spring— lots of mixing leads to high nutrients (c)fall and winter— light decreases (2) both light and nutrient limited c) tropics and subtropics: (1) abundant sun throughout the year (2) no sediment load or nutrients= clear waters (3) moderate increase of solar energy in the summer= small increase of production Chapter 4: Marine Plants I. The Seaweeds— refers to macroscopic members of the following divisions A. multicellular plants that do not produce seeds or ﬂowers B. abundant on hard substrates in intertidal zones and extend 30-40 m 1. in clear waters as deep as 200 m C. tolerate or even require surf action D. structural features 1. lack roots, ﬂowers, seeds, and true leaves 2. blade— ﬂattened, broad, leaﬂike structures 3. pneumatocysts— gas-ﬁlled ﬂoats 4. stipe— ﬂexible stemlike structure 5. holdfast— attach plant to substrate E. Photosynthetic pigments 1. Red algae— Rhodophyta a) red plus blue phycobilin pigments and chlorophyll (1)some appear green (ex: nori) (2)most below low tide are soft pink to purple and red (3)usually < 1 m b) almost exclusively benthic c) some are unicellular d) 4000 species 2. brown algae— Phaeophyta a) golden xanthophyll pigments— fucoxanthin (1)combination of green and gold = olive green b) mostly benthic c) 1500 species d) only type with pneumatocysts— gas ﬁlled sacs e) largest algae— collectively known as kelp (1)dominate temperate latitudes in benthic zones 3. green algae— chlorophyll a) 7000 species, but only 13% are marine b) vary in structure— ﬁlaments, ﬂat sheets, branching forms, etc. c) usually < 1 m II. Anthrophyta— marine ﬂowering plants= leaves, stems, and roots A. abundant in localized areas along some seashores and backwater bays & sloughs B. submerged sea grass— about 60 species C. emergent ﬂowering plants— marsh grasses and mangals 1. marshes— intertidal grassland growing among estuariesfunctions— (1)buffer coastlines from storm damage and erosion (2)ﬁlter for terrestrial runoff (3)nursery for young marine ﬁshes and crustaceans 2. mangroves— dense thickets of tidal woodlands; over 80 species that just happen to live at the water’s edge a) functions— (1)important nurseries (2)prop roots provide substrate for benthic organisms (3)food for a variety of organisms (4)high primary production (5)lots of nutrients enter primary production through decaying leaves III.Geographic Distribution A. only a few factors control the presence or absence 1. water and air temperature 2. tidal amplitude 3. quality and quantity of light B. tropical western coast of Africa, west Central America, and Red Sea have impoverished red algae C. Southern Australia, South Africa, North Paciﬁc, Mediterranean Sea have thriving seaweeds a) extensively layered forests IV. Seasonal Patterns of Marine Primary Production A. warm seas— tropical and subtropical 1. resembles continuous summer in temperate seas 2. abundant light and low nutrient levels a) pycnocline blocks vertical mixing b) compensation by year-round growing season and deep photic zone c) dinoﬂagellates more abundant than diatoms 3. upwelling areas are more productive than tropical open oceans a) similar to coral reefs B. Coastal Upwelling 1. replenishes nutrients in summer 2. high production as long as light is sufﬁcient 3. duration and intensity can ﬂuctuate with atmospheric circulation 4. Washington and Oregon— variability of spring and summer wind pattern causes sporadic upwelling 5. Peru Current— intense upwelling year round interrupted only by el nino a) uncharacteristically warm waters around equator C. Polar Seas 1. light is the limiting factor a) sufﬁcient light only lasts for a few months in summer b) short summer diatom bloom declines rapidly 2. winter resembles that of a temperate winter, but much longer 3. melting ice containing phytoplankton initiate the bloom 4. Antarctic— upwelling Chapter 5: Microbial Heterotrophs and Marine Invertebrates I. Protozoans— animal-like organisms in Protista A. unicellular and heterotrophic; loose aggregates B. ingest food particles; no cell wall or chloroplasts C. mostly parasitic D. asexual reproduction E. Sarcomastigophora 1. foraminifera— calcium carbonate shelled amoeba (internal and chambered) 2. radiolarian— internal silica shell F. Cilophora— ciliates 1. tintinnids— most abundant II. Fungi— saprobes A. 1500 species are marine B. cell wall fortiﬁed with chitin C. saprobes— absorb nutrients from detritus and other non living organic matter III.Invertebrates— 97% of all animals A. Porifera— sponges B. Cnidaria— stinging animals 1. mostly marine with 10,000 known species 2. radial symmetry as either a medusa (jellyﬁsh-like) or a polyp (sessile medusa) 3. Cnidocytes— stinging cells a) nematocysts inside 4. Classes— a) Scyphozoans— jellies; reduced or absent polyp stage b) Anthozoans— sea anemones and corals; polyp form dominates c) Hydrozoans— colonial hydra and siphonophores; ex: Portuguese man-of-war d) Cubozoans— box jellies IV. Ctenophore— meaning “possessing ctene” A. exclusively marine with 100 species; all are marine and planktonic B. comb jellies— ciliary combs for movement (ctenes); not very powerful nematocysts C. carnivores D. similar to medusa form E. colloblasts— adhesive stinging cells V. acoelomates— Platyhelminthes, Nemertina, and Gnathostomulids A. Platyhelminthes B. Gnathostomulid— jaw worms; 80 species; live in sea ﬂoor deposits C. Nermerta— ribbon worms D. Kinorhyncha E. Nematoda— roundworms F. Ectoprocta VI. Marine Coelomates A. Mollusca— soft bodied organisms with a calcium carbonate shell either currently or somewhere in its evolutionary history 1. Gastropoda: 2. Bivalve: 3. Cephalopoda— squid, octopus, cuttleﬁsh, and nautilus B. Arthropoda 1. complex exoskeleton 2. 3/4 of all organisms 3. classes— a) merostomata— extinct water scorpions and extant horseshoe crabs b) pycnogonida— sea spiders c) crustacea— 68,000 species (1) decapoda— shrimp, lobster, crab 4. molting to replace shell— ecdysis 5. copepods— plaktonic crustaceans 6. barnacles— cirripedia 7. amphipod— skeleton shrimp 8. isopod— pill bugs; torso-ventrally ﬂattened 9. euphasids— krill C. chaetognaths D. echinoderms— spiny skin 1. secondarily radially symmetrical 2. asteroidea— sea stars 3. ophiuroidea— brittle stars 4. echinoidea— sea urchins, sand dollars 5. holothiurdea— sea cucumbers 6. crinoidea— similar to brittle stars E. chordates 1. sea squirt 2. urochordata— 3,000 species a) tunicates 3. cephalochordata— 30 species a) lancelets 4. vertebrates— 60,000 species Short answer section: 1. Distinguish between radial and bilateral symmetry: 2. What are the advantages of radial symmetry? 5. signiﬁcance of radial symmetry— a) better structure and orientation b) tissues can have speciﬁc functions c) active movement and response to external stimuli 3. What are the advantages of a closed circulatory system? 4. Why are there more osteichtyes than chondricthyes? • bony ﬁsh have swim bladders which allows them to rest 5. Why study sharks? • apex predators— control evolution and population size in lower trophic levels • economic value— estimated worth of $2 million over its lifetime • intrinsic value 1. threats: • ﬁnning commercial and recreational ﬁshing • • climate change • habitat destruction • marine pollution 2. Why are they so vulnerable? • slow growers • mature late • long gestation periods with small litters • speciﬁc mating and nursery areas • migratory 6. What is the CCU Shark Project? What are some of the things we catch?
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