New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Study Guide for Test 2

by: Heidi Stephens

Study Guide for Test 2 MSCI 302

Heidi Stephens
GPA 3.6

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This summarizes notes from chapters 3-6 and includes some possible short answer questions.
Marine Biology
Dr. Abel
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Marine Biology

Popular in Marine Science

This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Heidi Stephens on Monday March 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MSCI 302 at Coastal Carolina University taught by Dr. Abel in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 116 views. For similar materials see Marine Biology in Marine Science at Coastal Carolina University.


Reviews for Study Guide for Test 2


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/21/16
Material covered: Chapter 3.3: Photosynthesis and Primary Production I. Phytoplankton and cyanobacteria account for 95% A. sea grass, algae, etc. B. 40-50% of photosynthesis in the world comes from the oceans II. Primary Production A. production of new plant material through photosynthesis B. gross production— total amount of organic matter C. net production— amount of production left to support other trophic levels; amount left after respiration D. productivity— 1. the rate of production per unit time per area or volume 2. primary productivity— productivity due to photosynthesis E. Measuring primary production is done through light and dark bottle experiments III.Factors that affect Primary Production: 1. grazing— in marine communities, grazers can occur at such high concentrations that phytoplankton can be wiped out in a day 2. nutrients— a surplus can cause blooms a) lowest at the surface because they are constantly used b) silicate, nitrate, phosphate c) regeneration— due to mixing (turbulence), upwelling, and convective mixing (due to seasonal changes) 3. light— sufficient intensity only in limited photic zone a) too much light can decrease photosynthesis b) pigments that allow the most light absorption will show (ex: green , re, and brown algae) 4. latitudes— a) polar: (1) highest production in summer (2) stable, warm top layer (3) not affected by nutrients— light limited b) temperate: (1) varies seasonally (a)summer— lots of light (b)spring— lots of mixing leads to high nutrients (c)fall and winter— light decreases (2) both light and nutrient limited c) tropics and subtropics: (1) abundant sun throughout the year (2) no sediment load or nutrients= clear waters (3) moderate increase of solar energy in the summer= small increase of production Chapter 4: Marine Plants I. The Seaweeds— refers to macroscopic members of the following divisions A. multicellular plants that do not produce seeds or flowers B. abundant on hard substrates in intertidal zones and extend 30-40 m 1. in clear waters as deep as 200 m C. tolerate or even require surf action D. structural features 1. lack roots, flowers, seeds, and true leaves 2. blade— flattened, broad, leaflike structures 3. pneumatocysts— gas-filled floats 4. stipe— flexible stemlike structure 5. holdfast— attach plant to substrate E. Photosynthetic pigments 1. Red algae— Rhodophyta a) red plus blue phycobilin pigments and chlorophyll (1)some appear green (ex: nori) (2)most below low tide are soft pink to purple and red (3)usually < 1 m b) almost exclusively benthic c) some are unicellular d) 4000 species 2. brown algae— Phaeophyta a) golden xanthophyll pigments— fucoxanthin (1)combination of green and gold = olive green b) mostly benthic c) 1500 species d) only type with pneumatocysts— gas filled sacs e) largest algae— collectively known as kelp (1)dominate temperate latitudes in benthic zones 3. green algae— chlorophyll a) 7000 species, but only 13% are marine b) vary in structure— filaments, flat sheets, branching forms, etc. c) usually < 1 m II. Anthrophyta— marine flowering plants= leaves, stems, and roots A. abundant in localized areas along some seashores and backwater bays & sloughs B. submerged sea grass— about 60 species C. emergent flowering plants— marsh grasses and mangals 1. marshes— intertidal grassland growing among estuariesfunctions— (1)buffer coastlines from storm damage and erosion (2)filter for terrestrial runoff (3)nursery for young marine fishes and crustaceans 2. mangroves— dense thickets of tidal woodlands; over 80 species that just happen to live at the water’s edge a) functions— (1)important nurseries (2)prop roots provide substrate for benthic organisms (3)food for a variety of organisms (4)high primary production (5)lots of nutrients enter primary production through decaying leaves III.Geographic Distribution A. only a few factors control the presence or absence 1. water and air temperature 2. tidal amplitude 3. quality and quantity of light B. tropical western coast of Africa, west Central America, and Red Sea have impoverished red algae C. Southern Australia, South Africa, North Pacific, Mediterranean Sea have thriving seaweeds a) extensively layered forests IV. Seasonal Patterns of Marine Primary Production A. warm seas— tropical and subtropical 1. resembles continuous summer in temperate seas 2. abundant light and low nutrient levels a) pycnocline blocks vertical mixing b) compensation by year-round growing season and deep photic zone c) dinoflagellates more abundant than diatoms 3. upwelling areas are more productive than tropical open oceans a) similar to coral reefs B. Coastal Upwelling 1. replenishes nutrients in summer 2. high production as long as light is sufficient 3. duration and intensity can fluctuate with atmospheric circulation 4. Washington and Oregon— variability of spring and summer wind pattern causes sporadic upwelling 5. Peru Current— intense upwelling year round interrupted only by el nino a) uncharacteristically warm waters around equator C. Polar Seas 1. light is the limiting factor a) sufficient light only lasts for a few months in summer b) short summer diatom bloom declines rapidly 2. winter resembles that of a temperate winter, but much longer 3. melting ice containing phytoplankton initiate the bloom 4. Antarctic— upwelling Chapter 5: Microbial Heterotrophs and Marine Invertebrates I. Protozoans— animal-like organisms in Protista A. unicellular and heterotrophic; loose aggregates B. ingest food particles; no cell wall or chloroplasts C. mostly parasitic D. asexual reproduction E. Sarcomastigophora 1. foraminifera— calcium carbonate shelled amoeba (internal and chambered) 2. radiolarian— internal silica shell F. Cilophora— ciliates 1. tintinnids— most abundant II. Fungi— saprobes A. 1500 species are marine B. cell wall fortified with chitin C. saprobes— absorb nutrients from detritus and other non living organic matter III.Invertebrates— 97% of all animals A. Porifera— sponges B. Cnidaria— stinging animals 1. mostly marine with 10,000 known species 2. radial symmetry as either a medusa (jellyfish-like) or a polyp (sessile medusa) 3. Cnidocytes— stinging cells a) nematocysts inside 4. Classes— a) Scyphozoans— jellies; reduced or absent polyp stage b) Anthozoans— sea anemones and corals; polyp form dominates c) Hydrozoans— colonial hydra and siphonophores; ex: Portuguese man-of-war d) Cubozoans— box jellies IV. Ctenophore— meaning “possessing ctene” A. exclusively marine with 100 species; all are marine and planktonic B. comb jellies— ciliary combs for movement (ctenes); not very powerful nematocysts C. carnivores D. similar to medusa form E. colloblasts— adhesive stinging cells V. acoelomates— Platyhelminthes, Nemertina, and Gnathostomulids A. Platyhelminthes B. Gnathostomulid— jaw worms; 80 species; live in sea floor deposits C. Nermerta— ribbon worms D. Kinorhyncha E. Nematoda— roundworms F. Ectoprocta VI. Marine Coelomates A. Mollusca— soft bodied organisms with a calcium carbonate shell either currently or somewhere in its evolutionary history 1. Gastropoda: 2. Bivalve: 3. Cephalopoda— squid, octopus, cuttlefish, and nautilus B. Arthropoda 1. complex exoskeleton 2. 3/4 of all organisms 3. classes— a) merostomata— extinct water scorpions and extant horseshoe crabs b) pycnogonida— sea spiders c) crustacea— 68,000 species (1) decapoda— shrimp, lobster, crab 4. molting to replace shell— ecdysis 5. copepods— plaktonic crustaceans 6. barnacles— cirripedia 7. amphipod— skeleton shrimp 8. isopod— pill bugs; torso-ventrally flattened 9. euphasids— krill C. chaetognaths D. echinoderms— spiny skin 1. secondarily radially symmetrical 2. asteroidea— sea stars 3. ophiuroidea— brittle stars 4. echinoidea— sea urchins, sand dollars 5. holothiurdea— sea cucumbers 6. crinoidea— similar to brittle stars E. chordates 1. sea squirt 2. urochordata— 3,000 species a) tunicates 3. cephalochordata— 30 species a) lancelets 4. vertebrates— 60,000 species Short answer section: 1. Distinguish between radial and bilateral symmetry: 2. What are the advantages of radial symmetry? 5. significance of radial symmetry— a) better structure and orientation b) tissues can have specific functions c) active movement and response to external stimuli 3. What are the advantages of a closed circulatory system? 4. Why are there more osteichtyes than chondricthyes? • bony fish have swim bladders which allows them to rest 5. Why study sharks? • apex predators— control evolution and population size in lower trophic levels • economic value— estimated worth of $2 million over its lifetime • intrinsic value 1. threats: • finning commercial and recreational fishing • • climate change • habitat destruction • marine pollution 2. Why are they so vulnerable? • slow growers • mature late • long gestation periods with small litters • specific mating and nursery areas • migratory 6. What is the CCU Shark Project? What are some of the things we catch?


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.