Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide Biol 180
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nikki Hovland on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 180 at University of Washington taught by Scott Freeman in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 451 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology in Biology at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Biology 180 Dr Freeman and Dr Dooley Exam 1 Study Guide lmportant Principle lmportant Concept Histitliglht Term Main Ideas Covered in this Study Guide experimental design evidence of evolution Darwin s natural selection Mendel s discoveries including monohybrid and dihybrid crosses Chromosome theory of inheritance mitosis meiosis extensions to Mendel s discoveries human disease KEY VOCABULARY Note Most if not all of the key vocabulary from these sections are compiled all together here As a study method practice defining each in your own words and then APPLY themfigure out which topics they connect to and in what context they should be used 1th 3 ll u l r titan the idea that individuals can change their traits during their lifetime and pass on to offspring species evolve in a progressive manner species begin simple and at the bottom of the chain then evolve to become better and more complex progressive evolution individuals with more advantageous heritable traits produce more offspring and survive more than others who don t have the trait the ability to survive and reproduce a heritable trait that increases fitness and is passed to offspring llfllm ltiim when an individual changes in response to an environmental allenge NOT passed to offspring D l llill iw ifl tl l3rigaicimism an organism that is ideal for experiments because it is easy to obtain cheap reproduces quickly and the results can be generalizes to other species Balletlililllimgi l EUUDU llf one of Mendel s original hypothesesthe traits from the mom and dad blend together into an intermediate trait in the offspring E a factor that influences phenotype for a trait and can be passed on to offspring allele pairs separate into different gametes so that allele results separation of homologs in meiosis 1 Penullemt itOffi fl39ilil flui alleles for different genes are transmitted independently of one another opposite of dependent assortmentresults when chromosomes line up in metaphase 1 cross between one homozygous recessive parent and an unknown genotype of another m3millirfliridl mating between parents that are both heterozygous for the one trait illitlif tlilj iill a mating between parents that are heterozygous for two different genes Ti limitl39mlllier number of different TYPES of chromosomes denoted by letter n ie counting the number of chromosomes that look different from each other in humans its 23 m the number of each kind of chromosome I like to think of it as the number of SETS of chromosomeshow many of each chromosome look that same are there two long and skinny two with the same curve two short and fat 2n in humans 2n46 haploid number n is 23 x 2 46 usually given in small whole numbersgives a proportion of one traitgenotype to another flarriving must add up to onegives the percentage of genotypes or ID Emma replacement of cells in multicellular organisms results in two daughter cells that are exact copies of the parent cell otypes used for asexual reproduction in some small organisms or growth and if hen DillDlj39llill iiljilil genetic material that carries genes alleles and can be in the form of unreplicated or replicated initial flu3lmmttliEl an exact copy of a chromosome only occurs when the chromosome is in the replicated phase agrlilmat a haploid cell that results from meiosisonly has n number of chromosomes sexual reproduction in multicellular organismsreferred to as a reduction division because it results in 4 DIFFERENT haploid cells tilth ljiltrl iwillful liliil ilf limbetflflitzim2e genes are found on chromosomes supported by Mendel s principles and meiosis tillClmlCitCit i lf l ltl iv flu3nitric maafliilaimslilcugrls chromosomes that are similar in shape genes and size in a diploid organism Mlilil iiiliiflEll change in genetic material that creates a new trait only way new traits arise in terms of natural selection when two genes are transmitted together because they are located on the same chromosome one of Mendel s initial hypotheses that suggests genes for different traits are passed on to offspring see linked tr73llmgrllflcailll ttillilnlllimgrl the idea that species are unchanging and variations between species doesn t matter homozygous for a certain traital of the offspring are identical to the parents infilllj39iliil heterozygous offspring that results when two parents that are homozygous but with a different genotype 11 C ll lltlllquotilllfjtlllil having a new combination of alleles fl3min1w an allele that presents its phenotype when the individual is homozygous for it or heterozygous an allele that presents its phenotype only when it is homozygous for this allele not in heterozygotes l1quotC S anflljiliil when a section of genetic material is exchanged between the two inner nonsister chromatids of the maternal and paternal chromosomes when synapsed together the group of microtubules that attach to chromosomes and move them around in mitosis and meiosis t when two or more phenotypes show up in a population due to having more than 2 alleles for the same gene multiple allelism ex ABO blood types due two three different alleles when two phenotypes are expressed at once each phenotype associated with an allele in a heterozygote such as an individual with AB blood when a heterozygote has a phenotype that is in between the phenotypes of each of its homozygous parents genes that influence many different traits traits that vary on a range and don t necessarily fall into separate categories describes a trait as either autosomal or sexlinked and gives a particular type of dominance to an allelea way to figure out how human genotypes and phenotypes occur a family tree that helps determine the mode of transmission for a particular trait the scientific method 0 observation gt question gt hypothesis gt prediction gt testexperiment gt conclusion 0 what are the different variables 0 what is the importance of randomization in an experiment special creation and typological thinking Lamarckian evolution Danvin s evolution by natural selection Danvin s postulates what is a theory what are its components OOOOO homologous structuresthree different types genetic developmental structural vestigial traits often suggest common ancestor with other species with the same traits geographic landscapelocation of species geological time scale and fossils how do these deny special creation or Lamarckian evolution OOOOO variation amongst a population heritable traits able to pass to offspring different success in reproducing amongst individuals individuals with certain heritable traits best suited for the environment have more offspring and survive better 0 heritable variation leads to differential reproductive success adaptations vs acclimations o adaptations are not always good 0 how are adaptations and fitness related To test this theory 0000 O 0 test to see if danNin s four postulates occur in a given situationenvironment to test for natural selection simply count number of fertile offspring with the heritable trait differential reproductive success allele frequencies change in populations not individuals A39 natural selection can eventually exhaust variation His initial hypotheses o blending inheritancewhat evidence denied this 0 inheritance of acquired characteristics Lamarckian evolution His tests 0 why did he chose to use peas why did he test 7 different traits o began with first crossing pure line parents to yield all heterozygous F1 generations then allowed F1s to self fertilize and create F2 generation 0 What was significant about the 31 ratio he observed in the F2 generations Which of his initial hypotheses did it deny 0 used reciprocal crosses to confirm his results were not related to sex of the plant 0 concluded that some alleles were dominant and some were recessive and the genotypesphenotypes were distinct Dihybrid crosses and monohybrid crosses 0 000 0 always need to include each unique gamete in the cross tested dependent vs independent segregation which of these hypotheses of segregation did the dihybrid 9331 cross ratios support PRACTICE draw what independent and dependent assortment would look like if the parents crossed were AAbb and aaBB do F1 and F2 generations pay attention to ratio vs frequency 0 O O O Meiosis a reduction division two divisions sexual reproduction Mitosis growth and asexual reproduction What are the results of mitosis and meiosis How many daughter cells Are they identical or not how many chromosomes in each general phases prophase gt metaphase gt anaphase gt telophasecytokinesis Chromosomes come in different sizes and shapes 0 0 difference between chromosomes and chromatids ploidy never changes in mitosis even when chromatids separate what was a key evolutionary change that created meiosis from mitosis O homologs synapsed and lined up together on metaphase plate what structures are involved in mitosis and meiosis 0 pattern component Mendel s rules 0 process component meiosis o we can find the location of genes on chromosomes discovery of sex chromosomes and linked genes linked genes violate principle of independent segregation incomplete complete and codominance o alleles are not always recessive or dominant and often multiple alleles will code for a trait multiple allelism and lead to polymorphic traits 0 many genes can also influence more than one trait phenotypes is definitely influenced by genotype but also is a result of the individual s environment such as environment influencing an embryo as it develops 0 this is referred to as o is when one trait is controlled by the alleles of two or more different genes basically a trait is not only affect by the different alleles but the different genes AND different alleles of each occurs in discrete traits one allele can be associated with different phenotypes quantitative traits traits that don t fall in a distinct category have a normal distribution in the population Mendel worked with discrete traits but many are not discretequantitative instead in order to determine whether offspring are at risk for disease must know the mode of transmission how the genes are passed on ie autosomal or sex linked o pedigrees help organize who in the family is affected or a carrier for disease by recording relationships and phenotypes heterozygous individuals with a recessive allele for a heritable disease is a carrierthey are not affected but they can still pass on the trait to offspring 0 Note only females can be carriers for Xlinked genes males only have one X chromosome therefore cannot mask a recessive allele that leads to disease ad Xlinked recessive traits often skips generations 0 recessive autosomal phenotypes only show up in offspring if both parents have the recessive allele and pass it on STUDY QUESTIONS What is the difference between a hypothesis and prediction How do linked genes violate Mendel s principles Which one do they violate What is the pattern and process components of Chromosome Theory of Inheritance What is the difference between linked and sexlinked genes Give an example of an adaptation vs acclimation in a particular scenario gt1gtgt1gtgt1gtgt1gt What steps in meiosis 1 or 2 support the idea of independent assortment and independent segregation What is the one key difference between meiosis 1 and meiosis 2 Which division is similar to mitosis What are Danvin s four postulates Try and explain in about 5 words for each postulate If the X and Y chromosomes are considered homologs even though they differ in genetic material what might be a good explanation in terms of evolution why they pair up together but are not the same What are the three types of dominance and how do they differ Mendel initially hypothesized about blending inheritance What else is this concept similar to Why Hint think types of dominance How does the mechanism of meiosis explain inheritance In what stage of meiosis do the sister chromatids changeare no longer exact copies How do they change What are 4 key pieces of evidence that support the theory of evolution What is the key difference between Lamarck s and DanNin s ideas of evolution If you study a type of fish where n22 how many chromosomes would you see in a nonreproductive cell how many in a gamete what is the haploid number What the pattern and process components of Lamarckian evolution Compare and contrast special creation Lamarckian evolution and natural selection
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