Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide ANTH 1003
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hayley Seal on Monday March 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 1003 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Susan Johnston in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Archaeology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 03/21/16
ANTH 1003 Dr. Susan Johnston Exam 2 Study Guide *** Important sites are indicated by diamond-shaped bullet points. Symbolic Analysis Symbol = a verbal or visual representation of an idea or concept; usually culturally specific The nature of spiritual life is meaning, so it is harder to understand (top of Hawkes’ Ladder of Inference) Interpreting meaning is based on an assumption that can never be proved Modern cross-cultural ideas about art can be used to aid interpretation Certain images can suggest that they had important meaning, but not what the meaning was Understanding what the art was for is better than trying to understand what the art meant There is likely no single interpretation that can explain all early human art Issue of intentionality and functionality: if an object was intentionally made without obvious function, it can reasonably be interpreted as having symbolic meaning Symbolic interest is purely human (as far as we know) Symbolic interest of human ancestors: possible from 300,000 – 500,000 BP, but no definite proof Clear symbolic meaning and intent to represent something comes from anatomically modern humans Symbolic time lag: anatomically modern humans emerged 200,000 BP but clearly identifiable symbolism does not emerge until 100,000 – 50,000 BP. Possible explanations: Biological capability and limitations: brains required time to catch up Preservation issues: symbolic things made before 100,000 BP were not preserved in the archaeological record Cultural reasons: lack of a reason or context for symbolic meaning (symbolism is social; possibly tied into language development) Types of symbols and art: Portable art Parietal art (wall paintings) Open air sites Line drawings Tectiforms 3D depictions Finger flutings Art with “human presence” (hand shapes, depictions of people) Dating methods: Depictions of extinct animals Association of portable objects of the same style in situ that can be dated Depictions covered by cave goop or caves blocked by debris Depictions covered by and associated with archaeological deposits Radiocarbon dating of charcoal Possible interpretations of symbolism and art: Hunting ritual: animals depicted may have been important in hunting; BUT faunal remains in archaeological record don’t usually match depicted animals Art for art’s sake Structuralism: the most commonly depicted animal species/forms are most important Seasonality: correlation of art with phases of the moon Shamans and trance: part of a ritual or a result of hallucinogenic drugs The information age: depictions convey important information about group identity Archaeology, the Law, and Ethics Archaeology is practiced by museums, universities, government, and contractors/public archaeologists The archaeological legal system in the U.S. is based on land ownership: artifacts belong to the owner of the land on which they are found Problems with the U.S. archaeological legal system: No protection for archaeological resources found on private land Limited staff to enforce laws over a large amount of federal land Fines are relatively small compared to money that can be made off of looted artifacts It can be difficult to prove that specific artifacts were stolen from particular sites For prosecution, you must prove that someone knowingly damaged/stole stuff without a permit National Historic Preservation Act (1966) was designed to prevent accidental damage to sites that may be likely to yield important archaeological information National Register of Historic Places Reason for public/contract archaeology Archaeological Resources Protection Act (1979) was designed to protect known sites on federally owned land; permits may be issued for excavation or study International Law: UNESCO Convention (1970) states that countries will enforce the laws of other countries in the instance of theft or destruction of “cultural property” (broadly defined) Only applies to incidents after 1970 Archaeological law is different from ethics; ethics is about who has the right to control, display, or disrupt archaeological artifacts and human remains of a culture Ethical questions in archaeology: Elgin Marbles (1801-1816): technically Lord Elgin had legal right to (at least some) of the marbles he took, but should they be returned to Greece now as cultural heritage/property? The Dorak Affair (1958-1959): should Dorak have gone with “Anna Papastrati” in the first place, or reported her? Should he have legitimized the stolen artifacts? West Kennett Avenue and Windmill Hill (2010): should human remains be disturbed or displayed in a museum if the descendants of that individual protests? Looting destroys context, so artifacts lose much of their meaning and archaeological value Why people loot: $, misunderstanding the laws, vandalism, or a desire to own something from the past Both supply (looters) and demand (collectors, museums) may be held responsible for looting The Society of American Archaeologists has adopted principles of ethics that addresses looting No use of artifacts that are known to have been looted in research No giving a monetary value for artifacts because it encourages their commercialization Earliest Ancestors: The Lower Paleolithic (2.5 mya – 200,000 BP) Humans and our ancestors are all members of the subtribe hominin; we are currently the only living representative of hominins Human evolution is not linear but modern humans evolved generally from Australopithecines Australopithecines (4.5 – 2 mya) are bipedal hominins found only in Africa that likely made the first stone tools; replaced by the genus Homo Sites of this time period are mostly accumulations of stones and bones, not habitation sites Koobi Fora and Olduvai Gorge, Kenya (1.8 – 1.9 mya): animal bones with cut marks suggests hominins may have used tools to butcher animals; gnaw marks from predators both over and under cut marks suggests hominins were hunting and scavenging, and not living in the area Dinaledi, South Africa: probably dates to Lower Paleolithic; accumulation of H. naledi remains in cave suggests ritual behavior Tool = something made or produced for a specific purpose or use; has been modified in some way to make it useful Stone tools survive best but there may have been other tools Only hominins have elaborated tool use Stone tools: flakes are broken off of cores in a regular, patterned way --> creates core tools and flake tools Earliest stone tools were core tools with no particular identifiable shape, made c. 2.5 mya probably by Australopithecines and definitely by the earliest Homo species, H. habilis Gona, Ethiopia (2.6 – 2.5 mya): earliest accepted stone tools Dikka, Ethiopia (c. 3.3 mya) and Lomekwi, Kenya (3.3 mya) have possible evidence of earlier tool use by Australopithecines, but that is debatable Handaxes (1.8 mya – 100,000 BP) were the first tools with clearly identifiable shapes Made everywhere, but no regional variation May have been single-function, multi-function, or just the result of breaking flakes off of a core First evidence of hominins outside of Africa: 1.8 mya (Dmanisi, Georgia) Use of fire possibly as early as 1 mya, but common after 200,000 BP Used for keeping away predators, warmth, cooking food Use of fire --> control of fire --> production of fire Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa (c. 1 mya) and Gesher Benot Ya’aqov, Israel (c. 790,000 BP) indicate possible early uses of fire Sites after 1 mya are still mostly stone and bone, and mostly in caves Examples cited in class: Gran Dolina in the Atapuerca range, Spain (900,000 BP) Sima de los Huesos, Atapuerca range, Spain (500,000 – 400,000 BP): possible ritual behavior Zhoukoudien, China (460,000 – 230,000 BP): possible fire use Boxgrove, England (c. 500,000 BP): hunting Torralba and Ambrona, Spain (450,000 – 420,000 BP): hunting Terra Amata, France (190,000 – 270,000 BP) More Recent Ancestors: The Middle Paleolithic (200,000 – 40,000 BP) Homo sapiens neanderthalensis (c, 300,000 – 28,000 BP) found only outside of Africa Neanderthals compared to anatomically modern humans: Generally similar from the neck down except shorter and stockier Larger brain capacity Browridge, no chin, longer and lower skull Neanderthals had both the anatomy and (probably) brain structures for language capability Sites were mostly in caves; inhabited cold regions (Belgium, France, Israel) Significant difference in tool production: shift in emphasis from core tools to flake tools with more variation and some regionalization Most tool types are found at most sites, but there is variation in percentage of type represented Possible explanations: Cultural differences (tools serve the same function) Functional differences (tools do different things) Reduction: tools represent different stages of use over time Definitely hunted and ate meat, also ate plants that may have been cooked Buried their dead (at least 30-35 of them) but no known ritual associated with it Kebara, Israel La Chapelle-aux-Saints, France Limited symbolic thinking: some evidence for ornaments from c. 35,000 – 29,000 BP Possible parietal art, but it is from around the time when H. sapiens moved into the area Nerja Cave, Spain (c. 40,000 BP) El Castilla, Spain (c. 40,000 – 37,000 BP) Gorham’s Cave, Gibraltar (no more recent than 39,000 BP) No significant populations after 39,000 BP Modern humans emerge in Africa c. 200,000 BP, rapid movement out of Africa into the rest of the world Tools were similar to those of Neanderthals, but were more elaborate and made of more varied materials besides stone Burial of dead accompanied by ritual behavior (use of grave goods, alteration of remains) Herto, Ethiopia (150,000 – 160,000 BP): mortuary ritual suggested by removal of flesh from bones Skhül, Israel (130,000 – 100,000 BP): close location of multiple burials suggests an established grave site Symbolic behavior includes more elaborate cave art (especially France c. 32,000 BP) and portable art Differences between Neanderthals and modern humans could be because of cognitive differences, different conceptions about the world, or premature extinction of Neanderthals There was an overlap of Neanderthals and modern humans in the same general areas for at least 2000 years; no evidence of cohabitation but DNA suggests they did interbreed Explanations for the extinction of Neanderthals: Violence Diseases introduced by migrating populations of modern humans Competition with modern humans Climate change Lower reproductive rate and longer gestational period than modern humans The Upper Paleolithic See class notes; will be available online on Wednesday, March 23 .d
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