Exam2ReviewSheet.pdf Hist 1010
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Gritters on Monday March 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Hist 1010 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Dr.Bohanon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 03/21/16
History: Exam 2 Review Learning Objectives: - Frontiers on Land and Sea: Mapping Linguistic Heritages o Big Question: How can we trace the diffusion of ideas and cultures that didn’t leave documentary evidence behind? 1) Compare the diffusion of Indo-European, Bantu, and Austronesian languages? 2) Explain the difference between language family, speech community, and state? 3) Give examples of diffusion among different communities that is confirmed by linguistic evidence? - Classical Religions and Philosophies: Ideology and the Limits of Human Perception o Big Question: Why did sages from remarkably diverse cultures come to similar conclusions within a relatively short period of time? 1) Identify the major sages of the Axial Age, including where they lived and what philosophy they are associated with? 2) Compare and contrast the basic features of Axial Age religions? 3) Give examples of how the sages’ ideologies diffused through time and across space? - The Politics of Conquest: Ideologies of Coercion and Collaboration o Big Question: How did state ideologies contribute to the success of Axial Age empires? 1) Describe the origins of the Persian, Roman, Mauryan, and Chinese Empires of the Axial Age? 2) Distinguish how each empire balanced coercion and collaboration in their strategies of rule? 3) Identify examples of how ideology supported empire building in Rome, China, India, and Persia? Timeline: ? Key Concepts: Axis- everything revolves around this classical age- plato, aristotle, Jesus Axial age- Expansion- culture expanding outward Migration- moving to another place Diffusion- ideas being adopted by neighboring communities Language- think of language more as a conversion than a contagion Tree model of migration- Wave model of sound change- languages change through strategies of social distinction Settling the sea- Settling islands by leaving the correct amount of settlers on small island chains to find new places to live (the distance from the mainland will affect speech) Settling a rain forest- farming in clearings, eventually the soil loses its fertility and they have to move to another clearing, eventually the clearing will start to be fertile again, so some people will move on while others stay, they see the collection of clearings as districts, as they moved they would always meet new peoples and share technologies Grimm’s law- Spanish to English Ideology- Question 1: Cosmology- What is real? spirits, genies, gods, dark matter. Question 2: The problem of evil- Why do people suffer? Philosophy- explains reality in a way that appeals to inductive(thinking) and deductive reasoning(observing). atheisms- Animism/non.theism-all matter is pervaded by spirit Agnosticism- God might exist Atheism- God does not exist Secularism- Separation of religion from politics Skepticism- We cannot trust reason or our senses on anything, why would we trust “extrasensory” experiences Historicism/Humanism- History is created by humans only Theistic Religions- Pantheism- nature populated by spirits and gods Polytheism- worship of many gods Henotheism- worship of one god, among many Monotheism- belief that only one god exists. The African Classical age- o Afrasians Henotheism Many gods and spirits clan priests Early Judaism o Niger Congo Monotheistic + Polytheism Supreme god territorial spirits ancestors o Khoisan Animism-can participate in supernatural world o Zoroastrianism: First monotheistic faith Zoroaster Zoroastrianism: Associated with Persian empire Dualism Ahura Mazda-order vs chaos Avesta-holy text Teachings emphasize personal accountability good thoughts, good words, good deeds innovated many modern ideas Judaism o `Religion of the kingdoms of judah and israel in the land of canaan o Yahweh “jealousy” basis for monotheism o Divine laws Christianity o Jesus o Divine love is for everyone o Bible o branch of judaism Religions in india o Vedic religions 1750-500BCE polytheistic, worship through indra, god of fire rig veda=hymns of worship upanishads=worship of sages o Brahmanism~1000BCE Brahman=cast of priests & ultimate reality Reactions to Brahmanism o Jainism:confined to south africa o Mahavira, most influential jain sage Teachings are anti materialist ahimsa-nonviolence satya-speaking truth asteya-non stealing … o Buddhism:gautama siddhartha First world religion rejects casts three jewls budda dharma Sangha Chinese philosophies o Confucianism- filial piety, benevolent hierarchy, emphasis on virtue o Daoism- dao “way”, disengagement from society, emphasis on virtue, systematic observation of nature--Laozi o Legalism- order; belief that people are bad and that obedience without consideration of virtue is essential--Han Feizi o Mozi and Xunzi- universal love Greek Rationalism Mathematics- the number cult of pythagorus Atomists- Democratus, Everything is divisible except atoms Parmenides-everything is one Socrates- unexamined life isnt worth living Plato- belief in moral and metaphysical absolutes or ideals aristotle- categorization of everything Hippocrates- diagnosis Schools of thought Sophists-emphasis on rationalism, circular reasoning stocism- accept misfortune and seek good Skepticism- rationalizations arent accurate Similar conclusions o Creation from nothing o monotheism/divine unity o divine love o power of observation and quantification o limits of perception and reasoning o salvation/immortality/perfection What era came next? 300-1000 bce o post-imperial o early medieval o evangelization era o the islamic age o the dark ages o post classical Commerce-land and sea o naval warfare was underdeveloped except in the mediterranean sea Limits of expanded empires o overextension o continuity succession? o diversity how have states resolved social inequality? how have they managed cultural diversity? Compare the persian empire with the empire of alexander the great o Alexander’s conquest of persia in 334 bce Alexander's empire took over the same land of persia and he died suddenly after a drinking competition without an heir. Each ruler took a different piece of the empire and ruled for themselves. thus the alexander empire ended o Why did persia fall? Ecological factors Structural factors political ambitions of Satraps weak promotion of zoroastrianism Political factors Roman decline and collapse 250-500 ce o Overextension Sprawling size, long vulnerable land frontier hostile relations with the parthian and sasanian empires o Continuity after julius caesar, succession decided by politicized armies Emperor decided to stop expanding after reaching the rhine and this leads to competition and civil wars o Diversity? monolingualism massive slave society distinguished between citizens and subjects distinction between poor and rich persecution of christianity and judaism Migrants overwhelm roman willingness to assimilate Rome pays german warlords to defend the empire they admit 200,000 visigoths into their borders in 376 o Emperor constantine moves capital to asia minor(constantinople) o Justinian- 527-565 -reasserts roman authority in mediterranean but only during his reign China- strengths and weaknesses system of succession- chooses his favorite wife, generally the son of that wife will become the next ruler(families will start to try to look more favorable) emperors start relying on eunuchs Succession crisis- 220 ce- heavy taxation to fund military which alienates peasants o Diversity Daoist! regardes merchants as parasites another warring states period Sui dynasty- buddhist religion- legalist politics Yagdi- goes back to confucianism, builds grand canal, overextended military to try to conquer korea Li Yuan- unifies rebellion against siu taizong- begins empirical exams Empress wu- patronized buddhist clergy for political support Teotihuacan- few natural resources so they were forced to use military force to get new land and resources. Export their ideology to the mayans. Civil war Buddhism o Theravada-buddhism is achieved over several generations o Mahayana- can be achieved in one lifetime o Buddhist expansion- korean, kingdoms of silla, and kurgayo Japan- kingdom of yamato 475ce Christian expansion o slavic expansion o bulger expansion o ethiopian consolidation Islam expansion o Arab expansion Japan(the yamato state)- inspired by chinese models of architecture o confucianism o buddhism mixed with shinto Axum-Strong agriculturally, adopted christianity Syncretism- multiple religions Major and minor religions in islam o Kharaji-caliph should be most righteous o Sunni- caliph chosen by consensus o Shi’a- caliph should be most righteous of muhammad's descendants o Sufi- mystical/esoteric schools in islam Flexibility- o Christian saints o Buddhist buddhas or bodhisattvas o Muslim jinn The 3 big religions became big because- o general appeal to all persons o discard limited association with particular groups or genders o Sponsored by powerful elites o sacred texts enabled spread through trade and missions o relatively uncompromising, claim special access to god’s truth in competition with other traditions War o Islamic empire-jihad-war as religious duty o Charlemagne’s conquests of pagan germans-war in service of the church Muslim war of succession- o ummayyads o abbassid caliphate o fatimid caliphate o almoravids o islamic patronage Origins of europe o Holy roman empire Key People(s): - Frontiers on Land and Sea 1) Batwa foragers in the rainforests 2) Nilotic pastoralists in Great Lakes region 3) Cushitic pastoralists in East Africa 4) San foragers and Khoi sheep herders in Southern Africa - Classical Religions and Philosophies: 1) Moses and Abraham 2) Democritus 3) Leucippus 4) Parmenides 5) Socrates 6) Plato 7) Aristotle 8) Hippocrates - The Politics of Conquest 1) Sun Tzu 2) Shi Huangdi 3) Liu Band 4) Han Wudi 5) Ahuramazda - Commerce on Land and Sea 1) Excerpts from “The Periplus of the Erythraen Sea” - The Limits of Landed Empires 1) Alexander the Great 2) Julius Caesar 3) Visigoth’s 4) Justinian 5) Charlemagne 6) Napoleon 7) Hitler 8) Daoists 9) Jin 10)Xianbei 11)Toba Hung II 12)Yang Jian- Sui Dynasty 13)Yangdi 14)Li Yuan 15)Taizong 16)Empress Wu Key Geographical Terms: - Physical Features? - Political Features? - Endo-Europe-about 445 different languages - Niger-Congo-1525 different languages - Austronesian- 1257 different languages, (modern day taiwan) - China - Rome
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