History Midterm #2 Study Guide
History Midterm #2 Study Guide History 112
Popular in American History Since 1865
Popular in History
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sequoia Brown on Monday March 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 112 at University of South Carolina taught by Foxworth in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 154 views. For similar materials see American History Since 1865 in History at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 03/21/16
History 112 Midterm #2 Tuesday March 22, 2016 Possible Short Answer Topics for Midterm #2: 1. W.E.B. DuBois - W.E.B. DuBois was a major critique of Booker T. Washington because he thinks his ideas were ridiculous because Dubois thinks the government should get involved o Booker T. Washington (progressive)- advocates racial progress and racial uplift as strategy for achieving social equality Racial uplift is targeted for the black middle class and extends to white people for the process of racial uplift “cast down your bucket where you are”- if you are a middle class family, you are supposed to help out the people less fortunate or not as educated and lift up the race as a whole - Was a part of the Niagara Movement and the NAACP - Niagara Movement (1905) o Wanted discrimination to end and wants the government to do something about it o Did not last that long o Formed to opposed ideas of Booker T. Washington because they think action is needed for change - National Association and the Colored People (1909) o Organization that investigates discrimination and write field reports for various areas around the country 2. Social Purity Campaigns Progressive Reforms After Muller v Oregon - 1 set of safety regulation - Worker safety after Triangle Shirtwaist Fire - Social purity campaigns (more middle class tension) o : *opposing prostitution (most important), liquor, unjust social conditions, the lack of knowledge and the absence of high ideals in the mind other ‘vices’ o Woman advocate to outlaw liquor from which in ways that impact their lives and not the help of the man, only what it makes the man do to the family leads to violence to woman - Social Hygiene and Sex education o They want to protect the pure life of the ‘woman’ and make them become aware of venereal diseases 3. Zimmerman Telegram U.S Involvement in WWI - U.S was ‘neutral’ but increased trade with Britain, curbed trade with Germany after 1914 - U-boat sinks Lusitania May 7, 1915- no intervention (contributes to US getting involved) o Germans wanted the US to not get involved with the war that they had with Britain o America will continue to trade with Great Britain and Germany will continue to sink boats - “Zimmerman Telegram”- leaked February 25, 1917- possible threat of Mexico/ Germany alliance o Telegram leaked from German to German minister in Mexico, talks about the possible alliance with Mexico and America and if Mexico wants to declare war on US the Germans will help them reclaim them land o Americans feared Mexican retaliation (very defecating effects for the USA)- USA felt threatened o More American vessels sunk by German U-boats As result of Telegram: o President Wilson asks Congress for declaration of war, April 2, 1917 o Wilson asked Congress to approve a policy of ‘armed neutrality’ that would allow merchant ships to fight back against attackers - Russia pull out of WWI in 1919 because of civil war 4. Fourteen Points Fourteen Points Plan for Peace during WWI Wilson want to mediate peace and wants the world to be safe under democratic government - Wilson’s plan for new democratic world order in Europe; reflected moralism and liberal ideals - #1-5: end to secret treaties, freedom of seas, no barriers to free trade, reduction of weapons of war, right to self-determination for colonized people - #6-13- self-determination for former German territories - * very important* #14: establishment of a League of Nations - NOT passed by Congress; US did NOT join League of Nations, devastating for Wilson 5. Scopes Trial Scopes trial in Dayton, Tennessee The confrontation occurred after several southern states passed legislation against the teaching of Charles Darwin’s Theory of evolution in public schools *first trial to be covered on the radio- attacked a nationwide audience - John Scopes, biology teacher - Clarence Darrow o Defense - Williams Jennings Bryan o Prosecutor - Bryan put on the stand defend fundamentalist views - Scopes found guilty of violating ant- evolution laws - Portraying the “Monkey Trial” o Battle between the country and the city, Mencken flayed Bryan as a “charlatan, a mountebank, a zany without shame or dignity” motivated solely by “hatred of the city men who had laughed at him for so long o ridiculed nationally of being out of touch with modernity Result: - Trial revealed the disdain urban people felt for country people and the values they clung to - The KKK and revival and the Scopes trial dramatized and inflamed divisions between city and country, intellectuals and the uneducated, the privileged and the poor, the scoffers and the faithful 6. Trickle-Down Theory Herbert Hoover Theory Trickle Down Theor; Intervention at the top will eventually make its way down to consumers Assumptions a. Investment by people and business is the engine of prosperity i. His firm belief that competition is what is going to make society grow b. In times of depression, business stop investing i. No investing, nothing to move economy forward c. Interest rates go down because there is no demand d. At some point low interest rates can help stimulate the economy (as an automatic mechanism) 7. New Deal Franklin D. Roosevelt Election of 1932 “New Deal Coalition” (nontraditional Democrats) - 1 presidential act: close banks - Promises direct relief o For businesses and farmers - Proposes 3 immediate objectives o Relief, reform, and recovery Relief and Reform will be the most controversial - Provides relief to destitute - Foster the economic recovery of farms and business - Reform the government and economy in ways that would reduce risk of devastating consequences in future economic slumps o Famers are the poorest during this time because of environmental reasons o He promotes banking reform programs to help with the unemployment rate New Deal programs - All passed within the 1 100 days of Roosevelt being in office - Banking and Finance Reform - Civilian Conservation Corps o Young male unemployed workers, administered by US army reserves o Earned $30 a month, had to give $25 back to parents - Tennessee Valley Authority o Best parts of the new deal o Built damns to build electricity for low income communities Many people hired and benefitted Uses Federal money instead of State money - Works Progress Administration o Give unemployed Americans government funded jobs o Oral historians during this period- how we learned how slavery was o Established jobs to actors, dancers, musicians, photographers o ¾ jobs did involve infrastructure - Social Security o Act passed in 1935 for the elderly and handcapped o Hoover criticizes social security as a hand out More Controversial Legislation: - Agricultural Adjustment Act - National Recovery Act - Fair Labor Standards Act 1938- minimum wage law 8. Japanese American Internment -1940- Alien Registration Act a. Noncitizen adult residents must register with government December 7, 1941 b. Pearl Harbor attack; Roosevelt issues Proclamation 2525 i. Restricts travel by alien Japanese February 19, 1942 c. Executive Order 9066 i. Designates military exclusion zones and removal of dangerous persons August 12, 1942 d. Forced evacuation and removal of over 110,000 people of Japanese ancestry under administration of War Relocation Authority 10 camps across the country, forced “Loyalty Questionnaires” determined threat level 9. Double-V Campaign Fighting against Nazi Germany and its ideology of Aryan racial supremacy, Americans were confronted with the extensive racial prejudice in their own country The Pittsburgh Courier: - A leading black newspaper, asserted that the wartime emergency called for a Double V- Campaign seeking: “Victory over our enemies at home and victory over our enemies on the battlefields abroad” - A. Phillip Randolph, head of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, promised that 100,000 African America marchers would descend to Washington if the president did not eliminate discrimination in defense industries o threat of mass marches in Washington resulted in Executive Order 8802 authorized the Committee on Fair Employment Practices to investigate and prevent racial discrimination in employment 10.Iron Curtain 1946 Winston Churchill in Fulton, Missouri - A metaphor coined by Winston Churchill during his commencement address at Westminister College in Fulton, Missouri in 1946. It referred to the political, ideology, and military barriers that separated Soviet- controlled Europe from the rest of Europe and the West following WWII. - The term divided the continent for nearly 50 years - Communist governments controlled the countries along the Soviet Union’s western border, except for Finland, which remained neutral “We understand that Russians need to be secure on her western frontiers from all renewal of German aggression.. It is my duty, however, to place before you certain facts…From the Sterling in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, and iron curtain has descended across the Continent… The Communist parties, which were very small in all these eastern states of Europe, have been raised to preeminence and power far beyond their numbers and are seeking everywhere to obtain totalitarian control. Result: Stalin saw Churchill’s proposal for joint British-American action to combat Soviet aggression as a “call to war against the USSR” *Is this true? No one is sure - No one knows what the Soviet Union was up to Question: Do they want to take over the world? - The “iron curtain” is concerning for Britain and US - Churchill’s speech creates tension between US/ Britain and Soviet Union
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