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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Katherine Keller

Exam 1 Study Guide CLAS 220 001

Katherine Keller
GPA 4.0
Introduction to Classical Mythology
Jason Osborne

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About this Document

This is the Study Guide for exam 1. It covers the first 9 chapters and Hippolytus.
Introduction to Classical Mythology
Jason Osborne
Study Guide
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This 26 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katherine Keller on Monday October 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CLAS 220 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Jason Osborne in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 88 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Classical Mythology in Classical Studies at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 10/12/15
Introduction to Classical Mythology Myths 0 a story 0 usually false foundational for Greeks 0 Typically concerned with godssupernatural intertwined with religion 0 Interpretations Etiological explanatory Rationalism mythic gods reflect real rulers MetaphoricaIallegorical representation of deep truths Historical Background 0 Geography Small plains high mountains ocean Isolation of communities independence 0 Early Greece First inhabitants before 70000 BC Agricultural revolution 70004000 BC 0 Mostly farmers and small villages 0 Bronze Age c 300012001100 Minoan civilization c 26001400 BC Centered in Crete Palace culture begins 0 Came up with written language linear A 0 Extensive trade networks Sophisticated art Mycenaean civilization c 16001100 BC IndoEuropean Contact with Minoans c 2000 BC Conquer Minoans c 15001450 burn levels Adopted much of minoan culture 0 Came up with written language linear B Large cities Pylos Thebes Mycenaea Palace centers with walls 0 Very large trading nation sardinia to west africa Piracy Vikings more than high seas raiding Wanax high king with lesser officials beneath him Feudal system 0 Similar to Middle Ages 0 King with resources tempting knights to fight for them 0 Kings have no real power over subjects though first recognized gods 0 Zeus Hera Poseidon Hermes Athena Artemis Apollo Ares Dionysis 0 Local non lndoEuropean divinities also known 0 Wanax represents the gods but is not divine himself feudal type military 0 leatherbronze armor unknown tactics Chariots in Greece 1600 BC 0 troop transport prestige item Trojan War 0 Archaeological record 12501150 BC 0 Mythic record 1184 BC End of mycenaean age c 12001100 BC 0 Burn levels at main palaces 0 Loss of population power vacuum 0 Darkness descends over Greece dark age Creation Myths Parallels with other traditions Homer Hesiod o Theogony 0 87 century BC 0 Differences with Homer 0 In the beginning 0 Chaos yawning voidquot I No definite creator 0 Gaia Earth Tartarus underworld Eros love Erebus hell and Night sprung out of nowhere 0 Night and Erebus produce Aether and Day 0 Hesiod says that Eros is the most beautiful of all the gods Violent power of love precedes Aphrodite age of co nsent is 12 To some playful child of Aphrodite To the greeks it is a violent passionate love Usually makes people fall in love with the wrong person Mother Earth Female care giver First births the sky Uranus Made the mountains and the Pontus the deep 0 fthe ocean She is bringing forth things without sexual repro duc on Gaia then gets with the sky 0 Creates the Titans 0 Oceanus Coeus Crius Hyperion lapetus Theia Rhea Themis Mnemosyne Thebe Tethys Cronus o Deifications of nature 0 Parents of gods Oceanus and Tethys Oceanids rivers waters springs etc Ocean is the pathway to everything els e Hyperion and Theia Helius sun 0 Phaethon Story from Ovid s Metamorphoses Son of Helius I Proof of divinity Two themes of mythology Hub s Glory Selene moon 0 Eos or Aurora dawn o Rosy fingered dawn o Tithonus Eternal life not etern al youth Mortal man 0 Uranus and Cronus Uranus and his children Locked his kids inside of Gaia 0 Children trapped inside hurts Gaia Cronus time escapes Cronus helps plot revenge with Gaia C gets an adamantine sickle and castrates fathe r Blood of the injury creates furies giants and nymphs Uranus genitals thrown into sea 0 Mixes with sea foam and creates Aphrodite 0 Love born of violence 0 Violence transformed to love 0 Earth and sky are always together Rain produces plants Cyclopes Brontes Steropes Arges thunder lighteni ng bright make the thunderbolts for Zeus The Hundred Handers hundred arms fifty heads two legs Cottus Briareus Gyes 0 Birth of Zeus Cronus marries Rhea Hestia Demeter Hera Hades Poseidon Zeus I Circumvention of fate Devours all except Zeus Usually the revolutionaries become caught up in the revolution and gets destroyed by their own creation Counsel of Uranus and Gaia Zeus replaced with stone Hidden on Crete Zeus Rise to Power Zeus and Cronus o Overthrows father 0 Cronus forced to throw up his children 0 Theme of children overcoming parents Titanomacy o The Gods I Zeus Hestia Hera Demeter Hades Poseidon I Cyclopes I Hecatonchires I Themis and Prometheus o The Titans I Cronus and other titans o Zeus hurls his thunderbolts o The Hecatonchires hurl stones and missiles o Titans defeated and chained in Tartarus Gigantomachy o Zeus vs the giants I Giants defeated and placed under volcanos I Symbolizes fight over barbarism 0 Battle with Typhoeus I Typhoeus Born of Earth and Tartarus I 100 snake heads fire shooting from eyes I 100 different voices I Battle melted much of the Earth I Eventually defeated and hurled into Tartarus 0 Creation of mortals 0 Popular story I Created by Prometheus and given life by Athena I Crude Earth fashioned into rational being 0 Five Ages of Man I Hesoid Works and Days I All humans created by gods on Olympus Zeus I Age of Gold Existed under Cronus Carefree without toil Died in sleep Inhabit earth as holy spirits 0 Ward off evil 0 Help keep people on the right side of life Age of Silver Children for almost 100 years Lived only a short time as adults due to senselessness Arrogant did not worship the gods Hidden away by Zeus covered over by Earth Age of Bronze Warlike followed Ares Did not eat bread 0 Stable society 0 Ownership of land 0 Have to be able to defend it military 0 Have to be able to have forethought 0 Baking facilities 0 Just in general society Spend afterlife in Hades Age of Heroes Valiant in war more than just men in Bronze Demigods Age of war against Thebes Trojan War Dwell in Island of Blessed Ruled by Cronus who was released from bonds Age of Iron Age of current humans Lives of humans consumed by work and toil Good mingled with evils Dishonor gods Parents in conflict with children Might equated with right Praise for evil Shame will not exist Eventually will be overthrown also 0 Prometheus lapetus and Clymene Prometheus protector of man Epimethius Idiot brother Tricking Zeus How to make a sacrifice o Wrapped flesh and fat in ox hide o Wrapped bones in ox fat 0 Zeus never deceived Zeus denies humans fire 0 Prometheus steals fire in fennel stalk o Gives it to men Prometheus Bound o Chained to rock as punishment 0 Eagle eats his liver everyday Epitome of reason and wisdom rejects gods in favor of truth Pandora Used to get back at humans for sacrifice and fire Given clothing and wisdom by Athena grace an d sorrows by Aphrodite attitude of bitchshamel ess and the character of a thief by Hermes Given a jar filled with evil Given to Epimetheus brother of Prometheus Pandora opened the jar of evil which left the jar and evilsdisease scattered throughout earth Hope alone remained in jar final punishment 0 Pandora alone has the hope 0 Men can only survive the world through a relationship with women 0 Zeus and lo lo priestess of Hera Loved by Zeus but hated by Hera Zeus deception Transformed lo into a cow Hera remains suspicious and places guard over lo Guard is Argos Panoptes has 100 eyes Zeus sends in Hermes messengerthief of the gods 0 Hermes tells Argos stories until he falls asleep and cuts off his head 0 Eyes of Argos set into tail of peacock Hera s revenge Sends gadfly after lo 0 She is driven to Egypt Transformed back into a woman and bears Epaphus o The Wickedness of Mortals Zeus and Lycaon Zeus plans to test mortals Lycaon despises the gods murders guests eats human flesh 0 Hospitality is a big thing House destroyed by Zeus Turned into wolf o Lycanthropy The flood The destruction of humanity Survivors of flood starved Common mythological theme Deucalion and Pyrrha 0 Last remaining mortals Just and devout Continue in devotion to gods Prayer in Themis Recreation of mankind Tossing stones over their shoulder to make humans Bones are rocks earth is flesh Prometheus Bound Some themes 0 Defiance of the gods 0 Suffering for principles 0 Individual vs society 0 Dangers of tyranny The situation 0 Aftermath of Titanomachy and Gigantomacy o Olympians gods as rulers of the universe 0 Enemies of Zeus punished harshly 0 From 5th century BC when Athenians have many new ideas in play Tyranny Stasis in Greek citystates o Wars among the Aristocrats Rise of tyrants o Defenders of middle class 0 Rule without legal restraint 0 Building programs 0 Support for the arts 0 Second generation 0 Overthrow of Peisistratids o Tyrannicides I Groups wanting to destroy tyranny o The Athenian Democracy Conflict with Persia 0 Battle of Marathon 490 Tyranny tries to come back and take over Athenian Democracy with support of Persia o Prometheus Bound 480s Zeus as tyrant Zeus as a forceful takeover If you wanted to talk about politics talk through mythology extended metaphor Prometheus Bound talks about politics of the day everyone new to power is harshquot Paranoia stemming from absolute power Prometheus as a trickster and savior of mankind Sophists in Athens 0 Value of rhetoric o Relativity of truth 0 Leaders of nation into destruction 0 The professional teachers of Athens Saved humans from Zeus destruction 0 Stopped them from brooding on death by giving them blind hope Fire 0 Numbers letters building skills domestication of animals shipbuilding Medicine prophecy burning offerings use of metals Prometheus Unrepentent He admits to doing wrong but he chose to do so Reactions of the gods 0 Human reactions to tyranny 0 Fear 0 Obedience o Devotion o Pity for victims Hephaistos o Pity but unwillingness to help Okeanos 0 Advice don t resist irresistible force Chorus 0 Lectured The Olympians 14 major deities o Zeus Hera Poseidon Hades Hestia Hephaestus Ares Apollo Artemis Demeter Aphrodite Athena Hermes o Dionysus Reduced to 12 o Hades I Lives under the Earth Rarely on Olympus 0 Hestia Replaced with Dionysus Virgin goddess Goddess of hearth sacred fire Hearth associated with home important for community and civilization OOOOOOOOOOOO Zeus o Amorous I Numerous affairs offspring 0 Associated with thunder and lightning 0 Bears the Aegis Goat skin covered shield Head of Gorgon o Exemplifies divine justice If you sin Zeus will get you o Portrayed differently by different authors 0 Never absolute patriarchy Fates Aphrodite love Zeus and Hera 0 Brother sister 0 Marriage between sky god and earth goddess o Hera as a vengeful wife mother White armed ox eyed I Goddess of women mothers morality and marriage 0 Children Eileithyia Goddess of childbirth Shares role with Hera Hebe Goddess of youthful bloom Primary cupbearer of Olympians Marries Heracles Joined replaced by Ganymeade o Interpretations of myth of Ganymeade I Spiritual enlightenment Zeus as sexual predator Hephaestus God of forge blacksmiths Linked with Athena skill wisdom crafts art Lame from birth 0 Parthenogenetic does not require a father birth 0 Cast out of Olympus by Hera She was upset by his lameness 0 Cast out of Olympus by Zeus Hephaestus stood up to Zeus for Hera Defender of Hera Husband of Aphrodite 0 Marriage of beauty and deformity intellectual and sensual o Aphrodite and Ares Ares God of war o Destructive type of war 0 Symbolizes the violence the cowards of the fight 0 Father of Eros with Aphrodite Ambivalence o Hated but honored Romans loved him as Mars father of Roman race RomulusRemus o The Nine Muses Born of Zeus and Mnemosyne Memory Varying numbers settles at nine Various duties 0 Clio history Euterpe lyric poetry Melpomene tragedy Terpsichore choral dancing Erato love poetry Polyhymnia sacred music Urania astronomy Thalia comedy Calliope epic poetry 0 The Three Fates I Daughters of Zeus and Themis Night and Erebus Clotho The spinner of the thread of life Lachesis Measures the thread of life Atropos Cuts the thread of life and ends life Sometimes unified as Moira closer to Fortune Necessity Master of all gods Interplay of all gods and fate The Nature of the Gods and Greek Religion Anthropomorphism o No evidence Greeks ever worshipped animals Gods of upper air and upper world 0 Olympians Eat ambrosia Drink nectar Bleed ichor Gods of Earth 0 Chthonian More involved in mortals Associated with some sort of creatures that remain heroes Associated with our lives and interactive Unifying factors 0 Superhuman strength and knowledge 0 Limited by fate o Immortal Divine Hierarchy o Olympians immortals o Lesser creatures Gorgons Nymphs Muses Oceanids Nereids Demigods Children of gods and mortals More than humans less than gods Heroes extraordinary person who does big things Often become chthonic deities after death Religious system allowed for many gods 0 Definitions never clearly defined 0 Zeus and Monotheism Aspects of Monotheism in Zeus Jus ce Weather Morality Knowledge the gods the godquot Unity of divine purpose wi Hesiod Stories of multiple gods Unity of divine punishments towards unrighteous Poets authors philosophers Changing conceptions of divinity Notion of divinity being both united and disunited Mythology is therefore about the literature 0 Talking about beliefs of the top in society that can write Xenophanes Condemns Hesiod Homer for anthropomorphism 0 Exhibit human sins All people conceive gods as themselves 0 Ethiopians Thracians etc 0 Unified god not like humans in form or thought Greek theology Mixture of myth custom and philosophy Strict customs for cuts 0 Own particular religious tradition Strict moral ethical codes of behavior Sincere speculation on god immortality of the soul vice and virtue afterlife inevitability of fate Herodotus Father of History in 5th century BC Fusion of mythic historical theological attitudes Entire way of looking at history stems from 5th century Athens Croesus 0 King of Lydia I Wealthiest man in world 0 Meeting with Solon Before he dies do not yet call him happy but only fortunatequot Better to be dead than alive 0 Nemesis raised up against Croesus Role of fate Role of Oracles Loss of son Loss of kingdom o A mighty empire will fall if Croesus goes against Persia 0 It s a lot worse to fall from a high position than to fall from a low position Omnipresence of divine justice 0 JusticeNemesis 0 We think success is because of our own virtue 0 When we get to that point Nemesis beats us down Irresistible fate Every human life has mixture of joy and sorrow I Greek Mythology and Religion Mythology literary and poetic different from religion how they talk about mythology in their own life 0 Diversity of Greek religion 0 Not unified 0 Individual cults I 2000 cults in Attica o Patron deities Athena Athens Hera Argos Artemis Ephesus 0 Civic Religion of the Polls 0 No word for religion no concept of secular o No separation of church and statequot Can t have a sphere of life that the gods are not interested in Gods should always be involved 0 Civic functions with religious purpose Olympic Games Gods liked watching humans compete Winning is only fun if you defeat other people Historians have trouble separating mythology from actual religious practices Life organized around religious festivals 170 annual festival days in Attica Heroic cults Local heroes Not immortal Acted beyond the grave Priests and Priestesses Appointed by lot elected purchased Not more special than anyone else Different requirements for each cult Males and females in leading roles Technicians of the gods Only expected to perform sac ces Seers I Recognize and interpret signs from the gods Flights of birds Dreams Weather natural occurrences Examination of sacrificed animals Mystery religions Personal connection with deity Acceptance of doctrine Sacrifice Officiated by priest Ritual slaughter Cows are the best option but not many cows Unblemished Throat cut Thigh bones wrapped in fat and topped with meat Offering for gods Other meats roasted Feast The essence is community Get together have a good time watch some games Poseidon and Athena Importance of sea to Greeks 0 Object of fear Dangerous 0 Object of comfort Sea is the thing that enables their power Win or lose on the ocean Connects everyone Defeated the persians of the ocean Poseidon 0 Similar in appearance to Zeus More severe and rough The trident Chariot drawn by horses 0 The Earthshaker Earthquakes Surge of sea Maker of horses 0 Moody Changes in moods just like sea Holds grudges always unpredictable Storms on sea a lot worse than storms on land Zeus o Poseidon and Amphitrite Similar to Zeus and Hera Poseidon runs off with random women Amphitrite gets mad at the girls Jealousy of Amphitrite Scylla turned into dogheaded monster Charybdis as a child of Poseidon and Gala o Other children Polyphemus Cyclops Does not respect gods or people Proteus Shapeshifter Protean something that shifts shapes Theseus Multiple origins of Theseus Most common father is Poseidon Descendants Pegasus 0 From Medusa Cerberus 0 From Medusa The Lernaean Hydra The Chimaera The Theban Sphinx 0 Different from Egyptian sphinx The Nemean Lion Athena o Daughter of Zeus and Thetis Born from Zeus skull Born in full battle dress Born from man not woman 0 Goddess of war and wisdom Associated with Athens Combination of highest aspects of man and woman Involved in every aspect of life except sex Zeus favorite child 0 Patron goddess of Athens Contest with Poseidon Poseidon offers salt spring Athena offers olive tree 0 Olive trees are symbol of peace 0 Take root and hold fast 0 Take long time to grow I Poseidon remains important to Athens though Athenians choose peace and wisdom over turbulence and war 0 Pallas Athena Tritogeneia Origins meaning of names disputed Pallas Daughter of Triton friend of Athena Maiden virgin Glaukopis Greyeyed shiny eyed Athena and Arachne Hubris Nemesis Aphrodite and Eros Origin 0 Associations Cythera Cyprus 0 Called Cytherea I Cypris 0 Twin Aspects Aphrodite Urania Celestial Aphrodite Sprung from Uranus alone Ethereal and sublime More heavenly inspired divine love True Love Aphrodite Pandemos Aphrodite of All the People Sprung from Zeus and Dione Physical in nature 0 More sex than true love Nature and Appearance 0 Goddess of beauty love marriage I laughterlovingquot sweetlysmilingquot Ultimately love leads to marriage 0 Temple prostitution Occasional Sex in the temple as a form of worship to the gods More of an Eastern thing not a Greek thing 0 Magic girdle Irresistible powers of enticement Controls the lusts of men women 0 Archaic Early Classical Period c 800 400 BC Beautiful woman Typically clothed I Respect for gods that must be maintained 0 Late Classical Hellenistic Period c 400 31 BC I ldealization of womanhood I Often nude 0 Attendants I The Graces Charites 0 Three of them Personifications of aspects of loveliness The ideal of sensuality I The Hours Horae I Children of Zeus and Themis Eventually become the Seasons 0 One goddess that is most dangerous to cross Priapus 0 Son of Aphrodite I Deformed with huge erect penis 0 Comic pornagraphic 0 Popular charm I Good luck I Apotropaic device I Houses gardens 0 Pygmalion 0 Women of Cyprus denied Aphrodite s deity I Turned into prostitutes I Loss of emotions and feeling I Transformed into stone 0 Pygmalion repelled by scandalous women I Sculpts ideal woman I Prayer to Aphrodite I Statue turns into Galatea 0 Modern portrayals I My Fair Lady I Pretty Woman Aphrodite and Adonis o Cinyrus I Grandchild of Pygmalion I Loved by daughter Myrrha I Myrrha becomes tree I Adonis born from tree o Adonis Beloved by Aphrodite Killed while hunting Transformed into anemone Aphrodite and Anchises o The revenge of Zeus Zeus is upset with having affairs Whenever you are filled with lust love it is Aphrodite playing a trick on you Aphrodite loves to turn the gods against each other Zeus is an easy mark 0 Zeus fills Aphrodite with love for Anchises I She shows up to him looking like a normal woman They have sex He finds out she is the goddess Aphrodite and freaks out She promises him he won t die he can t tell anyone though He tells people so gets hit by a thunderbolt and is lame Aphrodite bears Aeneas Aeneas escapes from Troy and starts the Roman race Eros 0 Do men and women love in different ways 0 Two origin stories Cosmic deity Hesoid Made by primordial forces I Child of Ares and Aphrodite Homer Represents the more base forces of love 0 Two representations Mischievous child Causing problems and playing pranks Beautiful young man Epitome of what maleness could be 0 The lover o Plato s Eros Plato s Symposium Platonic ove You really deeply understand and love the essence of a person Not related to anything physical all spiritual Only a man attracted to another man can be truly masculine Straight people attracted to feminine side Eros as creative force Philosophic love of wisdom o Cupid and Psyche love and the soul The Golden Ass Apuleius Fairy Tale ish Once upon a timequot Three sisters Curse Unknown suitor Happily ever after


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