Microbio Exam 3 Study Guide
Microbio Exam 3 Study Guide BIO 2200 (Microbiology, Dr. Thomas Roberts)
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BIO 2200 (Microbiology, Dr. Thomas Roberts)
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Taylor Notetaker on Monday March 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 2200 (Microbiology, Dr. Thomas Roberts) at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Thomas Roberts in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biological Sciences at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 03/21/16
Study Guide 4 mechanisms for controlling enzyme activity: Feedback inhibition Degredation Protein protein interactions Covalent modifications 2 major levels if regulation in the cell: Post translational regulation: one controls the activity of preexisting enzymes One controls the amount of an enzyme Classes of protein domains Zinc fingers- protein structure that binds a zinc ion Leucine zipper – functions to hold 2 recognition helices in the corset orientation Effectors affect transcription indirectly by binding to specific DNA binding proteins. Activator proteins help RNA polymerase recognize promoters. It may cause a change in DNA structure and may interact directly with RNA polymerase. Repression typically affects anabolic enzymes. Induction typically affects catabolic enzymes. Most signal transduction systems are 2 component regulatory systems. 2 component regulatory systems are made of 2 different proteins: sensor kinase (in cytoplasmic membrane) and response regulator (in cytoplasm). Modified 2 component systems used in chemotaxis to: 1) sense temporal changes in attractants or repellents 2) regulate flagellar rotation. Quorum Sensing -bacteria know when other bacteria are around and how many there are -might start certain activity until there is a support group -secrete a chemical that acts as marco polo -communication mechanism -ex: virulence factors E. Coli & Staphylococcus aureus autoinducer: molecule generate by the cell & secreted by the cell Caulobacter divides asymmetrically into swarmer cells (dispersal role) and stalked cells (reproductive role). -controlled by 3 major regulatory proteins external stimuli & internal factors play a role in affecting life cycle Steps in viral replication: - attachment penetration of viral nucleic acids (injects DNA or RNA) synthesis of viral nucleic acids & proteins assembly & packaging of new viruses ( brings proteins & DNA together) cell lysis or buds & releases of new viruses Example of a retrovirus is herpes or chicken pox (once you have had it once, the trace of it will always be there). All viruses have a specific host but have the capability to infect another host. Viruses: short genomic sequences that contain enough info to take over the cells causing it to replicate, divide, & express viral proteins -range from 0.02 to 0.3 um. Virus particle (virion) : extracellular form of a virus that contains nucleic acid genome surrounded by a protein coat & other layers of material Nitrogen fixation is a process of reducing N to2NH . 3 -in its original form, 2 is inorganic & in order for plants to be able to use it they must convert it to the organic form -if it isn’t converted, it will cause damage -only certain prokaryotes can fix nitrogen, those that cant don’t need it or don’t use it Response to signal: sensory proteins in cytoplasmic membrane sense attractants & repellents; methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins Controlling flagellar rotation: controlled by CheY protein -CheY results in counterclockwise rotations & runs -CheY-P results in clockwise rotation & tumbling Adaptation: feedback loop allows the system to reset itself to continue to sense the presence of a signal Riboswitches: RNA domains in an mRNA molecule that can bind small molecules to control translation of mRNA -located at the 5 prime end of mRNA from folding of RNA into a 3D structure -found in some bacteria, fungi, & plants The attachment of a virus to its host cell results in changes to both virus & cell surface that facilitate penetration. Process of replication of a retrovirus -Entrance into the cell removal of virion envelope at the membrane reverse transcription of 1 of the 2 RNA genomes integration of retroviral DNA into host genome transcription of retroviral DNA assembly & packaging of genomic RNA budding of enveloped virions; release from cell
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