General Psychology PSYC 210
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GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY gPSYC 210 Study Guide Cognition Clara B Jones PhD COGNITION Thinkin 39 Information rocessin refers to mentall rocessin information images concepts words rules amp symbols What do you do to and with 39 39 information nb quot Thinking is the internal representation of a problem or situation Basic units of thought 1 images as in sensory memory 2 concepts 3 language or symbols de ne all three of these are ways of representing information and may be combined in complex thinking thinking also involves attention pattern recognition memory decision making intuition knowledge etc 1 Mental imagery can be held in memory for about 30 s eidetic imagery best in childhood example a 97 of all people have visual images b 92 have auditory images c Properties of mental images mental rotation example reverse vision stimulus leads to mental representation example stored image example How many uses for a screwdriver created image creativity example kinesthetic imagery thinking with our bodies feelings from muscles and joints talking with our hands most thinking accompanied by micromovements 2 Concepts ideas that represent classes of objects or events eg prototypes Concepts allow us to think abstractly How is the brain doing this categories Conceptformation the process of classifying information into meaningful categories a based on experience with positive and negative instances of concept especially for children example b adults often acquire concepts by learning or forming rules rulegoverned learning rulegoverned behavior as logic eg If then Types of concepts a conjunctive concept and concepts example motorcycle b relational concepts classify objects on basis of their relationship to something else or by the relationship between features of an object example upside down sister c disjunctive concepts refer to objects that have at least one of several possible features eitheror quality example strike animal What are the rules governing each of our categories Prototypes ideal models are often used in addition to rules and features to identify concepts What would you use as a prototype for mammal Connotative meaning personal meaning Denotative meaning exact de nition 3 Language NB Thinking can take place without language eg infants some animals Thinking without language often based upon images and feelings Language however permits the world to be encoded into symbols that are easy to manipulate discuss study of the meaning of words and language is called semantics semantics links language and thought eg word order syntax changes meaning example What is a language structure a symbols that can stand for objects and ideas the symbols we call words are built out of phonemes speech sounds as a or d and morphemes speech sounds collected into meaningful units such as syllables or words b a language must have a grammar or set of rules for making sounds into words and words into sentences syntax consists of rules for word order in sentences yielding meaning eg Dog bites man not equal to Man bites dog traditional grammar is concerned with surface language structure the sentences that are spoken or written use grammatical rules to create combinations and recombinations of words into sentences transformational rules deep structure Noam Chomsky language is productive generative Noam Chomsky and can be combined and recombined into other meaningful phrases and sentences D0 animals have language 0 Hayes studies Vicki chimpanzee taught to speak but chimps lack muscle apparatus to speak 0 Gardners taught sign language to Washoe chimpanzee who learned 240 signs 6 word sentences 0 Premack taught Sarah chimpanzee with reinforcement techniques using plastic chips as symbols Sarah was only reinforced for the correct wyntax and learned conditional relationships IF THEN Penny Patterson taught sign language to Koko gorilla Runbaugh and SavageRumbaugh working with Kanzi chimpanzee use computer keyboard 0 Are apes simply performing chains of operant responses This is still controvertial Many of these apes achieve the linguistic competence of a 312 year old nb the problem of syntax Insightful solutions solutions appear after period of unsuccessful thought Ah hah Gestalt Psychology Insightful problemsolving involves three abilities 0 selective encoding selecting information relevant to problem while ignoring distractions 0 selective combination bringing together seemingly unrelated bits of useful information 0 selective comparison the ability to compare new problems with old information or with problems already solved Barriers to problemsolving o problemsolving also related to fixations tendency to get hung up or stuck on wrong solutions or to become blind to alternatives e g functional fixedness the inability to see new uses example emotional barriers eg inhibition etc cultural barriers eg gender socialization learned barriers eg familial perceptual barriers eg habits or structure of nervous system Arti cial Intelligence AI computer programs capable of doing things that require intelligence when done by people a set of rules applied to a body of information 0 AI programs better at some tasks than humans 0 AI used as a research took 0 ES expert systems programs display advanced knowledge of a specific topic or skill 0 Computer simulations CS programs used to simulate human behavior especially thinking decisionmaking or problemsolving testing models of cognition usually based on meansend analysis where computer compares current state of affairs to the desired end state or goal program then searches for steps that can be taken to reduce the difference cycle repeated until problem solved Creative thinking divergent thinking practical sensible What distinguishes creative thinking from more routine problem solving o Fluency total of suggestions you are able to make 0 Flexibility of times you shift from one class of possible uses to another 0 Originality How novel or unusual suggestions are Intuition quick impulsive thought that does not make use of clear reasoning logic Can lead to three types of mistakes Tversky amp Khaneman o Representativeness example representativeness heuristic Underlying odds base rule Framing How is a problem stated Usually the broadest way of framing or stating a problem produces the most rational decisions People usually frame too narrowly Intelligence Def1nitions o The global g capacity to act purposefully to think rationally and to deal effectively with the environment 0 Intelligence is what intelligence tests measure Aptitude a capacity for leaming certain abilities 0 special aptitude tests predict person s ability to succeed in a single area multiple aptitude tests measure two or more capacities as SAT 0 general intelligence tests test wide variety of mental abilities quot quot 39 quot39 1 r 39 quotquot 39 J ofresults and validity accuracy of te sts instruments Test standardization 0 standard procedures used in giving test to all people 0 finding the norm or average score made by large group of people IQ normally distributed with a mean score of 100 and a standard deviation of 15 points Thus the normal range of IQ is taken to be 100 plus or minus 15 or 85 7 115 Testing intelligence initiated in the USA by Lewis Terman Stanford StanfordBinet Intelligence Scale MA mental age divided by CA chronological age X 100 IQ Thus for example 12 divided by 10 X 100 120 IQ IQ scores not stable until about age 6 changes small after middle childhood Distribution of IQ s approximates a normal curve Sex differences in IQ said to be minor on average though standard deviation for males greater than standard deviation for females Some studies suggest that females excel on verbal skills especially vocabulary and also rote learning and that males excel in spatial and math skills See however Hyde JS 2005 The gender similarities hypothesis American Psychologist 60 581 592 IQ and Achievement correlation r between IQ and school grades is 050 other factors are significant such as SES motivation r between IQ and job classification little correlation e g individuals with high IQ may have no accomplishments individuals with low IQ may have accomplishments Are there different types of intelligence Gardner multiple intelligences Stemberg triarchic theory of intelligence Goleman emotional intelligence social skills not IQ determine success Identifying gifted children characteristics tendency to associate with older children and adults ability to absorb information rapidly early fascination with problemsolving early reading Mental retardation IQ of 70 or below familial retardation correlate of poverty organic causes of retardation damage to tissues birth injuries e g deficiency of 02 at birth fetal damage maternal use of alcohol or drugs that impair fetus metabolic disorders PKU a genetic disease involving lack of an enzyme to break down phenylpyruvic acid in the body can be controlled by diet genetic abnormalities eg microcephaly hydrocephaly cretinism Down Syndrome Down Syndrome caused by 3 21 chromosomes Search these disorders wwwgooglecom Is IQ inherited Tryon s classic studies 1920 s breeding intelligent line of rats Methodology of this research criticized today however studies remain classics in the field of behavioral genetics There is an ongoing concern for the potential social and political abuse of research on intelligence e g eugenics movement selective breeding for desirable characteristics Twin studies discuss equivocal results Family size some studies suggest that older children have higher IQ s Why might this be the case GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY gPSYC 210 Study Guide 1 39 39 Psychology Clara B Jones PhD CHILD DEVELOPMENT conception9 adolescence Na x Nu9 Be Heredity Humans have 46 chromosomes 23 pairs 1 pair determines sex sperm amp ova Chromosomes comprised of alleles alternate forms of genes Alleles occur at particular positions on a chromosome These positions are called loci one position locus Genes comprised of DNA the chemical code for genetic information comprised of nucleotides ACGT occurring in triplets one nucleotide is always silen There are about 50000 7 100000 genes in every human cell Genes may be DOMINANT or RECESSIVE deleterious genes generally recessive A2 AAAAa a aA aa See this tutorial for basics of human genetics httpanthropalomaredututorialsphysicalhtm Some human traits determined by a single gene e g eye color sex Complex ie multifactorial nonadditive nonlinear traits are thought to be polygenetic determined by more than one loci Look up epistasis on Google Genes can have more than one effect pleiotropy Some human traits determined by genetic abnormalities e g Down s syndrome three 21 chromosomes instead of two Who determines sex in mammals 66 XY 9 XX Some human traits are sexlinked eg color blindness What does this mean See this tutorial httpanthropalomaredubiobasisbio 3bhtm Hereditary instructions in uence development including behavioral cognitive and emotional development Most human traits including behavior cognition and emotions are thought to be a function of epigenetics the interaction of endogenous including genes and exogenous environmental factors Na x Nu9 Be Rules governing epigenetics are poorly understood for most species THE NEWBORN NEONATE is born with unique complement of genes unless identical The neonate can see hear smell taste and respond to pain and touch thus the newborn is capable of learning Neonates respond to stimulation showing preferences for mother s face within hours after birth Neonates come equipped with several re exes that are thought to be derived from humans evolutionary past for the function of survival eg grasping re ex rooting re ex Moro re ex startle response Neonates appear to be quite intelligentican remember speech sounds up to a day after first learning them Neonates prefer complex patterns to simple ones How do developmental psychologists study this NB Fantz s looking chamber Temperament eg activity level is thought to be the basis of personality and to be strongly in uenced by genes 40 of infants are easy 10 of infants are difficult 15 of infants are slow to warm up Study of maturation physical growth and development is an orderly sequence of unfolding of basic physical and other abilities that does not vary much in sequence order across individuals of the same species although timingrate may vary concept of readiness principle of motor primacy minimum levels of motor muscular and physical development must precede the learning of certain skills e g development coordination and control of tongue must occur before speech is possible and these variables are dependent upon brain development How important are environmental in uences Early environment Prenatal in uences nutrition disease e g German measles Xrays 9 mutations drugs including alcohol tobacco teratogens substances capable of causing birth defects Def1ne congenital vs genetic look up on Google CHILDBIRTH Conditions can vary and will affect attitudes of mothers and fathers as well as caregiving styles all of these are components of the neonate optimal caregiving characterized by proactive maternal or primary caregiver involvement ie warm educational interactions NB The neonate is not passiveinot a blob Neonates are active learners and parents are teachers How importance is the goodness of fit between parents and child eg environment of neonatechild and temperamental fit between parents and offspring Social Development in infancy lays foundation for later social relationships selfawareness eg 924 mos example Kenneth Clark social referencing by 12 mos example imprinting and critical periods Konrad Lorenz Humans appear to have sensitive periods eg for language learning rather than critical periods Attachment John Bowlby Alice Miller Mary Ainsworth l secure attachment toddler upset by mother s departure seek to be near her upon her return Ainsworth claimed that secure attachment occurs when mother accepting and sensitive to baby s signals and rhythms 2 insecureavoidant attachment toddler turns away when mother returns 3 insecureambivalent toddler clings to mother and angrily resists her These patterns were once thought to be universals however further research has demonstrated a significant degree of variability in patterns of mothertoddler or primary caretakertoddler attachment The area of attachment remains one of the most active areas of research in developmental psychology but this line of research is controvertial Deprivation and Enrichment Abnormal Development Rene Spitz hospitalism syndrome attachment disorders perceptual stimulation e g as induced by poverty Harry Harlow contact comfort need for affection worked with monkeys in laboratory Rhesus macaques What is result of deprivation of contact comfort Enrichment eg Head Start DO THE ABOVE VIEWS STEREOTYPE MINORITIES AND THE POOR Day Care In uenceoutcomes depend upon quality Facility should have small group size 12 7 15 children Facility should have caregivers trained in child development Problematic if child at facility gt20 hwk Day care attendance can accelerate social development Is this desirable Is there a tradeoff Day care attendance can accelerate language development Is this desirable Is there a tradeoff Language Development There are universals in language development Language acquisition is tied to maturation by 1 mo infant uses crying as attentiongetting device and parents can discriminate needs from crying by 6 7 8 weeks babies coo repetition of vowel sounds by 6 mos babbling begins consonant sounds added to vowels to produce continuous repetition of language sounds by 1 year child can respond to words such as No and Hi soon after child can say Mama And Dada thus child can associate words with objects by 112 7 2 yrs child has vocabulary of 24 7 200 words NB production vs comprehension soon after 2 word sentences NB Generative telegraphic speech Go by bY l Roots of language are universal ie capacity for language a quality of all human brains Biological basis of language Chomsky Lenneberg the language acquisition device LAD Chomsky Does it exist sensitive period for language acquisition and fast mapping Environment Rhythm between caregivers and children is important Development of shared system of signals and patterns of tumtaking 7like a primitive conversation the more parents interact with children the faster they learn to talk however it is important for parents to accommodate to infant s timing Parentese caretaker speech a universal7occurring within and between all cultures intonation of parentese short simple sentences repetition7has musical quality also characterized by expansion and prompting examples Cognitive Development learning to think child s thinking less abstract use fewer generalizations or principles e g transformations begin to think more abstractly after about age 7 Jean Piaget s Cognitive Theory of Intellectual Development Stage theory based on two processes assimilation define and give examples and accommodation define and give examples Assimilation and accommodation are adaptive mechanisms what does this mean I Sensorimotor State 0 7 2 years old circular reactions separation anxiety about 7 7 9 mos object permanence by about 112 years old by 2 years old child can anticipate movement of object behind a screen child s view of the world becomes more stable II Preoperational Stage 27 beginning to use symbols including language child s thinking concrete and intuitive not thinking things through egocentric thinking this and several other of Piaget s ideas are controvertial 111 Concrete Operational Stage 7 7 11 child masters conservation example can reverse operations IV Formal Operational Stage 11 thinking based more on abstract principles and generalizations brain designed to do this sorts and stores information by categories Piaget today Lawrence Kohlberg s Stage Theory of Moral Development 1 Preconventional Stage doing the right thing depends upon punishment andor reward exchange of favors reciprocity 11 Conventional Stage actions directed by desire to conform to the expectations of others or to socially accepted rules and values norms III Postconventional State behavior directed by moral principles you do the right thing because it s the right thing to do Kohlberg estimated that 20 of US population is at postconventional stage Are there sex differences This is controvertial Carole Gilligan Justice 66 Who is right and caring Q Q How to minimize con ict Gilligan s schema is controvertial LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT Life viewed as a cycle by some researchers universal life stages with each stage presenting set of developmental tasks to be mastered for example Erikson s Psychosocial Stage Theory of Development suggests that we face particular psychosocial dilemma or crisis at each stage and that resolving each dilemma creates a new balance between the individual and society integration Stage 1 year I trust vs mistrust Stage 2 13 autonomy vs shame and doubt Stage 3 35 initiative vs guilt Stage 4 612 industry vs inferiority Stage 5 adolescence Who am 1 identity vs role confusion Stage 6 young adulthood intimacy vs isolation Stage 7 middle adulthood generativity vs stagnation Stage 8 late adulthood integrity vs despair Erikson s schema is clinical see his book Childhood and Society Problems of Childhood Parenting styles Diana Baumrind Authoritarian children have few rights but adultlike responsibilities children obedient selfcontrolled but withdrawn and lacking in curiosity Overly permissive Children have few responsibilities but rights similar to adults children dependent immature but misbehaving Authoritative Parents balance own rights with rights of children children r u r Haim Ginott parents should communicate to children that while all emotionsfeelings are OKappropriate but only certain behaviors are acceptable Thomas Gordon stressed importance of Imessages rather than youmessages force children to accept responsibility for their own behavior e g I don t think that s a good idea Overprotection is unhealthy smother love however stress is a normal part of life Normal Childhood Problems eg sleep disturbances clinging sibling rivalry rebellion during adolescence Serious Childhood Problems Toilettraining disturbances enuresis and encopresis Feeding disturbances overeating anorexia nervosa AN pica eg eating plaster paint Speech disturbances delayed speech stuttering probably biological in origin Leaming disorders DysleXia inability to read with understanding more common in boys ADHD attention deficit hyperactivity disorder more common in boys child constantly in motion and cannot concentrate a brain disorder treated often with drugs eg Ritalin Childhood autism more common in boys can be very severe child appears stiff and averse to contact is isolated exhibits repetitive behavior as echolalia circular behavior disorder of nervous system only 25 approach normalcy with professional help sometimes treated with operant shaping based on reward and punishment Child abuse Parents often young and poor abusive parents likely to think that their children intentionally misbehave l3 of abusive parents were abused as children abused children tend to become abusive parents there is help in the community for abusive parents one approach to child abuse would be to change attitudes in US about physical punishment which is widely accepted in this country Adolescence refers to period of time when individual moves from childhood to adulthood Puberty refers to rapid physical growth coupled with hormonal changes that bring sexual maturity growth spurt occurs earlier in girls 11 7 14 than in boys 13 7 16 Early and late maturation for boys early maturation generally bene cial for girls not as clear eg early maturing girls more often in trouble early maturity may force premature identityformation foreclosure which may be a particular risk for lowerincome and very obedient adolescents cultural di erences in addition to class differences discuss Adulthood cycles of stability and change Roger Gould midlife crisis challenges struggles amp crises not universal NB Behavioral variables usually more variable than physical variables Levinson investigated transition period in midlife males males report midlife crisis between 3741 similar to Gould s crisis of urgency recent data contradict this 79 9 vs 66 Q 9 less likely to enter adult hood with clearly stated goals this may have changed as a result of women s movement it is generally thought that Q 9 place more emphasis upon personal identity Middle Age 40 s and 50 s 79 Q menopause Mean 51 in US drop in level of estrogen also physical changes most women adjust well 766 climacteric in 40 s 7 60 s hormonal changes but fertility remains Aging by the yr 2020 15 ofthe persons in US will be 65 or older fastestgrowing segment of society Biological aging begins early peak functioning in most physical capacities occurs in late 20 s9 early 30 s but peak abilities occur at different ages for different activities and professions e g math vs literature Most elderly persons only 5 are not infirm but becoming infirm is a major fear of the young Biological aging maXimum life span about 110 7 120 yrs life eXpectancyin US 66 73 Q Q 81 differs by race class region of country Health Psychology many behavioral factors in uence morbidity and mortality e g smoking diet drugsalcohol sex and other high risk behaviors while there is prejudice against the elderly ageism most stereotypes are myths Death and Dying Individuals are less afraid of death than might be supposed more afraid of possible pain and helplessness than of death itself Elizabeth KublerRoss has proposed stages of dying these are not universal see her book On Death and Dying Stages of Grief or Bereavement not universal l shock numbness 2 pangs of grief intense loss and anger 3 apathy dejection depression 4 resolution GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY gPSYC 210 Study Guide Conditioning and Learning Clara B Jones PhD What is learning A relatively permanent change in behavior that can be attributed to experience There are elementary forms of non associative learning eg habituation a decrease in response as a result of successive exposure to a stimulus sensitization an increase in response as a result of successive exposure to a stimulus Give examples of these Association from Aristotle connectionism An elementary form of associative learning is imprinting nb Konrad Lorenz Search impringting on wwwgooglecom True imprinting assumes that there are critical periods de ne Do humans have critical periods Humans are thought to have sensitive periods for some traits e g language learning Classical conditioning also respondent or Pavlovian conditioning 0 Form ofleaming in which re ex responses nb re ex arc re exes controlled by spinal cord or strong emotional responses autonomic nervous system responses are associated with new stimuli S9 S learning 0 S stimulus information events in the world any physical energy sensed by an organism o R response a behavior motor pattern or action pattern also neural impulse or glandular activity 0 Classical conditioning the focus in classical conditioning is on what happens before a R antecedents o In classical conditioning antecedent events become associated with one another A S that does not produce a R a neutral S called a conditioned stimulus or CS becomes associated with one that does an unconditioned stimulus or US 0 Learn model describing classical conditioning o How did Ivan Pavlov demonstrate classical conditioning in his famous experiment Recall that Pavlov was primarily interested in studying digestion Elements of conditioning 0 Acquisition training 0 In classical conditioning conditioned response CR must be reinforced or strengthened o In classical conditioning conditioned response CR is reinforced whenever conditioned stimulus CS is followed by or paired with an unconditioned stimulus US 0 US should follow soon after CS contiguity Higher order conditioning o In classical conditioning CS used to reinforce further learning o In classical conditioning CS may be strong enough to be used as US Extinction If US never follows CS conditioning will extinguish thus classical conditioning can be weakened by removing reinforcement leading to inhibition or suppression of R ie decreased likelihood of R 0 Does the R disappear How can we test this Example Spontaneuous recovery Occurs when period of rest follows extinction o Suggests that organism is prepared MEP Seligman to respond 0 Organism checks out environment ie adaptive response Charles Darwin Generalization S similar to CS evoke a similar R 0 May be adaptive Stimulus Discrimination Learning not to generalize o Selectivity o Narrowing R How much human learning is based on classical conditioning eg likes and dislikes phobias 0 Dependence on re exes 0 Dependence upon emotional or gu Rs ight or fight Rs 0 Phobias conditioned emotional Rs a fear that persists even when no realistic danger exists eg agoraphobia fear of snakes o Abnormal behavior that can be explained by stimulus generalization Example 0 How to reverse phobias in therapy Desentization gradually exposing individual to S Vicarious or secondary conditioning o Occurs when we observe another person s emotional responses to a S and by observation learn to respond likewise eg horror movies various likes and dislikes eg food 0 Antecedent can be someone else s R eg food preferences Rescorla s contingency theory learning creates expectancies If then in the world 0 Expectancies alter behavior 0 For classical conditioning the CS predicts the US 0 Is classical conditioning a stupid process In the cognitive view the human organism is a scientist seeking information about the world Classical conditioning and Operant conditioning 0 Classical conditioning involuntary passive o Operant conditioning voluntary active organism operates on the environment Operant instrumental conditioning study textbook and search wwwgooglecom white rat psychology Learning based on the consequences of responding Each time a R is made it may be followed by a reinforcer or reward a S that increases the probability of a R occurring example What is Edward BThorndike s law of effect If a response is followed by a pleasurable event the R is more likely to occur again if a R is followed by an unpleasurable aversive event the R is less likely to occur again What is negative reinforcement What is punishment All punishment aversive stimuli decreases the probability of a R occurring example How does negative reinforcement differ from punishment In operant conditioning the organism learns to associate Rs with their consequences in classical conditioning the organism learns to associate Rs with their antecedents Acts that are followed by reinforcement tend to be repeated acts that are followed by punishment tend not to be repeated How do we acquire operant responses Skinner Box rat does not acquire a new skill or R but combines and recombines action patterns in individuals behavioral repertoire Reinforcement most effective when it is response contingen ie must be given only after desired R Contingent reinforcement also affects performance of Rs How do you get rat to press bar in the rst place According to Thorndike rst act occurs by trial and error Shaping the gradual molding of Rs to a final desired pattern Law of successive approximations reinforcing ever closer matches to desired R Operant extinction e g bar pressing would stop if food ceased Spontaneous recovery If we never reinforce individual R will be suppressed However if we again present reinforcement R will reappear Positive Reinforcement vs Negative Reinforcement Positive reinforcement is the application of a pleasurable S Example Negative reinforcement is the removal of an unpleasant or aversive S Example primary reinforcers natural biological unleamed as food water sex secondary reinforcers learned as praise grades attention approval success social reinforcers attention approval Punishment unpleasant or aversive S eg spanking time out Premack s Prepotent Principle any frequent or prepotent R can be used to reinforce an infrequent R eg food can be used as a reward to induce individuals to take out the trash or clean their room Delay of reinforcement reinforcement should occur soon after R Response chaining Why do you work hard to receive a delayed R e g a paycheck a diploma Can anticipate future reward Reinforced partially partial intermittent reinforcement more effective than continuous reinforcement Skinner s ve schedules of reinforcement continuous xed interval variable interval xed ratio variable ratio Single reinforcer can maintain long chain or Rs Two factor learning combination of classical conditioning and operant conditioning Applied learning Token economy secondary reinforcers can be exchanged for primary reinforcers used in education and other institutions eg prisons mental institutions Generalized reinforcers e g may acquire not only primary reinforcers but may have its own reinforcementreward value e g prestige Superstitious behavior habits of some athletes before throwing a foul shot or before batting nervous tics abnormal behavior Punishment How effective is it punishment is generally aversive thus via classical conditioning people and situations associated with punishment also become aversive punishment also leads to escape and avoidance punishment may also lead to 39 the f1 quot 39 hypothesis Possibly most effective method of behavioral control is to reward alternative Rs The three methods of controlling simple behavior are l reinforcement 2 non reinforcement or extinction and 3 punishment Applied learning continued educational applications Learning is based on information Information meaningful units of stimulation e g electromagnetic energy thus learnng not simply mechanical Cognitive maps expectancies Learning as informationprocessing learning creates expectancies about events in the world e g Robert Rescorla s contingency theory Feedback as in computerbased learning information about what effect a R had also called knowledge of results increased feedback almost always improves learning and performance Learning aids feedback is most effective when it is frequent immediate and detailed o Programmed instruction teaches students in a format requiring precise answers about information as it is presented computerassisted instruction CAI o CAI students work at individual computer terminals 0 CAI allows students to freely make mistakes and to lea1n from mistakes Cognitive learning Beyond conditioning o Is all learning just a connection between S amp R 0 Cognitive learning refers to understanding problemsolving knowing anticipating or other higher mental processes e g memory thinking language 0 Cognitive maps an internal representation of spatial relationships nb the hippocampus and spatial memory 0 How do we navigate the world Latent learning learning that occurs apparently without reinforcement o Is curiosity reinforcing and adaptive o Is there a motive to explore o Latent lea1ning may lead to discovery learning application in alternative education Social 0r Observational learning Albert Bandura see text 0 Three rules 1 pay attention and remember 2 reproduce what was modeled and 3 is model rewarded 0 Modeling a component of social learning any process in which information is imparted by example before direct practice is allowed What would happen if you had to experience everything you learned or if you learned only by verbal instruction didactic leamingteaching o Imitation not all observed models are imitated attractive rewarded admired highstatus models are likely to be imitated GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY gPSYC 2101 Biological Psychology Study Guide Clara B Jones PhD I The brain biology and behavior You are all wired up a Human brain gt3 lbs about 100 billion nerve cells neuons neurons specialize in carrying and processing information and activating muscles and glands Neurons individual nerve cells nerve cluster of neurons Dendrites receive incoming information Soma main cell body of neuron Axon ber carrying information away from cell body of a neuron Axon terminals branching fibers at the ends of axons terminal boutons Ion an electrically charged molecule Resting potential the electrical charge of a neuron at rest Threshold the point at which a nerve impulse is triggered action potential is all or none How does action potential work How does a nerve fire j Neurotransmitter substances NTSs specialized chemicals used by neurons to communicate with each other E39qurhrvpop k Synapse space between neurons between axon terminals of one neuron and dendrites of communicating neurons nb presynaptic neurons and postsynaptic neurons Hebbian synapses and longterm potentiation LTP 1 Energy ability to do work 11 The nervous system Central Nervous System CNS brain and spinal cord The Spinal Cord connects brain to other parts of the body 31 pairs of spinal nerves 12 pairs of cranial nerves Re exes controlled at level of spinal cord re ex arc stimulus evokes an automatic response sensory neuron afferent9 connector neuronquot9 motor neuron efferent muscle fibers effector cells nb traditionally behavior has been thought of as motor patterns or action patterns current definition of behavior is broader than this The Brain Cerebrum largest brain area the cerebral cortex cerebral cortex has f1ssures sulci folds corticalization What is the function of f1ssures How do we study the cerebral cortex PET scan FMRI electrodes Cerebral hemispheres connected by corpus callosum left side controls right side vice versa Hemispheric specialization Roger Sperry s Nobel Prize split brain research on corpus callosum Why split brain operations eg epilepsy How does a split brain person act nb Both sides of the brain get same information the same time If a con ict one hemisphere is usually dominant However if sensation doesn t go to both sides of brain one side doesn t know what other side is doing eg cover one eye How do hemispheres differ in abilities language a function of left hemisphere also math judging time amp rhythm amp coordinating movements thus analytical sequential linear right hemisphere specialized for recognizing patterns faces amp melodies amp expressing emotion and solving spatial problems holistic nonlinear nb Gestalt Psychology However the entire brain is active at all times the balance of neural activity differs Sex differences Documented sex difference in brain structure but consequences for brainbehaviorcognitiveemotional function unclear L0bes 0f the Cerebral Cortex lobes have been mapped by electrodes and other methods nb Penfield s studies using local anesthetics The Occipital Lobes back of brain primary visual area of the cortex not a TVlike image ie representation not point x point The Parietal Lobes somatosensory area touch temperature pressure and other somatic or bodily sensations The Temporal Lobes auditory information language center Broca s Area and Wemicke s Area The Frontal Lobes motor cortex damage alters personality emotionality intellectual function prefrontal cortex and social impairment e g impulse control What do the remaining areas do Associative areas process and combine information from various senses also related to higher mental functions Brain Injuries Neglect damage to right hemispherequot9 neglect damage to left hemisphere is generally more serious because speech and language are so essential Aphasia impaired ability to use language Broca s Area left frontal lobe speech production difficulty speaking or writing Wernicke s Area left temporal lobe speech comprehension problems with meaning of words The Subcortex What do areas below the cortex do Brainstem or hindbrain Medulla re ex control of vital life functions heart rate breathing swallowing etc Cerebellum regulates posture muscle tome and muscular coordination and memory storage Reticular Formation RF network of fibers affects messages entering and leaving brain attention movement some reflexes and alertness maintaining vigilance wakefulness breathing coughing vomiting Reticular Activating System RAS part of the RF incoming messages from sense organs bombarding cortex with stimulation keeping it active and alert sensitive to amphetamines thus if drug use then manipulation of brain Midbrain link between brain structures above and below it conducting and switching Forebrain including cerebral cortex Thalamus switching station for sensory messages except sense of smell which travels directly to the cortex What does this imply Hypothalamus HT size of small grape control center for emotion and many basic motives sex hunger thirst etc connects with cortex and subcortex HT acts as final path for many kinds of behavior leaving brain last area of brain where many decisions are made The Limbic System HT parts of thalamus several structures in cortex limbic system produces emotion and motivated behavior rage fear sex etc Hippocampus helps in forming lasting memories Amygdala fear Hypothalamus Olds amp Milner 1954 pleasure pathways also activated by drugs cocaine heroin etc Aversive or punishmen areas have also been found in the Limbic System quotRedundancy Brain is an informationprocessing system It has dozens of areas to do what one area could do alone Redundancy in human brains leads to impressive ability to compensate for some brain injuries nb Comparison of brain with computer has limitations Does age at injury make a difference Plasticity exibility depends upon increased branching of dendrites quotPeripheral Nervous System PNS carries nerves to and from CNS S0matic System voluntary system eg writing carries information to and from sense organs and skeletal muscles Aut0n0mic Nervus System ANS involuntary system eg breathing heart rate carries information to and from internal organs and glands Sympathetic system arouses body ight or fight Parasympathetic system slows down responses level of arousal The Endocrine System The second communication system made up of glands that dump into bloodstream or lymph system Hormones chemically related to neurotransmitters activate cells in body via receptor sites Pituitary Gland regulation of growth regulates functioning of other glands especially thyroid adrenals ovaries amp testes regulates metabolism stress ANS Pituitary Gland the master gland controlled by the HT and a major link between the brain and the glandular system Pineal Gland releases melatonin in response to daily variations in light higher in darkness helps control body rhythms and sleep cycles Thyroid Gland regulates metabolism rate of energy production and expenditure Adrenal Glands arousal ANS responds to stress sex androgens adrenal medulla source of adrenaline and noradrenaline adrenal cortex source of corticoids cortisol the stress hormone antiin ammants role in immune system GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY gPSYC 210 Stud Guide Ps cho atholo Abnormal Behavior Clara B Jones PhD Psychopathology the scienti c study of mental emotional and behavioral disorders eg 0 An inability to behave in ways that foster the well being of the individual and ultimately society 0 Good mental health implies getting what you want in socially acceptable ways Mental health problems are extensive o l in 100 will require hospitalization o In any given week 7 of the population is experiencing an anxietyrelated disorder Def1ning abnormality o Subjective discomfort Statistical de nitions Social nonconformity Situational context Cultural relativity all de nitions of abnormality are relative It is generally agreed that behavior must interfere with normal activities and cause distress to be abnormal behavior must be maladaptive not meeting demands of day to day life eg danger to self andor others CLASSIFYING MENTAL DISORDERS DSM IV 1994 Mental disorder defined as a significant impairment in psychological functioning Overview of DSM IV 1 Psychotic disorders disorders of thought characterized by a retreat from reality by hallucinations and delusions and by social withdrawal psychotic person cannot tell fantasy from hallucination from reality eg schizophrenia probably a disorder of the frontal cortex delusional disorders severe mood disorders 2 Organic mental disorders problems caused by brain pathology e g senility injuries 3 Substance related disorders eg drugs alcohol 4 Mood disorders disturbances in affect or emotion e g manic or depressed in manicdepressive or bipolar disorder may include psychotic symptoms 5 Anxiety disorders panic phobias or generalized anxiety neurosis chronic and persistent anxiety posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD anxiety existing after a distressing or traumatic event obsessive thoughtscompulsive acts disorder 6 f 111 di order 39 physical yup that mimic physical disease or injury for which there is no apparent cause e g hypochondriasis conversion reactions 7 8 9 What Dissociative disorders NB no longer multiple personality disorders sudden amnesia multiple personality depersonalization Personality disorders unhealthy personality patterns eg paranoiac narcissistic dependent borderline and antisocial poor socialization lack of impulse control Sexual and gender identity disorders as gender identity disorder paraphilias exhibitionism fetishism voyeurism also sexual dysfunction NB rape a crime not a sexual disorder homosexuality no longer considered a sexual disorder is insanity A legal term Mental illness and violence most mentally ill persons are not violent Three 1 2 theoretical pathways to anxiety and disorder Na x Nu9 Be Psychodynamic con icts in id ego superego anxiety caused by forbiddel sexual and aggressive impulses that threaten to break through into behavior psychopathology acts like a defense by protecting the ego Humanistic Carl Rogers faulty selfimage Existential theory individual s loss of meaning 3 Behavioral approach phobias classical conditioning avoidance learning anxiety reduction hypothesis shortterm relief MAJOR MENTAL DISORDERS Psychosis a maior loss of contact with shared views of reality Changes in thinking and emotion Characteristics Delusions false beliefs depressive delusions somatic delusions delusions of grandeur delusions of persecution etc Hallucinations and sensations hallucinations are sensory experiences that occur in the absence of a stimulus as hearing voices Disturbed emotions characteristic of psychosis e g elation or at affect Disturbed communication e g garbled and chaotic Personality disintegration impairment at work in social relations and in personal hygiene Symptoms of psychosis come and go not like movie depiction of madhouse see movies Shine and A Beautiful Mind change in landscape and demographics of psychosis primarily a function of psychoactive drugs Humane treatmentreform of mentally ill began in France and slowly spread to USA Some view psychosis as cry for help ia primitive form of communication Types ofpsychosis organic psychosis eg brain injuries or disease functional psychosis delusional disorders paranoid psychosis such as delusions of persecution schizophrenia psychotic mood disorders Two categories of Major Mental Disorders Schizophrenia and Mood Disorders SCHIZOPHRENIA Onehalf of the people admitted to mental institutions in USA 1 out of 100 persons in USA will become schizophrenic split between thought and emotions Schizophrenia may in part be an impairment of selective attention prefrontal cortex Schizophrenics often display bizarre behavior patterns Schizophrenia may be a complex of disorders one one disorder like cancers Schizophrenia often develops in adolescence or early adulthood earlier onset poorer prognoisi Paranoid schizophrenia most common type in USA More common in males than females Causes Environmental correlations u during midpregnancy or birth trauma may cause disturbances in brain development leading to vulnerability to psychopathology psychological trauma such as physical or sexual abuse violence etc may induce schizophrenia deviant communication within families RD Laing doublebind communication nowin unresolvable emotional con ict Biological correlations potentialpredisposition for schizophrenia may be inherited which may require an environmental trigger stimulus to induce the disorder twin studies brain chemistry dopamine limbic system NB dopamine continuum Parkinson s disease Schizophrenia too little dopamine too much dopamine MOOD DISORDERS Depressive disorders 1020 in lifetime will experience a depressive disorder 5 in the USA population at a given time 14 of patients admitted to mental hospitals diagnosed with a depressive disorder Depression twice as common in women as in men Discuss Suicide a risk in depressive disorders Bipolar disorders Cyclothymic chronic disturbance but not extreme Bipolar I mostly manic Bipolar II mostly depressed Depressive disorders Dysthymic moderate depression for 2 years or more Major depressive disorders single episode recurrent episode Explanations for mood disorders Biochemical the lithium story Psychoanalytic repressed aggression aggression turned inward o Behavioral learned helplessness model MEP Seligman 0 Cognitive selfdefeating thoughts Treatment for mood disorders with psychosis 0 Drugs 0 Psychotherapy o Somatic therapy eg electroconvulsive shock surgery 0 hospitalization 1 Mai or mental disorders appear to be rather than 39 y induced Discuss
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