Exam 3 Study Guide
Exam 3 Study Guide 80176 - GEOL 1010 - 001
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80176 - GEOL 1010 - 001
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Canterbury on Monday March 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 80176 - GEOL 1010 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Alan B Coulson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Physical Geology in Environmental Science at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 03/21/16
Test 3 Study Guide Geology in the News New study suggests oxygen buildup on earth might have started during the Archean Eon instead of the Proterozoic Eon 1.8 billion years earlier More implications for life on earth Review from Lecture 12 Climate vs Weather Why climate is difficult to study Milankovitch cycles The Atmosphere’s effects on climate Hadley cycles El Nino system Part 1 The Hydrosphere What is the hydrosphere? Water has a very high heat capacity What is heat capacity? Ex) Gulf Stream: important because pushes warmer waters towards Europe, leading to a fairly pleasant climate How are ocean currents important in terms of moving warmer and cooler waters around? Oceanic Heat Transfer What does the Thermohaline Circulation do? Why does cooler water sink? Why has thermohaline circulation slowed down in recent decades? ** Study Tip: focus more on how things function—not on definitions** Biosphere Plants Draws down CO2 for photosynthesis Affects albedo Animals Release CO2 and methane (greenhouse gases) Increased greenhouse gases increase temperatures What is biological pump? Cryosphere What is the cryosphere? The Lithosphere Name the different ways tectonics affect climate and describe each of them. Part 2 Instrument and historical records only go back so far Knowing how earth reacted to previous climate changes helps predict for the future Recording climate What are two different ways to record climate using ice? Describe them. Proxies What is a proxy? ** Study Hint: air bubbles in ice were NOT a proxy. ** Proxy Rules Always consider the nature of the proxy Ex) Tree ring Climate proxies For tree rings, what indicates good climate and vice versa? What is biogeography and how does it help us to learn about the climate of an area? Give an example. -Stable isotopes How do stable isotopes help us learn about the climate of an area? Oxygen Isotopes Describe how the oxygen isotope specifically can help us learn about the climate in an area. Equation: T = 111.4 – 4.3 * (Df – Dw) T – water temp Df – ratio in fish bone Dw – ratio in seawater (= 1.0) What are some other temp proxies? Ex) Mg/Ca Why do we want multiple temp proxies? How do stable carbon isotopes help us to learn about the climate in a specific area? ** Study hint: C3 and C4 do not refer to carbon isotopes; they refer to types of plants** Geology in the News Cores being taken from the Atlantis Massif Providing insight into the origins of life on Earth and perhaps on other planets Former Clemson geology student is one of the researchers Why do we care about deserts? What is a desert? How do we identify a desert? The Largest Deserts Antarctic; Sahara; Greenland; Gobi (Asia); Empty Quarter (Middle East), etc Don’t need to memorize Distribution of Deserts How are deserts distributed among the world? What are some reasons these deserts fall in these areas? Weathering in Deserts Describe the weathering that occurs in deserts. Is it fast or slow? Desert Erosion Describe the erosion that happens in deserts. What is an arroyo? Why are there often signs posted not to walk in the arroyos? Wind erosion Why can wind only move very small particles? What is a common misconception about wind? Can still add up to a huge volume eroded Ex) Sahara Desert: 250-500 million tons of dust are transported to the Atlantic each year What is deflation? What are pavements? About what percentage of deserts are actually covered in sand? What is ventifact? What is an alluvial fan? Describe it. What is a playa pake (aka pake)? Describe it. What is an inselberg? Describe it. Describe how arches are formed. Describe dunes. What is saltation? What are important factors when identifying a dune? Identify and describe the 5 different types of sand dunes. What is desertification? Give an example of desertification? About how many people are in at risk areas? Why is desertification occurring? What can we do about it? How can we prevent/ slow down desertification?
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