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The History Of Life

by: Emmett Heathcote

The History Of Life GLY 1101

Emmett Heathcote
GPA 3.69

Jose Longoria

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Jose Longoria
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emmett Heathcote on Monday October 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GLY 1101 at Florida International University taught by Jose Longoria in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see /class/221777/gly-1101-florida-international-university in Geology at Florida International University.


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Date Created: 10/12/15
GLY1101 History of Life Review for Second Exam About the Study Guide This study guide was prepared with the purpose of helping you in your study and preparing you to take the second exam in class The guide is organized according to the arrangement of topics covered in class they are presented as a series of bullets each bullet contains and idea or issue discussed in class The idea is exposed in succinct statement then it is followed by the complement of the idea which can be also viewed as the answer What you should have learned about the Proterozoic You should be able to identify the following first quotprimaryquot or ancient Archaean age of first life Proterozoic The oldest known locality with undisputed fossils 35 bya from Western Australia Warrowoonda Precambrian formation in Africa that has yielded some of the oldest fossils known dated at 34 bya Fig Tree Formation Precambrian formation along the northern shore of Lake Superior that has yielded black cherts and stromatolites containing microscopic fossils from 21 bya Gunflint Chert Locality in central Australia that has yielded many Precambrian microfossils the rocks at this locality are dated at 09 billion years in age Bitter Springs GLY1101 History of Life Review for Second Exam 2 Organisms having a membrane around the cell nucleus and highly organized chromosomes Oldest defined Eukaryotes Macroscopic multicellular plants this general name applies to most land plants and macroscopic seaweeds Oldest Defined autotrophs Earliest skeletons known from 39the late Proterozoic and early Cambrian elements of fauna include lightly skeletonized tubes sclerites of armored worms and others Ediacara biota Ediacaran Fauna Softbodied animals Dickinsonia Kimberella Cyclomedusa Are marine hollow organic walled unicellular vesicles Their biological affinities are unclear They are placed together with other palynomorphs due to their resistant cell wall Most of them are 002 0150 mm across Acritarchs Late Proterozoic biota of softbodied organisms from South Australia and elsewhere Debate on this biota is whether these fossils represent the oldest metazoans or an entirely different kind or organism Oldest small shelly faunas Bacteria and cyanobacteria Examples of prokaryotes Protist fungi plants and animals Examples of eukaryotes Eukaryotic cells developed from prokaryotic via endosymbiosis Examples of Precambrian radiation Evolution of new adaptations tissues Evolution of sex Precambrian Informal division of time means before the Cambrianquot GLY1101 History of Life Review for Second Exam Thick sequences of finebedded rocks with alternating layers ofjasper red colored silicarich rock and hematite iron oxide of Precambrian age Banded Iron Formations Terrestrial deposits in an aerobic environment coloration from oxidization of ironbearing minerals Red Beds Conglomerates composed of detrital pyrite occurs only in an anaerobic environment otherwise the pyrite cobbles would oxidize Pyritic conglometares Refers to an environment that has free oxygen Aerobic Ages of the first life Proterozoic Major glaciation in the Proterozoic circa2200 ma Makganyene Major glaciation in the Proterozoic circa 710 ma Sturtian Major glaciation in the Proterozoic at circa 640 ma Marinoan Major biological event circa 3800 Ma Anaerobic Autotrophs Stromatolites Circa 2000 Ma Aerobic Autotrophs grreen algae Major biological event circa 543 Ma Aerobic Heterotrophs first animals C12C13 ratio type of chemical fossil Measurement of relative composition of two isotopes of carbon that is lighter if the carbon is biogenic in origin GLY1101 History of Life Review for Second Exam 4 Chemical Fossil Evidence for Precambrian life Chemical Fossils Stromatolites Morphological fossils Body Fossils Chemical molecules usually organic that indicate former life and that are preserved in rocks Chemical Fossils Precambrian occurrences of the degradation products of chlorophyll pristane and phytane Finely laminated structures in rocks that consist of concentric laminations cabbagehead structure built by cyanobacteria algae although not part of their skeleton or hard parts especially common during Precambrian and early Paleozoic rocks Stromatolites Direct evidence of ancient life as represented by a former part of that organism Morphological fossils Body Fossils Earliest skeletons known from the late Proterozoic and early Cambrian elements of fauna inclue lightly skeletonized tubes sclerites of armored worms and others small shelly fauna Late Proterozic superconti nent Rodina Precambrian Microfossil succession 35 bya Warrowoonda Group western Australia 34 bya Fig Tree Formation Southern Africa 21 bya Gunflint Chert Canada 20 to 18 bya Oldest Eukaryote 075 bya Bitter Springs Formation Central Australia Precambrian Macrofossil succession 125 bya Metaphytes GLY1101 History of Life Review for Second Exam 06 bya Ediacaran Fossils of Southern Australia Small shelly faunas the Tomotian fauna The blue green Cyanobacteria also photosynthesize Stromatolites Converting light energy into chemical energy is performed in parts of the cell called chloroplasts Photosynthesis The term used for some lower plants and many often unrelated groups of microorganisms that are able to perform photosynthesis 39algae39 If cyanobacteria are prokaryotic then algae are Eukaryotic What does Grypania represent The safest identification is that they are eukaryotes Domain Eucaryota They are often simply referred to as the first fossil algae The Proterozoic is divided into Paleo Meso Neo Proterozoic The Paleoproterozic began 2500 mya The Mesoproterozoic began 1600 mya The Neoproterozoic began 1000 mya The Ediacaran Sytem began 600 mya Thick sequences of finebedded rocks with alternating layers ofjasper red colored silicarich rock and hematite iron oxide of Precambrian age banded iron formations GLY1101 History of Life Review for Second Exam Chert rock that contains abundant carbon and hence is black in color Almost all Precambrian microfossils are from black cherts associated with stromatolites black chert Microscopic organicwalled cysts thought to be formed by marine planktonic algae perhaps related to dinoflagellates range in age from late Precambrian to the present but especially common during the Cambrian through the Devonian acritarchs Acritarchs are spherical microfossils that look very much like the resting stage cysts of dinoflagellates and other algae Acritarchs first appeared in the fossil record in the Precambrian about 18 billion years ago What we learned from the Precambrian succeSSion Five Working Hypotheses 1 Bombarding the Earth 2 Plate tectonics 3 Organic Evolution 4 Gaia hypothesis 5 Snowball Earth Planet Earth covered by ice from pole to pole for long periods in the geological past Snowball Earth When did the snowball earths occur Near the beginning and end of the Proterozoic Eonthem Who originated the concept of snowball earth Joe Kirschvink What caused the snowball earths Possibly by a lowering of atmospheric greenhouse gases to nearpresent levels through tectonicallymediated rock GLY1101 History of Life Review for Second Exam 7 weathering when the Sun was considerably dimmer than present What you should have learned about the Lower Paleozoic You should be able to identify the followinq The Lower Paleozoic Cambrian Ordovician animal and plant species appear and eventually disappear they do not longer exist on Earth Extinction The species evolves into a new species that differs so much from its ancestral group that the parent species can be considered as extinct although in the strict sense no extinction event occurred pseudoextinction The Causes of Mass Extinctions Plate Tectonics Climatic Changes Glaciations global warming events Extraterrestrial Impacts Humans and human activities are fossil localities which are highly remarkable for either their diversity or quality of preservation sometimes both Lagerstatten It includes a host of small skeletal elements that cannot be assigned to any living phylum and that show no relation to any group of fossils found in postCambrian rocks Named for rock exposures in Siberia The Tommotian Group of extinct animals that persisted from the Cambrian to the Triassic known principally from microscopic toothlike parts of the body They were small marine and nektonic These were either some type of chordate or a separate phylum conodonts Oldest organic reefs with skeletal frameworks are low mounds that formed in Lower Cambrian time GLY1101 History of Life Review for Second Exam 8 Archaeocyathids Are a broad group of eukaryotes including both the animal and fungus kingdoms together with the phylum Choanozoa of the protist kingdom Opisthokonts Multicellular life evolved at an incredible supersonic speed and for this reason this part of organismal evolution quotCambrian Explosionquot or quotEvolution39s Big Bangquot Best known for the presence of its diverse marine invertebrates invertebrates dominate including graptolites trilobites brachiopods and the conodonts early vertebrates The Ordovician quotThe Age of Fishesquot The Devonian System quotThe Age of Amphibiansquot Permian System Derived its name from the province in the Ural Mountains where rocks of this age are extensively developed Permian From a Latin name an ancient people of southwest Wales where the rocks were first identified Silurian System Widespread coal swamps large forests Carboniferous Jawless fish includes the living lampreys and hagfish Agnatha Primitive jawed fish with numerous spiny fish Acanthodii Primitive armored jawed fish GLY1101 History of Life Review for Second Exam 9 Placodermii Cartilaginous fish such as sharks and rays Chondrichthyes Bony fish Osteichthyes Rayfinned fish Actinopterygi Lobefinned airbreathing fish Sarcopterygi the group of fishes closest to amphibians Rhipidistians The other jawed fish whose name means quotplate skinnedquot the placoderms Class Placodermii truly a quotfishapodquot in that it has a mixture of both fish and tetrapod characteristics Tiktaalik roseae Finback reptiles evolved from the protorothyrids during the Pennsylvanian and were the dominant reptile group by the Early Permian The Pelycosaurs Were small to mediumsized animals that displayed the beginnings of many mammalian features Therapsids KEY TERMS See page 131 of text Ordovician period 510 438 million years ago Ordovician extinction 440450 million years ago GLY1101 History of Life Review for Second Exam 10 Ordovician extinction was second most devastating in earth history Near the end of the Late Ordovician about 85 of marine species died The Ordovician mass extinction has been theorized by paleontologists to be the result of a single event The glaciation of the continent Gondwana at the end of the period Evidence for the Ordovician glaciation event is provided by glacial deposits discovered by geologists in the Saharan Desert New diverse marine invertebrates in the Ordovician brachiopods bryozoans crinoids graptolites trilobites and bivalves as well as early vertebrates conodnts The three great marine faunas the Cambrian marine fauna the Paleozoic marine fauna from Ordovician to Permian the Modern Marine Fauna Mesozoic and Cenozoic Each marine fauna had a beginning with low diversity a period of rapid diversification and stability and a long period of decline Types of habitat pelagic nektonic planktonic benthos 39benthonic epifaunal infaunal tiering sessile vagile Feeding categories Primarv producers are autotrooh s Herbivores GLY1101 History of Life Review for Second Exam 11 Predators Omnivores scavengers parasites Suspension feeders Deposit feeders Another unusual aspect of the Cambrian was that at least based on the preserved fossil record the vast majority of marine organisms were epifaunal deposit feeders that is organisms that lived on top of the ocean floor and fed directly on sediment mud and silt The Cambrian does represent 1 a remarkable aaptive radiation of multicellular animals 2 a remarkable diversification f the morphology f animals 3 the global expansion of these animals in the oceans 4 the nearly synchronous development of hardpart skeletons in many phyla of animals Extinct phylum of sponge like animals confined to Cambrian rocks built small patch reefs during the Cambrian archaeocyaths Middle Cambrian rock unit in British Columbia Canada that has yielded a softbodied fauna preserved as carbon films This fauna contains many many very unusual softbodied organisms that provide an important perspective on nonskeletonized marine life Burgess Shale Multicellular life evolved at an incredible supersonic speed and for this reason this part of organismal evolution is termed the quotCambrian Explosionquot or quotEvolution39s Big Bangquot The first 10 million years of the Cambrian the only skeletonized fossils were the small shelly organisms The first trilobites occurred approximately 527 mya GLY1101 History of Life Review for Second Exam 12 An extinct class of Arthropoda so they are related to crabs lobsters and shrimps Trilobites Fossil types in the Cambrian Fauna brachiopods monoplacophorans A few rare specimens of echinoderms archaeocyaths Trilbites Annelida Chordata Poriferaopoda Mollusca Priapulida Hemichordata More than 170 species including prokaryotes protists algae and animals are recognized from the Burgess Shale the following are diagnostic Ottoa a priapulid worm Pikaia a chordate Wagtia an early arthropod Wiwaxia an animal of unknown affinities The horseshoe crab An arachnid The horseshOe crab Blue blood KEY TERMS Page 160 of text GLY1101 History of Life Review for Second Exam 13 A field of biology that compares the developmental processes of different animals and plants in an attempt to determine the ancestral relationship between organisms and how developmental processes evolved evodevo Viewed of as genetic control switches that turn different programs of cellular differentiation on or off The Hox genes A set of genes that are responsible for assigning specific regional identities on body parts Hox genes Hox genes also known as The homeotic genes Some General Features of Animals Heterotrophs Multicellular No Cell Walls Active Movement Diverse in Form Diverse in Habitat Sexual Reproduction Embryonic Development morula blastula gastrula The six major Paleozoic continents are Baltica China Gondwana Kazakhstania Laurentia Siberia Paleozoic continent that included Africa Antarctica Australia Florida India Madagascar and parts of the Middle East and southern Europe Gondwana Paleozoic continent that included most of present North America Greenland northwestern Ireland Scotland and part of eastern Russia Laurentia Paleozoic continent that included Russia west of the Ural Mountains and the major part of northern Europe GLY1101 History of Life Review for Second Exam 14 Baltica Three evolutionary events in the Cambrian Evolution of external skeletons in animals Explosive evolution of phyla Evolution of Chordates First Reefs Archaeocyathids Presentday Reefs What is a reef Biological Concept An ecosystem Geological Concept A lithic structure Facts about corals Coral reefs are among the oldest ecosystems on Earth Coral reefs are the largest living structure on the planet Without the existence of coral reefs parts of Florida would be under water Some characteristics of phylum porifera sponges 1 Multicellular body a loose aggregation of cells 2 Body with pores ostia canals and chambers that serve for passage of water 3 All aquatic mostly marine 4 Symmetry radial or none 5 Skeletal structure of fibrillar collagen a protein and calcareous or siliceous crystalline spicules often combined with variously moified collagen spongin fibrils 6 No rgans or true tissues digestion intracellular excretion and respiration by diffusion 7 Reactions to stimuli apparently local and independent nervous system probably absent 8 All adults sessile and attached to substratum 9 Asexual reproduction by buds or gemmules and sexual reproduction by eggs and sperm freeswimming ciliated larvae GLY1101 History of Life Review for Second Exam 15 Ordovician life showed a much higher level of ecological complexity than any previous time in geologic history The first complex food webs developed abundant nutrients in the oceans Some types primary producers algae microscopic plankton phyto and zoo filter feeders sponges stromatoporoids brachiopods bryozoans echinoderms and corals Grazers gastropods primitive snails Scavengers trilobites ostracodes bivalves Predator giant straightshelled nautiloi ds carnivore Marine environments divided by water depth include Neritic 0200 m Bathyal 2002 000m Abyssal lt2000 m What you should have learned about the Middle Paleozoic You should be able to identify the following Middle Paleozoic Silurian Devonian The Ordovician Radiation marks the beginning of the Typical Marine Paleozoic Fauna consisting of Articulate Brachiopods Crinoids Rugose and tabulate corals Ostracodes Cephalopods Bryozoa GLY1101 History of Life Review for Second Exam 16 Echinoderms starfish Graprotolites Conodonts Another novel feature of Ordovician ecosystems was the increase in tiering or multiple feeding levels above and below the sea floor Major events in the Middle Paleozoic Silurian and Devonian include During Silurian and Devonian times marine life on the sea flor diversified further Great reef complexes formed in the shallow seaways Ammonoid cephalopods and jawed fishes were particularly diverse in the Devnian A major extinction of tropical marine life occurred in the Late but not latest Devonian The first definite land plants appeared in the Late Ordovician By the Devonian there were forests made up of primitive vascular plants including quotclub mossesquot horsetails true ferns and seed ferns In the Silurian the vegetation was inhabited by the first land animals including millipedes spiders scorpions and primitive insects In the Late Devonian amphibians evolve from the lobefinned fish and crawled out onto land for the first time SilurianDevonian marine seaways were very shallow and tropical and accumulated great thicknesses of marine lime39stones In many places restricted marine circulation produced thick Silurian evaporites GLY1101 History of Life Review for Second Exam 17 The top predators in the Silurian were not nautiloids or ammonoids but the quotsea scorpionsquot or eurypterids Organic reefs both modern and ancient vary greatly in size and form Some occur as long linear structures barrier reefs the more circular reefs are know as fringing reefs Pacific reefs built on submerged prominences such as volcanic craters atolls The first vertebrate to invade the land in the late Devonian Amphibians A group of planktonic organisms in the middle Paleozoic Silurian Devonian Graptolites The three subclasses of the Class Cephalopoda Nautiloidea Ammonoidea Coleoidea The Nautiloidea lived Late CambrianHolocene The Nautilus Ammonoidea Early DevonianLate Cretaceous The Ammonoidea had four gills and planispiral shells with agoniatitic goniatitic ceratitic or ammonitic sutures Coleoidea Early DevonianHolocene Belemnoids and octopuses What you should have learned about the Upper Paleozoic You should be able to identifv the following when coal formed from the remains of new kinds of plants that grew in swamps Carboniferous GLY1101 History of Life Review for Second Exam 18 A major plate tectonic event took place in Upper Carboniferous time the attachment of Gondwanaland to Euramerica Event marked by the greatest mass extinction in earth history which wiped out 95 percent of marine species The end of the Permian The Cause of the Extinction at the end of the Permian A combination of extreme climatic fluctuations runaway greenhouse warming and massive volcanic eruptions may have been responsible as well as an asteroid impact First Vertebrate They included two main groups the lineage which dominated the forests of the late Paleozoic synapsid animals and plants developed complex communities on the land as well as in the ocean Devonian System extinction affected the reef community and caused widespread extinction in brachiopods and ammonoids the major phyla of invertebrates soon recovered and remained dominant for the rest of the Paleozoic late Devonian extinction were the dominant elements in the marine environment in the Permian Crinoids and blastoids were among the largest of all protozoans in Upper Paleozoic time growing in a spiral around a central axis to form a spindleshaped shell Fusulinids Evolutionary novelty that freed reptiles from having to return to the water for reproduction and allowed them to inhabit all parts of the land Amniote egg Groups of fishes that became extinct in the Paleozoic Ostracodemrs Placoderms and Acanthodians GLY1101 History of Life Review for Second Exam 19 Groups of fishes that survive the Permian extinction event Lobefinned fish Cartilaginous fish Rayfinned fish First plants move on land Ordovician are marine lobefinned fish that evolved during the Middle Devonian and were thought 39to have gone extinct at the end of the Cretaceous In 1938 however a fisherman caught a coelacanth in the deep waters off Madagascar and since then several dozen more have been caught both there and in Indonesia Coelacanths order Coelacanthimorpha finback reptiles evolved from the protorothyrids during the Pennsylvanian and were the dominant reptile group by the Early Permian The pelycosaurs were small to mediumsized animals that displayed the beginnings of many mammalian features fewer bones in the skull because many of the small skull bones were fused enlarged lowerjawbone differentiation of teeth for various functions such as nipping tearing and chewing food and more vertically placed legs for greater flexibility Therapsids Gymnosperms appear at this tine many have evolved during the upper Devonian Mississippian Coal swamps with flora of seedless vascular plants and gymnosperms developed at this time Pennsylvanian Therapsids and Pelycosaurs are the dominant reptiles at this time Permian Earliest vertebrates jawless fish called ostracoderms appear in this system Cambrian GLY1101 History of Life Review for Second Exam 20 Crinoids bryozoans and blastoids become abundant at this time Mississippian Extinction of many reef building invertebrates at this time Devonian Major reef building takes place at this time Silurian are characterized by a notochord dorsal hollow nerve cord and gill slits The earliest members of the group were soft bodied organisms that were rarely fossilized Chordates the earliest known vertebrates with their first fossil occurrence in Upper Cambrian rocks Fish The earliest fossil record of reptiles is from Late Mississippian was the critical factor that allowed reptiles to completely colonize the land The evolution of an amniote egg Was the dominant reptile group during the Early Permian Pelycosaurs Dominated the landscape for the rest of the Permian Period Therapsids In making the transition from water to land plants had to overcome the same basic problems as animalsnamely desiccation reproduction and gravity The earliest fossil record of land plants is from Middle to Upper Ordovician rocks GLY1101 History of Life Review for Second Exam 21 The ancestor of terrestrial vascular plants was probably some type of based on such similarities as pigmentation metabolic enzymes and the same type of reproductive cycle green alga witnessed the evolution of the flowerless seed plants gymnosperms whose reproductive style freed them from having to stay near water The Late Devonian was a time of vast coal swamps where conditions were ideal for the seedless vascular plants The Carboniferous With the onset of more arid conditions during the Permian became the dominant element of the world39s flora the gymnosperms large up to 50 cm predator from the Cambrian considered by most to be an arthropod Best known from the Burgess Shale where isolated parts of this organism were originally described as three separate animals Anomalocaris thick sequences of finebedded rocks with alternating layers ofjasper red colored silicarich rock and hematite iron oxide of Precambrian age banded iron formations 8 locality in central Australia that has yielded many Precambrian microfossils the rocks at this locality are dated at 09 billion years in age Bitter Springs Formation late Proterozoic biota of softbodied organisms from south Australia and elsewhere Debate on this biota is whether these fossils represent the oldest m etazoans or an entirely different kind or organism Ediacaran megabiota macroscopic multicellular plants this general name applies to most land plants and macroscopic seaweeds metaphytes GLY1101 History of Life Review for Second Exam 22 class of primitive molluscs with a single capshaped shell first appeared and are important during the Cambrian but are still living today in deepocean habitats monoplacophorans organism that normally eats both animal and plant tissue omnivore organic compound that along with pristane is a degradation product of chlorophyll found in some Precambrian rocks an indicator of early photosynthesis phytane term applied to any organism that floats in water planktonic terrestrial deposits in an aerobic environment coloration from oxidization of ironbearing minerals red beds One of the three major faunas to populate the marine realm during the Phanerozoic only lasted during the Cambrian dominated by trilobites inarticuate brachiopods monoplacophorans hyoiths and primitive stalked echinoderms Cambrian marine fauna


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