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Exam Study Guide

by: emory1

Exam Study Guide Sociology 101

Emory University

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Exam Study Guide
Introduction to Sociology
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by emory1 on Monday March 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Sociology 101 at Emory University taught by in Fall 2013. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at Emory University.


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Date Created: 03/21/16
Explaining Behavior • Behavior is patterned and ordered • Shaped by rules and meanings • Internalized in us as emotions and feelings • Collectively enforced • To become a socially constructed reality that “makes sense” to us Meanings  People respond and make judgments based on not on the act, but on the meanings they attribute to the act  We react to the meanings we attach to behaviors Rules  A set of rules organizes social behavior and those rules are what make behaviors patterned and ordered  Most rules are informal and we are not usually aware the rule exists until we violate them Feelings and Emotions  The rules and meanings that organize behavior become internalized in us as feelings and emotions  Social world becomes a “reality” b/c we experience it as reality through feelings and emotions Rules and meanings collective learned in interactions with others  Socialization World becomes a socially constructed reality  Social world, our reality, makes sense to us b/c we accept its rules and meanings and know it to be real through our feelings and emotions  We come to see our “world” as right and moral and other “worlds” as strange and wrong The Beating of Rodney King  Police as power hungry o Police on a power trip, feel superior o Power corrupts, abuse of power, feel above the law, no fear of being punished, so they can do whatever they want  Effects of being in a group o Crowd phenomenon, people lose sense of responsibility and guilt in a crowd o Police became a mob, lost their individual identity  Social and personal attitudes or characteristics of police o Beating an irrational behavior, police acting out of frustrations o Racist, prejudicial attitudes towards black o Racial stereotypes o Show bias police have towards lower class people  Job of being a police officer o Reaction to the stress of being a police officer, take out anger o Angered at the lack of respect society gives police o Frustrations at failings of criminal justice system, criminal doesn’t serve time o Reflects fear that criminals are better armed than police  Reactions to being disobeyed o Running creates frustration o Reaction to being disobeyed, takes out anger o Teaching him a lesson Police Accounts of Normal Force: Jennifer Hunt  Police behavior patterned and order o Distinction between illegal and legal force o One officer says always beat suspect after a chase  Meanings and Rules o Beating someone normal and legitimate and not excessive o Normal force, not brutal o The degree to which you beat them is in relation to the meaning of the behavior  Collectively enforced learned through socialization o Police was supposed to use force and other police made fun of her and told her she should’ve o When she went out and did beat, they congratulated her  Feelings internalized o Beginning police feel guilt, over time feelings change When two social realities collide o We apply our set of rules and meanings, but they have their own Norms, Statuses & Roles  Norm- any standard or rule that tells people how they should act in a particular situation  Status- a social position with defined rights and duties  Roles- expectations for behavior in a position  Roles exist independently of individuals; explains patterned action; multiple roles  Roles are often conferred upon us; we don’t choose many of our roles  Roles are learned through the process of socialization  Behavior is interpreted in terms of the roles that people occupy; the meaning we attach to people’s behavior is a function of the roles they occupy  Roles create personal organization; prevent personal disorganization or anomie  Roles do not just regulate behavior but create an identity o We become the role we play o Role conflict  Explains how the same person can seem to be so different in different situations  How we become the role that we play o Through having alternatives blocked o Through behaving in the role o Through the reaction of others Violation of Norms • The violation of norms evokes reactions from others that o Attempt to bring you, the offending party, back into behaving within the norm o And at the same time reaffirming the norm itself o And others attempt to do this in a way that tries to prevent embarrassment and “save your face”  The violation of norms evokes reactions from the violator so that o You feel awkward, embarrassed, rude and self-conscious even though you know it’s an experiment o You feel the need to explain to others to “save your face” and give your behavior proper meaning Socialization  The skills and abilities to enter a situation, occupy a role, and pick-up the cues of how to behave and feel  The process that gives us the skills and abilities to occupy and become our roles  To know how to behave and feel in a role requires that we become aware of our own mind and the minds of others  Social interaction  Old people interact with less people, so no filter, lose sense of what other people think  Interaction is a double, reciprocal relationship o Making a judgment of what’s on the other persons mind  We become aware of what is on our mind and the minds of others by having others tell us what is on our own mind o Mother makes judgments of what’s on child’s mind, mother feeds child, child stops crying, child learns what’s on its mind from mothers reaction. Develop sense of self, interaction  The Discovery of the Self o The self is that set of skills and abilities that allows us to relate to our own mind and the minds of others o Interaction is a relationship between “selves” o Aware of things in you environment when it makes a disruption/ difference in your life  The stages of the development of the self o Preparatory stage: young child alert to what others are doing o Play stage: taking the role of the other  Play with people in their lives. Play mommy and baby. “It’s time to go to bed” b/c constantly hears mommy says that. Baby says no. Finally understands what its like to be mommy and what’s on her mind o Game stage: taking the role of the generalized other  Kids so intrigued by rules rather than playing the same. Unless everyone plays by the rules there is no game  Flexibility & change  Significant others o People who have people over you, what they say makes a difference  Self-esteem o How you value yourself o Comes from how others value us, significant others o Self-fulfilling prophecy  People value you highly, you feel good, you dress well, self-esteem increases, feel confident  Recidivism o Prison- punish people instead of rehabilitate o Try to get a job, but denied o Self-fulfilling prophecy- people treat them like criminal so they end up back in jail o 70% back in 3 years


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