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Study Guide for Bio Midterm

by: Cameron Rhoades

Study Guide for Bio Midterm BIOL 113

Marketplace > Western Kentucky University > Biology > BIOL 113 > Study Guide for Bio Midterm
Cameron Rhoades
GPA 3.38
William Lynch

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Guy's this is a very precise study guide for the upcoming test. This is how I have studied for each quiz we have had, and have made a 100 on every single one. I hope that you will take advantage of...
William Lynch
Study Guide
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cameron Rhoades on Monday October 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 113 at Western Kentucky University taught by William Lynch in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 119 views. For similar materials see GENERAL BIOLOGY in Biology at Western Kentucky University.


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Date Created: 10/12/15
Fall 2013 chapters 12 Cell is the smallest unit of life and some organisms are singlecelled In multicellular organisms a cell is the smallest structural and functional unit Tissue is a group of similar cells that perform a particular function Nervous tissue is composed of millions of nerve cells that transmit signals to all parts of the body Organ Several tissues then join together to form an organ The main organ that receives signals from nerves is the brain Organs then work together to form an organ system In the nervous system the brain sends messages to the spinal cord which in turn sends them to body parts through spinal nerves Energy Capacity to do work and bring about change occurs in a variety of forms Genes Unit of heredity eXisting as alleles on the chromosomes in diploid organisms typically two alleles are inherited one from each parent Reproduction The process of producing a new individual of the same kind DNA which direct cellular functions is duplicated prior to an organism reproducing Homeostasis Maintenance of normal internal conditions in a cell or an organism by means of selfregulating mechanisms EX Human body temperature uctuates slightly throughout the day Growth recognized by an increase in the size of an organism and often in the number of cells is a part of development All organisms undergo some form of development development includes all the changes that take place between conception and death Adaptation Species39 modification in structure function or behavior that makes a species more suitable to its environment Individuals better adapted to their environment tend to produce more offspring Natural Selection is the differential reproduction success of adapted individuals Natural Selection Mechanism of evolutionary change caused by environmental selection of organisms most fit to reproduce results in adaptation to the environment Evolution change in the frequency of traits in populations and species Genetic change in a species over time resulting in the development of genetic and phenotypic differences that are the basis of natural selection descent of organisms from a common ancestor Living organisms are assigned to groups based Upon their similarities Systematics is the discipline of identifying and classifying organisms according to specific criteria Classi cation of organisms most inclusive least inclusive Most Inclusive Domain Least Inclusive Species Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Taxonomy Branch of biology concerned with identifying describing and naming organisms Binomial genusspecies Binomal Two Names Genus to which the species belongs Species is the specific epithet or species name Genus Upper Case Names Species lower case names Not correct unless underlined or Italicized EX Homo sapiens Biology Scientific study of life Scienti c theories The ultimate goal of science is to understand the natural world in terms of scienti c theories concepts that join together wellsupported and related hypotheses Supported by a broad range of observations experiments and data Observation Scientists tend to be curious about nature and how the world works They believe that natural phenomena can be understood more fully by obserVing and studying them Initial step in the scientific method that often involves the recording of data from an experiment or natural event Hypothesis After making observations and gathering knowledge about a phenomenon a scientist uses inductive reasoning Inductive reasoning occurs whenever a person uses creative thinking to combine isolated facts into a cohesive whole Supposition established by reasoning after consideration of available evidence it can be tested by obtaining more data often by experimentation Experiment Testing a hypothesis involves either conducting an experiment or making further observations To determine how to test a hypothesis a scientist uses deductive reasoning If then logic Testing should be specific and the results will be meaningful A control should be included A controlled Study Experiments in controlled studies have two types of groups Controlled Group receives no treatment Experimental Group receives treatment To ensure that the outcome is due to the experimental variable independent variable alone all other conditions between the groups in the experiment are controlled to be identical The result is called the responding variable or dependent variable because it is due to the experimental treatment Data Facts or information collected through observation andor experimentation Should be observable and objective Should NOT be subjective and opinion based Conclusion Statement made following an experiment as to whether or not the results support the hypothesis Atom An atom is the smallest part of an element that displays the properties of the element An element and its atom share the same name The atomic symbol is composed of one or two letters which stands for this name Protons Positive subatomic particle located in the nucleus and assigned one atomic mass unit Neutrons Neutral subatomic particle located in the nucleus and assigned one atomic mass unit Electrons Negative subatomic particle moving about in an energy level around the nucleus of an atom Covalent bond Chemical bond in which atoms share one pair of electrons threedimensional shape Structural formulas make it seem as if molecules are onedimensional but actually molecules have a threedimensional shape that often determines their biological function Calorie Amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water 1 C Carbohydrates Class of organic compounds that typically contain carbon hydrogen and oxygen in a 1221 ratio includes the monosaccharides disaccharides and polysaccharides HCOH Function as quick fuel Also shortterm energy storage in organisms Lipids contain more energy per gram than other biological molecules while fats and oils function as energy storage molecules in organisms lass of organic compounds that tends to be soluble in nonpolar solvents includes fats and oils Proteins Polymer of amino acids often consisting of one or more polypeptides and having a compleX three dimensional shape Perform many functions Structured Proteins give support Keratin which makes up hair and nails Collagen lends support to ligaments tendons and skin are structural proteins Enzymes Some Proteins are Enzymes Enzymes are necessary contributors to the chemical workings of the cell and the body Organic catalyst usually a protein that speeds a reaction in cells due to its particular shape Ch 4amp6 Osmosis Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane Diffusion Movement of moleculs from an area of higher to lower concentration Several factors in uence the rate of diffusion 1 Temperature 2 Pressure 3 Electrical Currents 4 Molecule or Size Solute Substance that is dissolved in a solvent forming a solution Solvent Liquid portion of a solution that serves to dissolve the solute Isotonic Cell neither gains nor loses water Hypotonic Solution that contains a lower solute more water concentration than the cytoplasm of a cell causes the cell to gain water by osmosis Hypertonic Higher solution concentration less water than the cytoplasm of a cell causes cell to lose water by osmosis Channel Protein Protein that forms a channel to allow a particular molecule or ion to cross the plasma membrane Carrier Protein Selectively interacts w a specific molecule or ion so that it can cross the plasma membrane Cell recognition protein Glycoprotein in the plasma membrane that identify self and help the body defend itself against pathogens Plasma Membrane Separates the internal environment of the cell from its external environment Regulates the entrance and eXit of molecules into and out of the cell Concentration Gradient Gradual change in chemical concentration between two areas of differing concentrations Phospholipid Bilayer Makes up the cell membrane Consists of l Hydrophollic water loving Polar heads that face inside and outside of cell water present 2 Hydrophobic water hating Non polar tails not attracted to water Face each other away from water Homeostasis Maintenance of normal internal conditions in a cell or an organism by means of self regulating mechanisms Selectively permeable Property of the plasma membrande that allows some substances to pass but prohibits the movement of others Photosynthesis The process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water Energy Capacity to do work and bring about change occurs in a variety of forms Cells and organisms need a constant supply of energy Allows for growth metabolism and reproduction Life on Earth is dependent upon solar energy Two types of energy chemical and mechanical Kinetic energy Energy associated with motion Potential energy Stored energy in a potentially usable form as a result of location or spatial arrangement Metabolism Sum of all chemical reactions that occur in a cell The breaking down and building up of molecules is a large part of cellular metabolism Catabolism Breaking down of molecules Anabolism building up of molecules Reactants Substances that take place in the reaction ABCD Products Substances that form as a result of a reaction ABCD ATP Nucleotide with three phosphate groups The breakdown of ATP into ADPP makes energy available for energyrequiring processes in cells Enzymes Organic catalyst usually a protein that speeds a reaction in cells due to it particular shape Ch 78 amp23 Anaerobic pathways A chemical reaction that occurs in the absence of oxygen an example is the fermentation reactions One metabolic pathway of cellular respiration Example Fermentation Aerobic pathways A chemical process that requires air oxygen phase of cellular respiration that requires oxygen Types of enzyme reactions A Synthesis the substrates are combined to produce a large product B Degradation Substrate is broken down into smaller products Cellular respiration Metabolic reactions that use the energy from carbohydrate fatty acid or amino acid breakdown to produce ATP molecules Glucose High energy molecule As it is broken down energy is released Energy is used to produce ATP Breakdown of one glucose molecule results in 3638 ATP molecules being made Glycolysis Anaerobic breakdown of glucose that results in a gain of two ATP and the production of pyruvate occurs in the cytoplasm of cells Pyruvate Pivotal metabolite in cellular respiration If no oxygen is available pyruvate is reduced Lactate in animals Alcohol and carbon dioxide in plants Used in process called fermentation Photosynthesis Process usually occurring within chloroplasts that uses solar energy to reduce carbon dioxide to carbohydrate Autotrophs Organism that can capture energy and synthesize organic molecules from inorganic nutrients Heterotrophs Organism that cannot synthesize needed organic compounds from inorganic substances and therefore must take in organic food Chlorophyll Green photosynthetic pigment of algae and plants that absorbs solar energy occurs as chlorophyll The raw materials used by plants during photosynthesis are Water and Carbon Dioxide Stomata Small openings between two guard cells on the underside of leaf epidermis through which gases pass Products of photosynthesis Glucose and Oxygen Light Reactions lightdependent Portion of photosynthesis that captures solar energy and takes place in thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts it produces ATP and NADPH Calvin Cycle Reactions lightindependent Portion of photosynthesis that takes place in the stroma of chloroplasts and can occur in the dark it uses the products of the light reactions to reduce Homologous chromosomes Chromosomes that are found in pairs One chromosome of each homologous pair comes from the mother called a maternal chromosome and one comes from the father paternal chromosome Homologous chromosomes are similar but not identical Each carries the same genes in the same order but the alleles for each trait may not be the same Alleles Alternative form of a gene alleles occur at the same locus on homologous chromosomes Locus Physical location of a trait or gene on a chromosome Phenotype Visible expression of a genotype eg brown eyes or attached earlobes Genotype Genes of an organism for a particular trait or traits often designated by letters Law of Independent Assortment states that separate genes for separate traits are passed independently of one another from parents to offspring That is the biological selection of a particular gene in the gene pair for one trait to be passed to the offspring has nothing to do with the selection of the gene for any other trait More precisely the law states that alleles of different genes assort independently of one another during gamete formation Law of Segregation The Law of Segregation states that every individual contains a pair of alleles for each particular trait which segregate or separate during cell division assuming diploidy for any particular trait and that each parent passes a randomly selected copy allele to its offspring The offspring then receives its own pair of alleles of the gene for that trait by inheriting sets of homologous chromosomes from the parent organisms Interactions between alleles at a single locus are termed dominance and these in uence how the offspring eXpresses that trait Incomplete Dominance Inheritance pattern in which an offspring has an intermediate phenotype as when a red owered plant and a white owered plant produce pink owered offspring Codominance Inheritance pattern in which both alleles of a gene are equally eXpressed in a heterozygote multiple alleles Polygenic inheritance Pattern of inheritance in which a trait is controlled by several allelic pairs Chemical work Energy to synthesize macromolecules anabolism see definition Transport work Energy to pump substances across membrane Mechanical work Energy to make muscles contract Punnett square be able to work one X Wm Kay W Window s peak w Straighthairlinee Cf w E Winw s eak Straight hairline nnyi es Phpemntypin Harlin m r A 3 Widnw s eat W WW 1 E Straiht hairlin D pi itntg Punnett square ratios Phenotypic WW1 Ww2 ww1 121 Genotypic WW1WW23 to WWl Yields 31 Homozygous Possessing two identical alleles for a particular trait Homozygous dominant WW Homozygous recessive WW heterozygous Possessing unlike alleles for a particular trait Heterozygous WW substrates Reactant in an enzymecontrolled reaction Diagrams Hypertonic Hypotonic Isotonic 10 Hydrophollic 11 Hydrophobic 28 Enzyme 29 active site 30 Enzyme substrate complex 31 Products 32 Substrates mtieie r34 ism LIIper 39 J i39 epidermis amp me wees aee en meaebhgrll lewer epidermis leaf eein inner mm b39an euter membrane abema h Ehl mplv EL El nIereelaatr mimegraph E m thy labeiel epabe tny39lalabid membrane e Erana channel between trylamida alleles at a gene Imus


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