Study Guide: Chapters To Read, Terms To Know, Sample Exam
Study Guide: Chapters To Read, Terms To Know, Sample Exam 11059
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Study Guide for Norman The design of everyday thingsLPsych 3601 R Henning Note topics start with the page numbers listed below Know those that are leftjustified in some detail others that are rightjustified can be simply skimmed for the general idea ONE The Psychopathology of Everyday Things 1 You Would Need an Engineering Degree to Figure 1 The Frustration of Everyday Life 2 The Psychology of Everyday Things 8 Affordances 9 Twenty Thousand Everyday Things 11 Conceptual Models 12 Principles of Design for Understandability 13 Provide a Good Conceptual Model 13 Make Things Visible 17 The Principle of Mapping 23 The Principle of Feedback 27 Pity the Poor Designer 28 The Paradox of Technology 29 TWO The Psychology of Everyday Actions 34 Falsely Blaming Yourself 34 Misconceptions of Everyday Life 36 Aristotle s Naive Physics 36 People as Explanatory Creatures 38 Blaming the Wrong Cause 39 Learned Helplessness 42 Taught Helplessness 42 The Nature of Human Thought and Explanation 43 How People Do Things The Seven Stages of Action 45 The Gulfs of Execution and Evaluation 49 The Gulf of Execution 51 The Gulf of Evaluation 51 The Seven Stages of Action as Design Aids 52 THREE Knowledge in the Head and in the World 54 Precise Behavior from Imprecise Knowledge 56 Information is in the World 56 Great Precision is not Required 58 The Power of Constraints 60 Memory is Knowledge in the Head 62 The Conspiracy Against Memory 63 The Structure of Memory 66 Memory for Arbitrary Things 67 Memory for Meaningful Relationships 68 Memory Through Explanation 70 Memory is also Knowledge in the World 72 Reminding 72 Natural Mappings 75 The Tradeoff Knowledge in World Head 79 FOUR Knowing What to Do 81 A Classification of Everyday Constraints 82 Physical Constraints 84 Semantic Constraints 85 Cultural Constraints 85 Logical Constraints 86 The Problem with Doors 87 The Problem with Switches 92 Which Switch Controls Which Function 93 How are the Switches Arranged 95 Visibility and Feedback 99 Making Visible the Invisible 100 Nothing Succeeds like a good Display 101 What can be Done 101 Using Sound for Visibility 102 FIVE To Err is Human 105 Slips 106 Types of Slips 107 Capture Errors 107 Description Errors 107 DataDriven Errors 109 Associative Activation Errors 109 Lossof Activation Errors 109 Mode Errors 110 Detecting Slips 110 Design Lessons from the Study of Slips 112 Mistakes as Errors of Thought 114 Some Models of Human Thought 114 The Connectionist Approach 116 The Structure of Tasks 119 Wide and Deep Structures 119 Shallow Structures 121 Narrow Structures 121 The Nature of Everyday Tasks 124 Conscious and Subconscious Behavior 125 Explaining away Errors 127 Social Pressure and Mistakes 129 How to Deal with Error and How Not To 131 Forcing Functions 132 A Design Philosophy 140 SIX The Design Challenge 141 Forces that work Against Evolutionary Design 142 The Typewriter A case History 145 Why Designers go Astray 151 Putting Aesthetics First 151 Designers are not Typical Users 155 The Designer s Clients may not be Users 157 The Complexity of the Design Process 158 Designing for Special People 161 Selective Attention The Problem of Focus 164 The Faucet A Case History of Design Difficulties 166 Two Deadly Temptations for the Designer 172 Creeping Featurism 172 The Worshipping of False Images 174 The Foibles of Computer Systems 177 How to do Things Wrong 178 It s not too Late to do Things Right 179 Computer as Chameleon 183 Explorable systems Inviting Experimentation 183 Two Modes of Computer Usage 184 The Invisible Computer of the future 185 SEVEN UserCentered Design 187 none of this chapter should be skimmed YOUR NAME Midterm Exam March 14 2013 Human Factors Design PSYCH 3601 R Henning Circle the BEST answer for each multiplechoice question 25 questions 2 points each 50 points out of 100 total points 1 Hybrid automated systems have a some human control b no human control c only human control d none of the above 2 One of the main considerations when designing sociotechnical systems is to a have the same number of social needs and technical needs met at all times b reduce social needs 0 reduce technical needs d harmonize social and technical aspects of a system e none of the above 3 In parallellinked social tracking all participants a can exert input control directly on the system being controlled b receive feedback about how the system is responding to input control 0 both a amp b d none of the above 4 In serieslinked or seriallinked social tracking all participants a can exert input control directly on the system being controlled b receive feedback about how the system is responding to input control 0 both a amp b d none of the above 5 Social feedback control can be interfered with or perturbed when a there is delayed feedback b there is delayed response to control inputs 0 the feedback is transformed in a way that makes it hard to use or interpret it becomes noncompliant d all of the above e none of the above 6 The two modes of social tracking commonly found in teamwork situations are a initiative and compensatory b initiative and serieslinked c parallellinked and serieslinked d initiative and parallellinked e none of the above 7 It is a mistake to initiate a participatory ergonomics program when a management ie top down support is lacking b worker ie bottomup support is lacking 0 there is an unfavorable work climate eg company is in the process of layingoff workers d there is no support by middle management or supervisors e all of the above 8 One problem inherent to the serieslinked seriallinked mode of social tracking is added delays due to the a sequential nature of this mode of social control b parallel nature of this social system c discriminative nature of this social system of control d all of the above 9 These two human factors analyses show a type of symmetry with each other in regard to the time period they focus on a fault tree analysis and an activity analysis b fault tree analysis and a critical incident study c fault tree analysis and a task analysis d fault tree analysis and a failure mode and effects analysis e fault tree analysis and an analysis of similar systems 10 Application of human factors techniques to improve which of the following is an example of macroergonomics a Good workstation design and the use of a computer that allows individual workers to accomplish tasks at a workstation b Making it easier for employees in an organization to get answers from management c Using a whole lot of ergonomics to fix something d none of the above 11 One of the predicted effects of mutual social tracking by two people is that a each person gives up all control to the physical environment resulting in lower social expectations b one person usually completely controls the other person c their ability to control things together is seriously diminished d the physiological states of the participants are mutually affected and to some extent become yoked 12 The parallel mode of social tracking may cause confusion because it is sometimes unclear a which system is being used b which person is causing a change in the system c if all of the feedback is inverted d if it is imitative or not e what it is that needs controlling l3 Mainstream psychology tends to be person oriented while human factors psychology is a team oriented b proposal oriented c systems oriented d open loop e none of the above 14 The term clumsy automation refers to a problem that arises when a the system cannot perform fine manipulative movements so that it looks just plain clumsy b people in general just don t like automation c use of the automated features makes it harder for operators to control a system d robots fall down and generally look ridiculous e none of the above 15 When working on complex systems it is often helpful to separate the system into a segments b chained events c subsystems d required skill sets e none of the above 16 A humancentered design approach often competes with a a usercentered design approach b customercentered design approach c technologycentered design approach d teamcentered design approach 17 According to the systems perspective it is a mistake to place the blame for accidents a on machine design characteristics b on the human operators c on either a or b alone d none of the above 3 18 One fallacy in using psychology data about human capabilities gathered under lab conditions is that human abilities a are in large part dependent on the design of the system the human is a part of b differ greatly from person to person c are known to vary depending on the age of a person and lab conditions tend to emphasize this d can vary due to inheritance factors e none of the above 19 Which is the correct use of the ecological psychology term affordance a Developing a system with highcost human factors work is referred to as an affordance issue b One cannot afford to ignore one s own affordances c An affordance is a property that does not change even when the characteristics of users change d An affordance represents a property that is partly determined by the characteristics of a user e none of the above 20 A definition of human factors design should emphasize the following three components a low cost overall system effectiveness user safety and wellbeing d the human performancedesign interaction overall system effectiveness user safety and wellbeing e performancedesign interaction the most advanced technology user safety and wellbeing d none of the above 21 The mental mappings discussed by Normal are most closely related to which of the following concepts in cybernetics a temporally compliant feedback b spatially compliant feedback c compensatory control d projective control 22 In Sheridan s approach to human control of computers and robot systems the need for supervision is consistent with computers being a faster than humans b less expensive when robots take over tasks c impoverished social partners d very complex 23 A good training simulator should allow trainees to dynamically explore the safe operating boundaries of a system This should also help the trainee do the following a Learn the fastest way to finish the procedural training steps b Build an accurate mental model of the system s limits c Learn the normal system operating procedures much faster d none of the above 24 Physiological measures can be useful in measuring workload because a they can be used to detect any lies the person may be telling b they can be measured continuously c they can be scored objectively d both b amp c e none of the above 25 Steering behaviors while driving a car are generally dominated by which of the following types of control a compensatory control b projective control or predictive control or anticipatory control c serieslined tracking d all of the above DIRECTIONS FOR SHORT ESSAY QUESTIONS In questions with multiple parts eg Part A amp Part B please label these sections of your answer accordingly Answer each of the following essay questions concisely but use speci c examples to make your points absolutely clear WARNING Lengthy wandering answers loaded with details unrelated to the question will be downgraded Q 1 25 pts Airport screeners spend long hours looking at a computer display that shows Xray pictures of luggage etc as these go through a scanning machine The airport screener controls the conveyer belt that carries luggage through the scanning machine They examine the computer display and to stop the conveyer belt Whenever there are knives bombs etc hidden inside the luggage Please read this news report about airport screeners Airport Security Screener Suspended For Sleeping On Job March 17 2003 F ederalDailycom The Transportation Security Administration TSA has suspended a federal security screener for allegedly falling asleep on the job at Bradley International Airport in Windsor Locks Conn Airport officials were forced to clear passengers from an entire concourse when the screener was caught at about 530 pm last Saturday authorities said Officials declined to identify the screener by name Two Delta Air Line flights were delayed as passengers were forced to go back to the security checkpoint with their carryon bags and pass through security screening again Connecticut state police said coworkers saw the screener sleeping in front of the Xray machine screen when he was supposed to be checking carryon luggage for guns knives and other dangerous items quotIf one bag even went through to the sterile area inside the concourse that is going to require this kind of action quot said Mark Hatfield a TSA spokesman The employee 39s supervisor may face discipline as well It was not the first such incident involving a federal screener Part A 15 pts Provide a rough diagram showing the 3 main sources of feedback available to a security screener when heshe is operating this system Part B 5 pts Brie y explain Why this sleeping incident could be due to a problem of functional allocation and automation Part C 10 pts Describe a redesign of the humanmachine interface of the luggage screening system that would help prevent security screeners from falling asleep on the job Part D 10 pts Describe a macroergonomic approach to redesigning this job that would help prevent security screeners from falling asleep on the job Part E 10 pts Give 3 examples of measures you would definitely want to use in usability tests of your proposed redesign in either Part C or Part D i e pick one or the other redesign Cybernetic Terms to Know updated 21Sep15 N Wiener the founder of the eld of cybernetics Karl U Smith developed a more comprehensive cybernetic model of behavior called quotBehavioral Cyberneticsquot Self regulation self control over behavior originates with the person or organism as opposed to an environmental control of behavior claimed in operant conditioning Feedback something that happens in response to behavior Feedback control most forms of behavior depend on feedback control because behavior normally needs some adjusting due to differences between the desired behavior or goal behavior and the current or actual behavior In control theory terms this difference is referred to as error eg in the case of driving a car it could be that you are going faster or slower than you want to The error in this case is the difference between your desired speed and your actual speed Feedback compliance the quality of the feedback in terms of how readily it can be used discrete limited delayed transformed etc Motorsensory control active control of perception that is achieved through motor control of your sensory systems eg control over eye movement when you look closely at something actively touching something Bioenergetic control the reciprocal effects of motor activity that trigger metabolic changes in your body and determine energy and arousal levels and thereby serve as a means to self regulate your subsequent behavior Affective feedback a speci c form of reactive feedback from your body which is perceived as your emotional state Reactive feedback sensory feedback that becomes available when using a tool or machine system that is generated by your own body movements and behavior Examples include feedback from muscle lengthposition kinesthetic FB related to your arm and hand movements changes in breathing and heart rate and feedback due to muscle fatigue Instrumental feedback sensory feedback from tool or machine activity that can help you monitor or control it Examples include the sounds of a car engine when accelerating the vibration you feel in your hand when you turn on an electric drill the pushback force that you can feel on your ngers when using a joystick that has springs that return it to a center position the sound of key clicks when using a keyboard Operational feedback sensory feedback either static or dynamic from the goalrelated output of using a tool or machine system Examples include seeing that paper is being cut when using a scissors dynamic operational FB and that pieces of papers remain behind after cutting activity ends static operational FB Feedforward control when actions to control something are taken in advance of any error occurring in a proactive manner Something that depends on memories of past events and behaviors Also referred to as projective control and predictive control Social tracking actively attendingfollowing of what another persons is doing or direct interactions with others that are feedback controlled Modes of social tracking there are 3 fundamental ways that people can establish a social tracking relationship imitative seriallinked parallellinked Toolusing feedback Reactive FB sensory feedback from bodily movement and the actions of your own body as you use the tool or machine such as kinesthetic FB Operational FB can be static or dynamic sensory feedback from the actions of the tool or machine on the environment in relation to the outputgoal of using the tool or machine ie the main point of using a tool or machine Instrumental FB sensory feedback from the action of tool or machine but not linked to its outputgoal such as the sound of a car engine while driving or the clicking sounds from a keyboard while typing
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