General Psych Exam 2
General Psych Exam 2 PSC 1001
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abby Deardorff on Wednesday November 19, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to PSC 1001 at George Washington University taught by Maria Gomez-Serrano in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 308 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 11/19/14
Consciousness Psychology Notes for Midterm 2 0 Definition moment to moment awareness of ourselves and our environment 0 To study it 0 We study brain lesions and the affect they have 0 Think aloud protocols Different states of consciousness 0 Altered caused by LSD o LSD o 0 Sleep Became legal in 1968 Alters consciousness Most potent of any drug Toget high 50 100mg Impossible to become addicted or to overdose High lasts 812 hours Phases Somatic Phase Lasts 30 minutes1 hour Activation of the sympathetic system Release of inner tension Feeling of Euphoria Sensory Phase Lasts 1 hour 3 hours Strong hallucinations o Synesthesia Mix of the senses 0 Ability to see images when eyes are closed o Perception of reality at a different level 0 Strange configuration of common objects Psychic Phase Sleep Lasts till you come down Swing of emotions Panic attacks Feeling of timelessness Feeling of separation between your mind and your body 0 Humans spend 30 of our lives sleeping 1416 hours a day for infants 9 hours a day for teens 78 hours a day for adults 6 hours a day for elders 0 We don t know why we sleep 0 Sleep has been perceived through evolution 0 Lack of sleep causes death Fatal insomnia 0 Why we need sleep Conserves energy Avoid predators Restore and replenish the body Glycogen levels get replenished We secrete growth hormones to repair health Immune system is stronger 0 During sleep There is a change in brain activity 5 stages have been found and documented based off brain activity 0 Sleep cycles 0 Slow Wave Sleep SWS 0 Rapid Eye Movement REM 0 SWS REM 1 cycle 0 We have 4 cycles every night 0 Duration of 1 cycle is around 100 minutes 0 SWS Slow eye movement Decrease in 0 Muscle tone Breathing Body temperature 0 Blood pressure 0 Metabolic rate 0 Body movement 0 REM Rapid eye movement Dreaming Muscle movement 0 Pupillary contraction Paralysis of large muscles 0 Twitching of small muscles 0 Spontaneous erections Functions 0 SWS helps you live and stay alive Die if you get woken up during this period too many times 0 REM not necessary for survival Function of dreaming has been speculated on but unclear 0 Freudian o Speculation on dreaming o The Ego releases hold on the Id Id is the most animalistic part of humans 0 Manifest dream What the dream is about 0 Latent dream What the dream really means Focus of Freudian 0 Dream theories Disposal of unwanted memories accumulated during the day Help to consolidate and learn tasks Learning 0 A process by which experience produces a relatively enduring change in behavior 0 3 types Habituation Conditioning 0 Classical 0 Operant Learning by Observation 0 Habituation o Simplest form of learning 0 Lack of response for one stimulus o No new behavior Decrease in response toward a particular stimulus Conditioning 0 Learning by association 0 Classical Pavlov s bell ringing experiment with dogs on digestion 1904 Nobel Prize for research on different processes during conditioning 0 Acquisition start Tonedog not really respond neutral stimulus Food salivated unconditioned stimulus UCS Salivationunconditioned response UCR Tone Food Salivate Repeat 40x Tone Conditioned Stimulus or CS SaivateConditioned Response or CR Types of conditioning Tone Food forward conditioning Food Tone backward conditioning Food amp Tone simultaneous conditioning o Extinction Tone Salivating 40x Tone No salivation o GeneralizationDiscrimination Tone A Food Tone A Salivate Tone Bsimilar pitch Salivate slightly less Tone C Salivate less Tone X Don39t salivate Believed this response was because our bodies prepare for what will happen 0 Higher order conditioning Shape Tone Food 60x Shape Salivating Pavlovian conditioning teaches us that our body prepares for future events Phobias learned by Classical Conditioning 0 Watson Little Albert Experiment 0 Loud noises Cried Conditioned Response 0 Tried to develop a phobia to furry things Neutral Stimulus o Furry object Loud noise Cried o Furry objectCS Cried CR 0 Operant Learning by association and learning from the consequences of its acts Thorndice 0 Cats in the puzzle box 0 Cat never had insight and therefore never solved the problem Law of Effect If a response is followed by a satisfactory consequence that response is more likely to be repeated AND if it is followed by an annoyance it is less likely to be repeated Skinner 0 Changed the language 0 Satisfaction Reinforcement o Annoyance Punishment 0 Skinner box 0 Operant processes 0 Positive reinforcement 0 Negative reinforcement 0 Positive punishment 0 Negative punishment o Extinction Positive Something is added 0 Negative Something is taken away 0 Reinforcement Behavior is more likely to be repeated 0 Punishment Behavior is less likely to be repeated Behavior Result Consequence Positive Press Bar Gets food Keeps Pressing Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement Negative Press Bar Shock Stops Keeps Pressing Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Positive Press Bar Gets Shocked Stops Pressing Punishment Positive Punishment Negative Press Bar Food goes No Pressing Punishment away Punishment Negative Extinction Press Bar Nothing It stops happens Examples 0 Positive reinforcement 0 Trip to Europe for doing well on exams Negative punishment 0 Lose a point when caught with cell phone 0 Positive reinforcementsatisfaction or negative reinforcement take away 0 Thirsty Drink Schedule of reinforcement Made up of 2 components 0 Ratio Reinforced by number of responses Fixed Ratio FR 0 FR5 o Organism reinforced every 5 responses exactly Variable Ratio VR VR 5 o Organism is reinforced every 5 responses on average 0 Interval Reinforced by time Fixed Interval Fl Fl5 o Organism is reinforced for the 15 response after the fixed time Variable Interval VI Vl 5 o Organism is reinforced for the 15 response after fixed time on average 0 Learning by Observation Bandura Sensation and Perception 0 Sensation o Stimulation of the sense organ and transmission of the stimulus to the brain Perception o How the brain interprets the stimuli Thresholds 0 Absolute threshold How much stimulus is necessary to go from no sensing to sensing 0 Difference threshold Percentage of change necessary to be felt o Subliminal perception If something is right under the threshold 0 If you remove all sensory stimuli o Lilly Built isolation tank 0 Dolphins committed suicide 0 Vision 0 Organ Eye 0 Diameter 25cm 0 Weight 7g 0 Sensitive to wavelengths 380 760nm Eye conjunctiva I V j Aqueotusl Humor Iris Connea CiliaW Vitreous BUG Humour o How it works Light comes in through the cornea and reaches the lens amp travels until it hits the retina Light hits the retina 10 layers of cells Photo receptors Bipolar neuron M Gangllion M 39 cell Opticnerve is y o l L W bre DIRECTION OF lLl EHlT o Photoreceptors Rods Don39t need much light 0 Vision in thedark 0 Peripheral vision 0 More of them 100 12O million Cones 0 Sensitive to light 0 See color 0 Lessofthem 6 million 0 Bipolarcells o Ganglion cells Light will initiate action potential Action Potential Optic Nerve Thalamus o Thalamus Superior Colliculus Visual Cortex Amygdala 0 Cone Explanations o 15 cones for red blue yellow Problem is color blindness 0 2nd cones for redgreen blueyellow blackwhite More likely Heanng 0 StimuusSound o Caused by the movement of particles in the air Physical qualities 0 Amplitude loudness 0 Frequency pitch Ear o Psychological timbre Semiicircular 7 rcemene s O 39339 I Audi tery Nerve A a l gt 0 gt p p e U 13chee quot39 quot Jr i Lj39 T Round Window 39 J A39UdmW Ossricles Gena IEus echian Tulbe U Parts of the ear 0 Outer Pinna Auditory Canal 0 Middle Ossicles Three bones 0 Hammer 0 Anvil o Stirrup Muscles Tensor Tympani 0 Stapidius 0 Inner Cochlea Functions of the parts 0 Outer Pinna cartilage Localization of sound 0 Directing the sound into the canal Auditory canal 0 3cm 0 Protects tympani membrane from being damaged 0 Keeps the temperature of the middle of the ear constant 0 Middle Ossicles small bones Vibrate and pass energy to one another 0 Pass energy to oval window from the tympanic membrane Muscles 0 Contract 0 Muffle some sounds to protect important structures 0 Protect hairs from being broken in half 0 Inner Cochlea Transfers sound waves into neural impulses action potential 0 HOW o The inner ear is full of fluid that the sound waves move 0 There are hair cells that are extremely delicate 0 There is a small string attached to a channel When the channels open it gives you action potential Channels open when the cell tenses and close when the cell is relaxed Hair cells Action potential Travels through auditory nerve Cochlear nucleus Thalamus Auditory cortex neural stimulus becomes sound 0 Deafness o Conduction Sound can39t reach cochlea Can t travel therefore can39t be processed Often due to some sort of blockage o Sensoryneural Problem is with the cochlea itself Where sound should become action potential something is wrong Doesn39t become action potential and therefore can39t be processed Causes 0 Antibiotics Loud noises 0 Central Problem is in the auditory cortex Can39t translate and therefore can39t process in the brain itself Perception Gestaltpsychologist 0 Phi phenomenon Movement in the absence of movement 0 114aws of gestalt Laws of figure ground Brain focuses on what we consider the figure and not the background Laws of grouping Dasafd Laws of similarity 0 Brain takes similar objects and puts them together in groups 0 Laws of continuity 0 Brain continues and chooses the easiest pattern to follow 0 Laws of proximity 0 Brain takes objects stimuli that are close in time or space and groups them 0 Laws of closure 0 Brain tends to fill in the gaps when we have missing information 0 Depth 0 Learned 0 We uses cues Binocular 2eyes Retinal discrepancy o The bigger the discrepancy is the closest the brain interprets the object is Monocular 0 1eye Relative size 0 If you are familiar with an object and the object appears large in the retina your brain interprets it as being closer to you 0 Ames box Relative clarity o The clearer you see something the closer the brain interprets the object to be lnterposition o The object covered is further away 0 Linear perspective 0 When parallel lines start closing your brain interprets it as being further away 0 Texture gradient 0 If we see texture the brain interprets it as being close 0 If we don t see texture we think it is far Memory 0 Definition the capacity of the nervous system to acquire skills and knowledge 0 3 different types 0 Sensory Length 34 seconds Capacity Very big 2 subcategories Iconic Images 0 Gives us the idea of continuum 0 Almost photographic Echoic Sounds 0 Allows us to keep the sensation for a short bit of tie Without effort these go away but can be retained and switched into short term with effort 0 Short term Length 20 seconds Capacity 7 items 2 7 is a magic number average 0 Can chunk lots of information together into one item 0 Longterm Length Endless Capacity Endless brain never fills up Ebbinghaus 0 Created CVC trigrams consonant vowel consonant Made 2300 o RIF o TOG o MUK 0 Concluded the forgetting curve 0 Techniques to improve memory 0 Practice The brain is a muscle with practice you get better 0 Elaborate the material Organize in a way that makes sense to you 0 Overlearn Close notes and try 0 Get sleep Memory consolidation 0 Mnemonics 0 Use visual imagery Method of loci Palace method Different types of longterm memory 0 Declarative 0 Knowing what 0 Takes place in hippocampus o 2 types Fact semantic Make conscious effort Events Things that have happened in our lives Often emotional attachment Procedural 0 Knowing how 0 Ex Riding a bike playing an instrument 0 Takes place in the cerebellum amygdala and less likely to happen in the hippocampus Failures of memory 0 Memories are not copies but reconstructions so therefore we change them to make sense to us 0 Types Flashbulb memories 0 Heavy emotional weight or emotionally charged Think you remember all the details because it39s an important significant event but you don t Ex Recounting 911 Source misattributions Crypotamnesia 0 Remember what was told to you but not who told you 0 Leads you to steal the idea and accept the credit 0 Remember the content but not the source Sleeper effect 0 Forget information came from a doubtful source but retain the content 0 Leads you to believe something you didn t the first time because it doesn t come from a credible source 0 False fame affect 0 You remember someone s name or face but not why 0 Leads you to give them greater importance because they are familiar Failures as an eye witnessbad witness Cross ethnicity reasons 0 Better at identifying our own race versus another because we are familiar with the features 0 Susceptible to suggestibility and misinformation 0 Elizabeth Loftus How you ask the question changes what the person remembers Ex hit crash smash False memories 0 Loftus experiments Remember things that didn t actually happen Ex Recounting getting lost at the mall 0 Confabulation 0 False recollection of episodic memories Alcoholics 0 Gaps form in their memory because all their calories come from alcohol This causes them to make up the gaps with false events that didn t actually take place Capgrass syndrome 0 Believed that others are imposters trying to be the real person 0 Usually family members Caused by lesions in the frontal lobe 0 Can cause the person to be aggressive Repressed memories 0 Hypnotics can plant the seed of a false memory into one s mind when they are in an unconscious state 0 Some memories are real and repressed but many are not Hard to sort through the truth and the lies
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