Psych Exam #2
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Karlie Capozzoli on Monday October 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 101 at Towson University taught by Dr. Girio-Herrera in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 256 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Towson University.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 4 What is consciousness Awareness of thoughts feelings and arousal states Circadian Rhythm built in cycle of physical processes 24 hours Suprachiasmatic nucleus SCN internal clock 0 Brain cells in the hypothalamussignal other brain areas to get aroused or shut down Directs release of melatonin sleep hormone LIGHT CHANGES amp MELATONIN are two factors that the internal clock Sleepllll EEGmeasures brain wavesneural activity 0 Beta awake amp alert 0 Alpha awake amp relaxed Stages of Sleep 0 active sleep state 3040 minutes after nonREM stages below The body speeds up cycles through stage 2 increases breathing heartbeat and blood flow to genitals Dreams are in color 0 NonREMreaxed sleep state 1St stageTheta waves light sleep 17 minutes 2 39 stage Slower than theta waves with some sleep spindles cannot easily awaken 20 minutes 3quot l Theta waves and beginning to see delta waves 4thAll delta waves growth hormone secreted body maintenance deep sleep ONE COMPLETE CYCLE OF ALL STAGES IS 90 MINUTES AND THE BODY GOES THROUGH 5 CYCLES PER NIGHT Theories for Dreams 0 Continuity Hypothesiscoping with daily problems 0 Memory Theory to consolidate information and remove trivial details in memory Threat Simulation Theory evolutionary biological defense 0 Activation Synthesis dreams create meaning and synthesize familiar imagesstories Freud s Interpretation of Dreams 0 Manifest what we recall from our dreams 0 Latent Content some sort of deeper meaning to your dream from the outside world Sleep Disordersdisturbance in normal pattern of sleep lnsomniawhen a person cannot get to sleep or stay asleep Most cited health complaint Biggest predictor of major depressive disorder 25 of traf c accidents caused by sleep problems If you take sleep meds you are 4 times more likely to die early 5 Detect Distract Detach for INSOMNIA Narcolepsywhen a person falls asleep during alert activities during the day 0 Sleep Apneawhen a person stops breathing during sleep Restless Leg Syndrome RLS neurological movement disorder where someone has unpleasant sensations in the legs amp has an urge to move them to stop the pain Sleepwalkinga person is mobile and may perform actions during stage 4 of sleep Night terrorsfrightening NONREM sleep episodes Hypnosisa state of heightened suggestibility Neodissociation TheoryHilgard s proposal that involves a hypnotic state and a hidden observer Response Set Theory Hypnosis is not an altered state of consciousness but a cognitive response to suggeonn gt39ltAwake but relaxed state 25 of adults are dif cult to hypnoUze Psychoactive Drugssubstances that in uence the brain and the individual s behavior Tolerancewhen repeated drug use causes someone to need more of the drug to reach the same effect Substance Dependencewhen someone needs a drug in order to maintain normal functioning Withdrawal Symptomsphysicalbehavioral effects that occur when someone stops using a drug Depressantsinhibit or slow down normal functions Alcohol barbiturates Opiatespainkilling drugs that depress some areas and excite others mimics endorphins Heroin codeine morphine Stimulantsdrugs that speed up normal brain functioning Caffeine cocaine meth ecstasy adderall Hallucinogensdrugs that simultaneously excite and inhibit normal neural activity causing distortions in perception Marijuana PCP LSD THC the active ingredient in marijuana that affects learning shortterm memory coordination emotion amp appetite 3 Most Common drugs used by Americans over 12 1 Alcohol 2 Caffeine 3 Nicotine Most common illegal drug Marijuana 2nd Intentional abuse of prescription drugs Meditationrefocusing attention brings you into an altered state of consciousness Goals to be unaware of outside stimulation and to reach a different state of consciousness m reduced stressanxiety improved mood and attention thickening of the cerebral cortex Mindfulnesspractice of becoming more fully aware of the present 0 No pastfuture Nojudging Noticing thoughtsfeelings but letting them go Chapter 5 What is motivation Factors that direct and energize our behaviors biological social cognitive lnstincts inborn patterns of behaviors that are biologically determined channels energy in appropriate directions Drive Reduction Approach motivation tension or arousal that energizes us to ful ll a need 0 Primary drive biological need NEED to sleep 0 Secondary drive related to behavior with no obvious biological need drive to lay down for sleep Homeostasis body s tendency to maintain a steady internal state Underlies primary drives 0 Negative feedback loop Operates need for food water and stable body temp etc Arousal amp Sensation Seeking belief that we try to maintain certain levels of stimulation in activities YerkesDodson Curverelation between arousal and performance moderate level is where we do our best SelfDeterminationpursue basic needs but receive motivation from within ourselves Autonomouswithin yourself Controlledtrying to please othersdoing it for some other reason Cognitive Approaches lntrinsic motivation for one s own enjoyment Extrinsic motivation that causes individuals to do something for outside reasons money status etc Incentive Approaches desire to attain external rewards UncenUves PUSH AND PULL BEHAVIORS Hierarchy of needs Maslow s theory that humans are motivated by different basic needs some better than others WE httptheskoo 39 SE l f a ailiiza nm IO 39fe C 0 m W 0 7 mummyquot creativity rd p re SSW p 1quot Spanltaneif acceptance I C O n te n tu p 0a experience pm FPSEE dS2 5m 39 meaning and inner potential a s ows hierarchygif Hunger Set poin a particular weight our body seeks to maintain Ghrelin stomach hormone that stimulates hunger Glucose liver form of sugar the body burns as fuel Glycogen liver starchy molecule produced by leftover glucose body s stored energy Insulin pancreas hormone that moves glucose from the blood amp into the cells Leptin fat cells hormone that regulates hunger Cholecystokinin small intestines hormone that regulates hunger Metabolism rate that food is converted to energy and expended into the body 0 Lateral Hypothalamus quoton switchquot for hunger in the brain Ventromedial Hypothalamus plays a role in creating a quotfullquot feeling after eating Neuropeptide Y powerful hunger stimulant BMI BODY MASS INDEX Overweight 25299 Obesity 30 or over Why Genetics more available fat foods decline in physical activity parent s behavior Eating Disorders 0 Bulimia Nervosa Binging amp Purging o Anorexia Starvation o Binge Eating recurring episodes of binging Sexual Desire motivation and interest in engaging in sexual activity Libido drive to have sex Estrogens amp Testosterones Sexual Response Cycle 1 Excitement males get erections females produce vaginal lubrication 2 Plateau excitement peaks amp remains constant 3 Orgasm pelvic amp anal muscles contract 4 Resolution body returns to homeostasis Refractory period time during resolution where males cannot experience another orgasm or ejaculation Sexual Orientationsexual attraction towards a particular SEX Hetero only opposite sex Homo only same sex 0 ii members of both sexes Gender identity is what YOU identify as attraction is whom you LIKE Can be hereditary SOME research shows gender nonconforming behaviors during childhood correlated with later homosexuality Fraternal birth order defect gay men have greater number of older brothers Homosexuals are more likely to be left handed Emotions complex reactions internal or external event can be physiological behavioral facial expressions cognition and affective response 0 Basic emotions happiness anger fear sadness disgust Broader emotions surprise contempt guilt joy Emotion Theories o JamesLange Theory emotion is a unique pattern of PHYSIOLOGICAL arousal 0 CannonBard Theory PHYSIOLOGICAL amp EMOTIONAL experience provided at the same time 1 SchaferSinger Theory determined by physiological arousal AND INTERPRETATION o Facial Feedback Hypothesis determines how people label and experience different emotions o Facial Affect impulses that make our faces display the appropriate expression End of Chapter 5 Gavage vim nicotine video FAS video body image activity Chapter 6 What is learning A relatively permanent change in behaviorbehavior potential as a result of an experience Habituation ignoring a repeated stimuli Dishabituation reresponding to a stimulus that you have already habituated to due to change in the quality or a passage of time Classical Conditioningcertain cues are associated with certain activities condition trainedlearned Unconditioned Stimulus naturally amp reliably evokes a response Unconditioned Responseresponse that naturally amp reliably comes forth from the US 0 Neutral Stimulus stimulus that does not initially elicit the unconditioned response Conditioned Stimulusonce neutral but now is associated with the US so it now leads to a response Conditioned Response after conditioning occurs the response to the conditioned stimulus After a N5 loses its neutrality it becomes a conditioned stimulus which can then produce a conditioned response 1 Contiguity degree to which 2 stimuli occur close together in time 0 Contingency degree to which the presentation of one stimulus reliably predicts the presentation of another 0 Extinction removing of the CR 0 Spontaneous recovery CR reappears amp strengthens over a brief period of time before extinguishing Taste aversion classical conditioning that pairs nauseas with certain food Aversion Therapy therapy to condition people to avoid a certain stimuli Operant Conditioning an organism learns through the consequences of it s behavior Positive and Negative Reinforcement or Punishment Te le will Tietingeiehinglfypsee ef einfereement end Punishment E ZhEEQHEMEE I EFFEET lElhl EIIIHIF39ME Etim he i added er Inereeeee the I39E p l39 A ehild gm en fur her E IHLEE she f fhu md Iiheh Ed de yin in J ne niereen39lent E mehe ie renamed er Ihereeeee the rename The rein he MEET le an gee after eeing ner llll39l39he dmreeeed hrelle eel f l ere he dds it 35 in Ihe h tdre Imidhment Edmund i added er the reelednee A pet dinner Edd he er intruding up 31 e heme filewed geehd the deg E Ien ihelr Ed de iti ill Emile is remmred er Elmneee reepenee A parent tehee piiid egee step the thian dmreeeed hm httpwwwpearsonhigheredcomshowcasekrausecortsassetspdfMO6KRAU985701SECO6 pdf Law of effect if a behavior leads to positive consequences it will be repeated and strengthened however if it leads to negative consequences it will be weakened Skinner Box created by BF Skinner to study operant behavior in a compressed time frame animals reinforced with food for certain behaviors Schedules of Reinforcement timing and consistency of the reinforcement Fixed ratio set of responses before a reward is given 0 Variable ratio exact of responses required to receive a reward varies around some kind of reward ex Emails slot machine 0 Fixed interval rst instance rewarded but set time has to pass before the next reward Variable interval reinforced for the rst desired response in an average Xth interval of time ex Fishing pop quizzes Shaping reward successful approximations of a desired response ex Training a dog potty training in class activity Observational Learning observe others and imitate their behavior role of cognition in learning 4 steps of Modeling 1 Attention 2 Retention in Memory 3 Reproduction of the Behavior 4 Motivation Albert Bandura s Bobo Doll experiments reward punishment or nothing for beating up the doll after watching the lm Chapter 7 What is memory Process by which we encode store and retrieve information Encode getting info into memory 0 Storage retaining info over time Retrieval taking info out of storage to use 3 Stage Model of Memory 1 Sensory brie y store sensory impressions for further processing 2 Shortterm limited in capacity amp duration 3 Longterm works to store memories for a long time MAYBE permanently Short Term 0 Dual coding system visually or acoustically stored memory is encoded here 0 Chunking using limited short term memory to combine information with already stored information to form more chunks of info 0 Maintenance Rehearsal repeating information over and over to keep it in your short term memory for an extended period of time aka cram studying o Forgetting curvea graph of the amount of learned information that is forgotten over time Elaborative Rehearsal forming associations or links between info that you are learning and info already stored to help transfer new info into long term memories LevelsofProcessing Models predict information that is processed deeply and elaboratively will be best retained and recalled from long term memory SerialPosition Curve Primacy effectthe tendency of people to recall words better from the beginning of a list rather than the middle Recency effect the tendency for people to recall words better from the end of the list rather than the middle Working Memory Model moves short term memory into long term memory for storage Working memory B httpsuni g 7 quot verse l 1 4 339 7 reviewcal l A 1086 Pictorial153932 Cezaral WO ng p loop executwe g Central executive attention controlling component of working memory Long Term Memory 0 Semantic encoding encoding memory traces in terms of the meaning of the information being stored 0 Schema an organized generalized knowledge structure in the longterm memory 0 Declarative memory a type of long term memory that contains easily verbalized memories episodic and semantic o Episodic memory memory from recent events in our lives 0 Semantic memory longterm declarative memory for conceptual information 1 Autobiographical memory memory for our past that gives us a sense of personal history 0 Procedural memory longterm memory for skills and behavior Retrograde Amnesia amnesia where one cannot retrieve previously stored memories from longterm memory Anterograde Amnesia amnesia in which one cannot store new memories in longterm memory Types of Retrieval Recognition probe or cue contains a great deal of information including the item being sought Recall probe or cue does not contain much information Decay Theory proposes that memory traces that are not routinely used in long term memory will decay Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon knowing that you know a piece of information but not being able to recall it Proactive lnterference a type of forgetting that occurs when older memory traces inhibit the retrieval of newer memory traces Retroactive lnterference a type of forgetting that occurs when newer memory traces inhibit the retrieval of older memory traces CueDependent forgetting forgetting occurs when one cannot recall information in a context other than the one that it was originally encoded in Repression forgetting proposed by Freud which memories we nd threatening are pushed into the unconscious therefore inaccessible memories Accuracy of Memory Flashbulb memory unusually detailed and seemingly accurate memory for an emotionally charged event Reconstructive memory based on retrieval of memory traces that contain actual details of events we have expedenced Constructive memory memory that utilizes knowledge and expectations to ll in missing details in retrieved memory traces Misinformation effect the distortion of memory that occurs when people are misinformed Memory Consolidation the stabilization and longterm storage of memory traces in the brain Mindtap Video Key Points Media Neuroscience the media presents uses of drugs and alcohol often and kids are exposed to this media It can be presented positively and negatively Addiction Anthony Caggiula speaks about addiction to nicotine as a reinforce and visual cue Aggressive Driving Caused by high levels of stress narcissism and feelings of entitlement Viewing clips of risky driving skews people39s perceptions and makes that kind of behavior seem normal Mirror Neurons Researchers hope that teaching individuals with high functioning autism to increase the activity of their mirror neurons will help develop imitative skills and social interaction Also they help people create social bonds and form groups so they don39t have to face danger individually Quizlet httpsquizletcom1mf35n Password girioexam2
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