STUDY GUIDE Midterm 1 Weeks 1 + 2
STUDY GUIDE Midterm 1 Weeks 1 + 2 BIOE 20C - 01
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Natalia Khodayari on Monday October 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOE 20C - 01 at University of California - Santa Cruz taught by Marinovic,B.B. in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 227 views.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Stuff Study YOU GuMe Need to Science before Darwin 0 Concept of eidos and the role it played in preventing evolutionary thinking essential5m all species had perfect essence Essence the intrinsic nature or indispensable quality of something especially something abstract that determines its character dictionarycom 0 Variation was seen as failure to achieve eidos The concept of Eidos is that all species had perfect essence Essence is an imperative quality in this case species had This concept played a role in preventing evolutionary thinking because these changes from the imperative perfect qualities would only weaken the species hence evolutionary thinking would seem backwards and impractical Contributions of the following towards the development of the theory of evolution 0 James Hutton o Geologist Physician chemical manufacturer and naturalist o Uniformitarianism constant change 0 Geologic Deep Time 0 Charles Lyell o Geologist 0 Author of Principles of Geologyquot promoted Hutton s uniformitarianism views 0 Gradual geologic change 0 Thomas Malthus o Studied DemographyEconomics o The Principle of Population 0 Population GrowthResource Limitation Adam Smith 0 Studied Economics 0 Capitalism 0 Competition 0 Carl Linne Carolus Linnaeus o Botanist physician and zoologist 0 Father of modern taxonomy o Popularized Binominal System 0 Developed Hierarchical Taxonomy 0 Jean Baptiste Lamarck o BotanistZoologist o Curator Paris Natural History Museum 0 Developed First Comprehensive Theory of Organic Evolution 0 Mechanism of acquired characteristics 0 Viewed evolution as a force driving animals from simple to complex forms Lamarckian Evolution produces a ladder of life Terms 0 Eidos essential5m all species had perfect essence Essence the intrinsic nature or indispensable quality of something especially something abstract that determines its character dictionarycom 0 Variation was seen as failure to achieve eidos The concept of Eidos is that all species had perfect essence Essence is an imperative quality in this case species had This concept played a role in preventing evolutionary thinking because these changes from the imperative perfect qualities would only weaken the species hence evolutionary thinking would seem backwards and impractical 0 Uniformitarianism 0 James Hutton O Constant Change 0 the principle or assumption that the same natural laws and processes that operate in the universe now have always operated in the universe in the past and apply everywhere in the universequot 0 Scala naturae Aristotle 384322 BC Scala Naturae The Great Chain of Being o Essentialism led to the concept of Scala Naturae great chain of being 0 Species and higher forms seen as xed rungs of the ladder 0 People began seeing cracks in this Darwin and the theory of evolution Role the following played in in uencing Darwin during the voyage of the Beagle 0 Biogeography 0 Fossils 0 Geology Observed rich variety of geologic features fossils and living organisms Methodically collected and described enormous numbers of specimens Documented many geologic phenomenon which supported Lyell s VIEWS Developed comprehensive theory to explain coral atoll formation Documented biogeographic patterns that suggested common ancestry of species 0 Rheas o Mocking Birds and Finches o Tortoises Theory of evolution 2 components of the mechanism of Natural Selection 0 Struggle for existence Struggle for Existence 0 Populations can reproduce beyond recourses needed to sustain them Resources become limited There is competition for those limited resources 0 Not all individuals will survive and reproduce OO 0 Survival of the fittest Survival of the Fittest Members of a population show variation for heritable traits Some traits give individuals a selective advantage over others 0 These tend to leave more offspring in next generations OO 0 Over time the character of the population changes Population as the smallest unit capable of evolution Concepts of Fitness the ability of an individual to produce offspring relative to other individuals in the population Adaptation any traits that increases tness Evidence supporting evolution Species have changed through time Species share common ancestors Species Change Through Time Many species have gone extinct Fossil record has transitional forms Vestigial traits o The human tailbone is a vestigial trait o Goose bumps are vestigial traits uff up hair for warmthto look larger Whales have femur bones Populations can be observed to change over time Antibiotics Resistance is a great example of change that you see Pepper Moth 0 Industrial Revolution created soot and made a physical color change to moths Correlation with ower size amp bumble bee pollination Support for idea that species change through time Fossils Fossil records has transitional forms Vestigial traits o The human tailbone is a vestigial trait o Goose bumps are vestigial traits uff up hair for warmthto look larger 0 Whales have femur bones 0 Observations on natural populations 0 Populations can be observed to change over time o Antibiotics Resistance is a great example of change that you see 0 Pepper Moth Industrial Revolution created soot and made a physical color change to moths 0 Experiments 0 Correlation with ower size amp bumble bee pollination Support for idea that species share common ancestors 0 Biogeography Ortholog genes in separate species that share common ancestry 0 We can distinguish between different animals because one branch will change one way and another branch will change in another 0 All of our different polypeptide genes came from an original globulin gene 0 Homologous traits O Anatomical I Homology is similarity in structure and position that occurs because a trait occurred in a common ancestor Copyright ThL McGrawaiJ Companies Inc Pmminsion rangilnd for rcpmnuetinn Dr disuntnjp a a V I ed quotquotX39I39lPorpoise Embryological I Analogous structures are those whole similarity comes from their performing a similar function rather than their arising from a common ancestor Therefore for example the wing of a butter y and 7 liLIslits the Wing of a 3 g I A bird are a a TE 7 Fgrelimb 395 bud analogous Sela Fish mander an tcuise Chl l39i Rabblt Man 0 Molecular Paralog gene copies within the same species Vertical Evolution 0 Evolution within a lineage through time I the DNA code itself is a homology that links all life on Earth to a common ancestor I Organelles in cells believed that these organelles were bacteria that fused and created functionality in humanplant cells EX Mitochondria Pattern of Lamarckian vs Darwinian Evolution Jean Baptiste Lamarck o BotanistZoologist o Curator Paris Natural History Museum 0 Developed First Comprehensive Theory of Organic Evolution Mechanism of acquired characteristics 0 Viewed evolution as a force driving animals from simple to complex forms Lamarckian Evolution produces a ladder of life Darwin 0 Such facts undermine the stability of speciesquot 0 Species evolve they are not a constant entity Such facts seem to me to throw some light on the origin of speciesquot Clear that his ideas are already formulated Tree of lifequot Vertical evolution of genomes If one is moving vertically you are moving through time Paralogs vs orthologs o Paralog gene copies within the same species Both examples of Vertical Evolution 0 Evolution within a lineage through time o Ortholog genes in separate species that share common ancestry 0 We can distinguish between different animals because one branch will change one way and another branch will change in another 0 All of our different polypeptide genes came from an original globulin gene Horizontal evolution If one is moving horizontally it is instantaneous Much rarer Involves gene transfer between species instantly Most common in bacteria Can occur in Eukaryotes Almost certainly the way eukaryotes evolved from prokaryote ancestors Microevolutionary processes Natural Selection Genetic drift Gene ow Mutation If one asks if an organism is changing one must know what these genes are today and why they wouldn t change Concept of gene Locus physical location of a speci c gene on a chromosome 0 Allele version of a speci c gene Measuring for changes in allele frequency 0 HardyWeinberg equation 0 Default equilibrium model 0 Mathematical model 0 Explains why allele frequencies don t change unless evolution is occurring 0 Frequencies of all alleles in population add up to 1 And if you know frequencies of all alleles in current generation AND population is not evolving THEN we should be able to predict the genotype frequencies You can predict frequencies of genotypes in next generation 0 Assumptions for HardyWeinberg equilibrium 0 NO natural selection 0 NO genetic drift 0 NO gene ow 0 NO mutation 0 Random mating Simple case 0 Population has two alleles for a locus in population 0 A1 amp A2 0 P frequency of A1 q frequency of A2 0 Distribution of genotypes in next generation A1A1 p2 A1A2 2m A2A2 q2 0 Frequency of p in next generation is pquot2 12 2pq Frequency of q in next generation is qquot2 122pq Q if we worked out our little toes would they remain Answer TBA If not population is evolving 0 Fixed vs lost alleles o If frequency of an allele 1 the allele is xed o If frequency of and allele O the allele is lost 0 Concept of genetic diversity for single gene or entire gene pool 0 Genetic diversity and relative frequency of alleles in a population Lack of genetic diversity usually decreases ability of a population to respond to environmental change Natural Selection The environment is directly acting on the phenotype Natural Selection occurs when one phenotype has higher tness Alleles associated with phenotype will increase in frequency 0 Definition of four types effects on genetic diversity examples 0 Directional Selection in any population there is variation in traits Allele frequencies change in one direction Favors one extreme of a trait distribution Tends to reduce genetic diversity Ex giraffe necks moths ower size for bees TEXTBOOK LIFE 8e Figure 2212 Part 2 o Stabilizing Selection Alleles associated wit mean trait values favored NO CHANGE in average trait value over time Reduction of both trait and genetic variability TEXTBOOK Left 8e Figure 2212 Part 1 o Disruptive Selection Alleles associated with both extremes of a trait favored Tends to increase genetic diversity Can often result in two separate species TEXTBOOK LEFT 8e Figure 2212 Part 3 Blackbellied Seedcracker different bills for different types of seeds in the process of becoming two different species Natural Selection 0 Sexual selection Special form of selection Results when individuals in a population differ in their ability to attract mates BatemanTrivers sexual selection acts more strongly on males Fundamental asymmetry of sex 0 Ex Female kiwis lay a large egg relative to their body size 0 Female choice Females respond to some aspect of male phenotype O Malemale competition Males compete with each other for females Balancing polymorphism Maintains less t alleles in population 0 Heterozygote advantage Heterozygotes have higher tness in some cases Maintains less t alleles in population 0 EX 0 Mating success in ying insects For both species the proportion of heterozygous males that mates successfully was higher than the proportion of all males seeking females ying Heterozygous Colas males have a mating advantage over homozygous males TEXTBOOK LIFE 8e Figure 2219 Part 2 o Sickle Cell Anemia Having SCA prevents getting affected by Malaria so it is a superior gene 0 Negative frequency selection 0 Rare individuals have higher tness 0 EX Scale eating sh Ambush parasite that hits the sh relies on not being seen To facilitates the ambush it s mouth is angled Allele comes in two forms left and right leaning Lower frequency of one of those leaning sh have an advantage and the advantage keeps seesawing back and forth 0 Nonrewarding orchids Two different colors with no nectar See saw of different colored owers Mechansms of Speciation 2 basic types of speciation o Allopatric speciation o Allo other patric country 0 Occurs between geographically isolated populations Sympatric speciation o Sym same patric country 0 Occurs without physical isolation Allopatric Speciation Populations become geographically isolated Gene ow ceases between o It allows the opportunity for genes to diverge between populations 0 They will be kept separate Diverge genetically 0 Natural selection 0 Genetic drift 0 Mutation Mutations are not shared Two basic types of allopatric speciation By will or forced to move location 0 DispersalColonization Ex Birds being own into other locations and stay 0 Vicariance DispersalColonization Small number of individuals disperse to a new habitat 0 Genetic driftFounder Effect Founder effect increases likelihood of genetic drift lf environment is different selective pressure will be different 0 Directional Selection Especially prevalent in islands 0 Ex Galapagos Islands 0 Darwin s Mocking Birds 0 Fruit ies They colonized different islands in Hawaii
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