Midterm Study Guide
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angela Cameron on Monday October 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CEM 245 at University of Miami taught by Julbe & Chatterjee in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 56 views.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
CEM 245 Midterm Review Sheet Fall 2014 Video and audio signal ow in the studio 0 Video 0 Audio Camera CCU Monitor Video Switcher PreviewProgram Recording Device SSD Broadcast MicDigicart Audio Mixer Audio Monitors Recording Device SSD Broadcast Cameron 1 All crew positions and their responsibilities Above and below the line positions 0 Above the line Creative 0 Producers 0 In charge of the overall look of the show 0 Know how to get the most out of people 0 Which to use and which to avoid 0 What you want to happen and how you 0 Director 0 4 Roles I Coordinator 0 Gives cues I Psychologist I Artist 0 Effects I Technical advisor want it to happen 0 Writers 0 Write the Shows 0 Talent 0 Guest 0 Art Directors 0 Below the line Cameron 2 I Technical 0 Technical Directors 0 Switcher 0 Floor managers 0 Que Everyone 0 Camera Operators 0 VTR Operators 0 Audio Operators Camera movements 0 Pan I Horizontal O Tilt I Vertical O Dolly I Movement of the camera and mount toward or away from the subject 0 Truck I Sideways Dolly O Arc I Dolly and trucking movements 0 Pedestal Boom Crane I Elevating or lowering the entire camera 0 Zoom I Changing focal length of lens I Not a camera movement but creates an effect similar to a dolly Alphabet Soup Multiple camera shooting strategies such as the concept of cross shooting as practiced in class 0 Cross Shooting I Shoot subject on left with camera on right and vice versa I Main Reason 0 Looks better I Keeps subjects out of profile view Director s Commands Refer to handout O ToTD I Type of Transition 0 Cut Dissolve Fade Wipe I Video Source Cameron 3 0 Camera One Black VSR Network I Can only give one ready cue at a time I All directions must be preceded by Ready 0 Audio Commands I To Audio Operators 0 Commands must be preceded by Ready 0 Can give multiple commands 0 Camera Commands I Camera Operators 0 Contain Three Elements 0 Operation Desired I Pan Tilt Zoom 0 Direction I In Out Left Down 0 End Result in Picture Terms I Example 0 Dolly out to a medium shot 0 Pan left until you include the lamp 0 Camera Operator should be addressed by camera number not by name 0 Mixed Commands I Use Ready for each separate operation I If more than two things are happening simultaneously or timing is critical you can use the countdown formula I Last thing before taking off headset 0 All Clear 0 Thank You Crew 0 Video and audio transitions 0 Video I Cut 0 Most common transition 0 When in doubt cut I Fade IMOut 0 Begin and end program I Dissolve 0 Indicates change of time or place 0 Never dissolve to similar shots of the same scene 0 Use sparingly I Dip I Wipe 0 Generally used in same situations as dissolves Cameron 4 0 Very ashy 0 Used to bracket instant replays in which it indicates time change 0 Split Screen 0 Wipe frozen at the half way point 0 Replacement of one part of a scene by another scene 0 Chromakey 0 Everything that is blue is replaced by the contents of another Video source 0 Blue is the most common replacement color I FocusDefocus 0 Defocus the on air camera dissolve to another unfocussed camera and then focus that camera on air 0 Indicates major scene change 0 Use sparingly 0 Audio 0 Cutaway and jump cut 0 Cutaway I Interrupting the filmed action by inserting a View of something else I Used to avoid jump cuts 0 Jump Cut I Abrupt transition from one scene to another I Person is standing in one place in one shot and the next they are in a completely different spot 0 180 degree rule 0 Also called Action AXis I Shoot image on left from camera on right I Shoot image on right from camera on left 0 Keeps appearance that subjects in images are interacting with one another I How we shoot in studio 0 Don t break this rule Cameron 5 0 Video editing terms including Continuity Complexity and Parallel Editing 0 Continuity I Concerned with clarification of an event I Aids viewer in following a mental map I Helps makes sense of where things are where they are going where they are supposed to be on and off screen I Types 0 Directional Continuity 0 Story Continuity O Condense Time but include necessary components 0 Shoot in Sequences 0 Complexity I Intensify the emotion of an event I Goal is to trigger emotional response in viewer I Heavy use of montage I Continuity and complexity editing are not mutually exclusive 0 Often used together 0 Parallel Editing I Cutting back and forth between scenes of two different actions taking place at the same time 0 Shot composition Rule of Thirds Headroom Leadroom Closure 0 Shot Composition I Arrangement of key elements within a frame 0 Rule of Thirds I Framing Cameron 6 I Always follow this I Always frame subject with one of the corners of middle frame I Example O Headroom I Distance between the top of a person s head and the top of the frame O Leadroom I Leave room in the direction a person is looking or moving I Also called Nose Room 0 Closure I Give the audience room to fill in information missing on the screen Cameron 7 0 Prime lenses zoom lenses focal length aperture depth of field angle of view 0 Prime Lenses I Have fixed focal length 0 Zoom Lenses I Have variable vocal lengths I Can be manipulated to continuously change focal length and angle of view 0 Focal Length I The distance between the optical center of the lens to the front of the camera s imaging device at which the image appears in focus with the lens set at infinity 0 Distance between the lenses and Imaging Device 0 Measured in MM Image Sensor r 0 Film Plane Focal Length Dp eall Center Lens Focal Length 0 Aperture I The iris opening of a lens that can be manipulated to let more or less light into the camera I Iris is opened or closed in stages 0 Called f stops 0 Each stop doubles or halves the amount of light entering the camera I Doubles as it opens I Halves as it closes Cameron 8 O The smaller the f stop the more light that is being let in I Example 0 F 14 O The bigger the f stop the less light that is being let 1n I Example 0 F 22 I For Widest Shot 0 1st number of zoom range is lowest I Narrowest Shot 0 1st number of zoom range is largest 0 Depth of Field I The area in which all objects located at different distances from the camera appear in focus I Range of sharp focus along the aXis of the lens I Called DOF 0 Area in front of the lens appearing in acceptable focus when you look through the lens 0 Another way to understand DOF is to call it depth of focus 0 This DOF area begins with the object closest to the lens that appears in focus and ends with the most distant object in the scene which is in focus I Shallow Depth of Field 0 Focuses on one object in area I We have this type of wine Great Depth of Field 0 Focuses on whole area 0 We have the largest selection of wine Cameron 9 Aperture Focal Length CameraSubject Distance Minimum Depth Large Telephoto Close of Field Narrow Vista Maximum Depth Small Short Far of Field Wide Vista 0 Angle of View A close up with a wide angle lens includes many details in the background Due to a wide angle of View Cameron 10 I A very Similar close up with a narrower angle lens has fewer details in the background I Due to a narrow angle of View I Wide sh sort fl I Narrow shot long focal length 0 Attributes of long and short focal length lenses 0 The longer the focal length the narrower the angle of View 0 The shorter the focal length the wider the angle of View 0 Principles of framing 0 Field of View Terms 0 XLS I Extreme Long Shot 0 LS I Long Shot 0 MS I Medium Shot 0 MCU I Medium Close Up 0 CU I Close Up 0 ECU I Extreme Close Up Cameron 11 Figure 39 FieldsMMth Tmmmn lugy Exlreme long She 31 Long Shatng quot1217 a Fla ew EmaMFVVLEL O Vectors I Elements in the video frame that provide a path for the viewer to visually navigate the frame 0 Three Types 0 Graphic Vectors I Created by stationary objects or elements I Guide the viewer s eye in a particular direction 0 IndeX Vectors I Created by people or objects that point in a particular direction I A person looking off screen or pointing 0 Motion Vectors I Created when there s movement in the frame 0 A bicycle rider moving from left to right across the frame 0 Dutch Angle I Used to portray psychological uneasiness or tension in the subject being filmed 0 High Angle Shots I Use to demean subject in the frame 0 Low Angle Shots I Use to make the subject in the frame appear more powerful 0 Compression I Decreases distance between subject and what is behind it I Uses Telephoto Lens I Camera is farther away Cameron 12 I Picture B 0 Composition I Up Close I Wide Angle I Picture A 0 Elements of a story POV 0 Elements of a Story I Theme 0 What the Story is About I Plot 0 How the story moves forward and develops I Characters 0 How one person differs from the others 0 How each reacts to the situation at hand I Environment 0 Where the action takes place 0 Point of View 0 Three Kinds I Objective POV 0 The scene is shown from the point of view of the camera 0 Looking in on action taking place without reference to the camera 0 Used in Dramatic Television I Subjective POV Cameron 13 Watch the scene as if the camera was one of the characters See events through their eyes I Presentational POV Used for news Anchor looks in the camera as if addressing the viewer individually 0 Paperwork Scripts Rundowns Formats Treatments etc 0 TV Production Processes I Pre Production Research Planning Logistics Scripting Hiring I Production Filmin gV ideotapin g Logging I Post Production Editing 0 Of ine I Low Resolution 0 Online I High Resolution 0 Studio vs Field Production I Studio Control over elements Action Time 0 Production time for live and live to tape productions Emphasis on good pre production Chemistry Flexibility and greater choice of angles More choice with layering elements and fine tuning them Emphasis on post production More polished end product 0 Types of Paperwork I Proposals 0 Purposeneed 0 Why is this needed 0 Audience Distribution Cameron 14 0 Who s going to watch and be moved to act by this How will you reach them 0 Resources 0 Cameras studio props talent special needs etc 0 Includes Treatment 0 Describes what the viewer will be seeing and hearing without the word for word dialog 0 Very detailed description I Should give reader the feel for what your spot will look and sound like I Read like a narrative 0 Camera angles and movements not included I Director s Decision Rundown 0 List of segments that will be included in program 0 Slug Title of segment 0 Created by Producers 0 News shows use rundowns and 2 column scripts Scripts 0 Used by talent and director 0 Types of Scripts 2 Column Script 3 Column Script Dramatic Script 0 O O Storyboard Motion Pictures Style Format Show Format Every show has one Only lists order of segments How every episode of a show will go as opposed to Rundown which is specific to a single episode Content changes not the Format 0 A series of sketches of the key visualization points of an event with the corresponding audio information Shot SheetShot List 0 Shot sheet for multiple camera setup 0 Shots are numbered in order they occur Budgets 0 Every possible eXpense should be included in the budget 0 Can be broken up into Above The Line and Below The Line or by production process pre prod prod post prod Cameron 15 I Contingency 0 Percentage of budget set aside for unexpected expenses 0 Usually 10 20 0 Standard movie money comes from investors and studios 0 Lighting Fixtures Functions kinds of lights tungsten LED uorescent Color Temperature 3 point setup 0 Functions of Lighting 0 To enhance or create mood atmosphere and drama 0 Suggest depth 0 Reveal character and texture O Enrich O Occasionally bedazzle I Qualities of Light 0 Intensity I How much light 0 Amount of light brightness of a light fixture I Measured with a light meter 0 Lux or Foot candles 0 Unit of Brightness I Inversely proportional to the square of the distance I You have tremendous control over the intensity of the light you are applying through the adjustment of the subject to light source distance I Directional light sources 0 Examples 0 Fresnels O Ellipsoidals I Don t adhere to this principle 0 Coherence I Hard gt soft I Direction I Hard light I Focused with parallel rays 0 Creates well defined shadows 0 Example 0 Sun I Soft light I Scattered and diffused 0 Creates ill defined or no shadows 0 Example Cameron 16 O Cloudy Day Control the hardness or softness by going from small area to large area of light 0 Color Temperature Standard by which we measure the relative reddishness or bluishness of white light Measured on the Kelvin K scale 0 Indoor TV lighting 3200 K 0 Outdoor sunlight 5600 K 0 For Test 0 Tungsten 3200 K O Noon Daylight 5500 K Match lighting to the color temperature of the room Change or adjust the color temperature using gel lights or windows Warm Up a shot by making it more red Make a shot cooler by making it more blue Types of Lighting Instruments by Light Source 0 Incandescent O Fluorescent 0 Light Emitting Diode LED Control color temperature of room Consumption Lifespan Heat Time to Emission Turn on Incandescent High Short High Instant Fluorescent Low Long Low Takes Time LED Lowest Very Long Lowest Instant Types of Lighting Instruments by Coherence O Spotlights Fresnels 0 Has a lens with concentric grooves in front of bulb to focus the light 0 The bulb can be moved closer or further from the lens to get narrow spot or wider ood beam 0 Use barn doors to control light spillage Ellipsoidals Lekos 0 Have an elipse shaped re ector inside that helps concentrate light beams 0 The focus of the beam is controlled by moving the front lens back and forth Cameron 17 Have internal shutters instead of barn doors Highly Directional Have a cookie holder where special metal cutouts can be placed to project designs on the backdrop of a set Ways to Diffuse Hard Lights 0 Floodlights 0 Three Point Lighting Scoops Take small source of light and soften it Transform a spotlight into a ood light by shooting it through diffusion material Grips 0 Use a silk to diffuse the sunlight as the actors walk on the other side of it Scoop shaped re ectors Take the light from the lamp in the middle and re ect it in all directions The inner surface of the scoop becomes a large soft light source The eXposed lamp creates some directed hard light Softlights Lamps hidden in a box under the concave re ective surface The re ective surface becomes a large source of diffused light Studio B Lights Lowel Prime LED 400 Lowel Prime LED 200 Studio C Lights Fluorescent Lights 0 Used to properly light a shot 0 Called Triangle Lighting 0 Key Light Main light source Placed to one side of the camera Elevated to a 30 45 degree angle Usually a spotlight 0 Fill Light Softlight Placed on the opposite side of the camera from the key light Meant to fill in and soften the shadows created by the key light Usually a soft light that should not create shadows of its own Cameron 18 0 Back Light I Lights hair and shoulders I Hard light shining towards the camera from behind the subject I Meant to create separation between the background and the subject 0 Background Light I Something in the background I Example I M TinLEM b FLLL 39 LEE T 0 Falloff O The speed or degree to which a light picture portion turns into shadow area 0 Base Light 0 Even 0 Non Directional Diffused light necessary for the camera to operate optimally 0 Contrast Ratio lt O The difference between the brightest and the darkest portions in a picture I Often measured by re ected foot candles I The optimal contrast ratio for analog cameras is normally 401 to 501 Cameron 19 0 Means that the brightest spot in the picture should not be more than 40 or 50 times brighter than the darkest portion 0 DTV can exceed this ratio 0 Low Key Lighting lt 0 High contrast ratio used for creating a sinister suspense filled mood 0 Used in police dramas murder mysteries etc 0 High Key Lighting 0 Low contrast at lit scenarios 0 Used for sitcoms 0 Position lights to match mood of scene
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