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Study Guide Quiz 1

by: Angela Cameron

Study Guide Quiz 1 CEM 245

Marketplace > University of Miami > CEM 245 > Study Guide Quiz 1
Angela Cameron
GPA 3.86
Introduction to Electronic Media Production
Julbe & Chatterjee

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Introduction to Electronic Media Production
Julbe & Chatterjee
Study Guide
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angela Cameron on Monday October 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CEM 245 at University of Miami taught by Julbe & Chatterjee in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 36 views.

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Date Created: 10/12/15
Cameron 1 CEM 102 First Exam Study Guide Stats 0 Cable 513 have it 59 million subscribers Cable and satellite services take the program quotoffairquot and retransmit the content to households Dual Revenue Source 0 Advertisers and Subscribers VOD and PPV 0 Video on Demand and PayPer View o Telco 84 of households 0 96 million DualRevenue Source VOD and PPV Example 0 Verizon 0 ATampT UVerse o DBS Direct Broadcasting Service 305 of households 0 348 million Dual Revenue Source VOD and PPV 0 Over the Air OTA 98 of households 0 111 Million Single Revenue Source Free over the air channels No VOD or PPV The quotMyth of 39Over The Air39 Televisionquot 0 False It39s not dead 0 Broadband 76 of households Speeds Vary Uses Online Gaming Sur ng Social Media Online Videos AEREO 0 Take little antenna and sell OTA channels for 800 a month Cameron 2 Available Boston New York Atlanta Salt Lake City Dallas Denver and Miami Cable Operators and Networks not happy AEREO quotstealingquot signals FOX rst to threaten to pull from OTA CBS latest to threaten to pull Convergence o The coming together of and blurring the lines between what previously had been separate ways of distributing information 0 Media Platform OOOO TV Satellite Cable Internet Mobile etc 0 Example Broadcasting Nightly News and anchor says go to wwwnbccom for more info on this story Vertical Integration 0 The control of the production and distribution of content by one company 0 Example Disney Owns and produces its own channel ConsoHda on o The process of combining similar organizations into one which can create a stronger entity than either organization standing alone Groups owned by one Umbrella Company 0 Example Consolidation of ownership of radio stations or television stations 0 Synergy o The action of two or more companies working together may produce a bene t greater than the combined effect of the same companies operating separately 0 Two companies merge 0 Due to deregulation in the 905 0 Success Disney and ABC becoming ABC DISNEY Disney owns television lm theater music parks resorts publishing and radio stations 0 Failure AOL and Time Warner becoming AOL TIME WARNER Video Download Sources 0 Net ix 1 Source 32 of videos downloaded Cameron 3 o Other Pirating Websites 2 source 2198 of videos downloaded 0 YouTube 3 1711 of videos downloaded 0 Cultural Precedents to Mass Media 0 All types of media culturally preceded by media 0 5 Types Penny Press Started because printing became cheaper Steam power to printing makes newspapers a medium of mass communication in the US New York Sun begins in 1833 o Started by Benjamin Day 0 Papers were sold by street vendors Cost was one cent 0 Same As A beer Halfpound of Bacon 0 Before Penny Press 0 Colonialera newspapers Expensive Sold by subscription only 12yr Rag stock paper Hand printed Slow Production Problems 0 Few presses Low literacy rate Served mercantile interests Contained literary works 0 Major trends in the 180039s Urbanization Industrialization Modernization Expanding school system Allowed the Penny Press to succeed Still Photography 0 Had to stay completely still Vaudeville Live variety shows preformed at theaters with various acts Phonograph First quotat homequot Entertainment Device 0 Record Player Cameron 4 0 Nickname Edison Cylinder First demonstrated by Thomas Edison in 1877 0 Created tremendous demand for music recorded by popular performers Motion Pictures 0 Technology developed in the 19th century Public showings began in the 18905 Scripted narratives eary 19005 Silent lms dominate rst 3 decades of the 20th century quotTalkiesquot begin in earnest in 1928 quotThe Jazz Singerquot 0 Films with words you can hear 0 1St Talkie quotThe Jazz Singerquot 0 Early stars 0 Charlie Chaplin o Rudolph Valentino o Buster Keaton Broadcasting Technical Precedents In Order 0 The Telegraph First used in England in the 18205 Aid earIy railroad companies Improved system developed by Samuel FB Morse First Message quotWhat hath God wroughtquot Increased durability Receiver recorded message on a paper strip Developed American Morse Code First operational telegraph line from Washington to Baltimore in 1844 Went private in 1847 0 Western Union ultimately dominates 1866 0 First transAtlantic cable 0 The Telephone Alexander Graham Bell rst to deliver patent in 1876 Beating American Elisha Gray 0 Also developing a telephone 0 Patent of ce by only a few hours BeII s patents went to others who developed ATampT Developed long distance lines in 1913 0 Used the audion o The beginning of all modern electronics 0 Patented by Lee DeForest in 1907 Didn39t know how it worked 0 Ampli ed Sound Waves 0 Connected one end of the country to the other ATampT39s control of various patents made them a critical player in the development of radio broadcasting especially in networking 0 Wireless TeIegraphy Cameron 5 0 Commercial broadcasting 1920 0 Important People in Media 0 James Clark Maxwell Scottish physicist Theorized that an invisible form of radiant energy electromagnetic energy must exist and radiate outward in the form of waves Said light itself is a form of electromagnetic energy TH EORECTICALLY PROVED THAT ELECTROMAGENTIC ENGERY EXISTS o Heinrich Hertz German physicist In 1888 Hertz proved in the laboratory thatJames Clark Maxwell39s theory was correct The basic unit of frequency is named after him Hertz Hz 0 AM radio frequency measured in kilohertz kHz 0 FM radio frequency measured in megahertz MHz 0 Guglielmo Marconi ltalian experimenter Developed wireless as a viable means of communication Received a patent from England in 1896 Founded British Marconi 1897 American Marconi 1899 In 1901 Marconi send the rst transAtlantic wireless communication 0 The letter S three short dots England to St John39s Newfoundland Shared the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics for his wireless work What was the primary business application of wireless telegraphy o Reginald Fessenden Father of American Broadcasting 1st broadcaster other than Morse Code First quotbroadcastquot from Brant Rock Massachusetts 0 Christmas Eve 1906 Wireless only used for Morse Code messaging before Played a violin sang read from the Bible and played a phonograph recording 0 Edwin Howard Armstrong Father of American Broadcasting One of the greatest engineers and inventors of the 20th century Most tragic gure in broadcasting39s technical history 0 February 1 1954 Cameron 6 0 Killed himself by putting on coat hat and gloves and walking out of 13th story window Made major improvements to DeForest s Audion Tube 0 Actually knew how it worked Three major inventions by Armstrong 0 The regenerative circuit 0 The superheterodyne circuit 0 Frequency Modulation FM radio 0 Received a patent for wideband FM radio in 1933 0 Didn t live to see its success 0 Several other inventions as well 0 The rst quotportablequot radio 1921 Wedding gift for his bride Loved to climb his and other people s broadcasting towers without safety lines 0 May 15 1923 0 Opening day of RCA39s Radio Broadcast Central 0 Climbed the tower atop the RCA building 0 Over 700 feet high Worked for RCA RCA chief executive David Sarnoff thwarted his plans for FM RCA had millions invested in the success of AM 0 Armstrong pushed for his FM band RCA lobbied FCC to change frequency allocations for FM hurting receiver sales 0 Sylvester quotPatquot Weaver Sigourney Weaver39s dad NBC executive Spectaculars Grammy39s Oscars Miss America etc 0 quotEventquot programming Participating Sponsorship Different advertisers in same program 0 1St to do this Developed both quotTodayquot and quotTonightquot Shows 0 Military Use of Wireless 0 In April 1917 America enters World War I o Fearing spies reporting on ship movements the US Navy takes over all wireless telegraphy stations in the country Forced patentpooling ATampT had the audion GE had the Ernst Alexanderson alternator Westinghouse produced vacuum tubes 0 Navy tried to make radio a government monopoly in late 1918 Alexander Bill 0 Congress rejected the legislation 0 Cameron 7 Radio becomes private The Birth of Broadcasting 0 Post World War I big concern about foreign ownership of American radio stations American Marconi wanted to buy stations Not quotAmericanquot owned Owen Young from General Electric makes British Marconi an offer they can39t refuse American Marconi assets purchased by GE Radio Corporation of America RCA is founded All board members must be American 0 80 of stock in American hands MOST COUNTRIES PREFERRED TO KEEP RADIO UNDER GOVERNMENT CONTROL First Professional Radio Stations Had continuous programming Made Money Didn39t rely on government support lst KDKA AM Pittsburgh Pennsylvania Other early stations include WWJDetroit Michigan 1920 WHAMadison Wisconsin 1920 WJZNew York New York 1921 Early Years of Broadcasting o 1912 Broadcast licenses issued by US Dept of Commerce 0 Could issue licenses Could not rescind them 0 1922 WEAF later WNBC currently WFANNew York First station to regularly sell commercial time to advertisers First advertiser Real estate company touting quotHawthorne Courtquot 0 An apartment complex in Queens New York City 0 10 minutes in length Cost 100 quotToll Broadcastingquot Negotiations with ASCAP American Society of Composers Authors and Publishers for rights to broadcast music 0 Radio music causing musicians to make less 0 Start charging stations 0 1937 Broadcasters start BMl Broadcast Music Inc Counter ASCAP Networks 0 Networks Link stations together 0 NBC Cameron 8 1926 0 Led by David Sarnoff o Included two separate entities The quotRedquot and quotBluequot networks Blue Network breaks off and forms ABC in O 1945 0 CBS 0 1927 o Bought by William Paley in 1928 0 Head network until 1990 0 Numerous innovations Guaranteed programming for af liates Exclusive rights to network programming Network compensation Mutual Broadcasting Network 0 1934 o Organized as a cooperative Founding stations WGNChicago WORNew York WXYZDetroit WLWCincinnati 0 Several famous radio shows The Lone Ranger Superman The Shadow Broadcast Baseball World Series The Radio Act of 1927 O O O O O 0 Government will issue licenses assign operating frequencies and designate power levels Regulated Radio Radio stations must keep PICON Standard in mind Public Interest Convenience or Necessity No property right to license Established 5member Federal Radio Commission FRC AIRWAVES BELONG quotTO THE PEOPLEquot The Communications Act of 1934 O O Retains some 1927 Radio Act provisions PICON Standard No property right to license Established a new body 7member Federal Communications Commission FCC Today it39s 5 Added telephone telegraph wired and broadcasting communication regulation It remains the current law governing broadcasting Radio in the 1930s 0 Number of stations declines slightly after government gets involved Cameron 9 0 Advertising grows after initial government disapproval o The NewspaperRadio Press War Radio ourishes during the Great Depression 0 Due to O O FDR39s quotFireside Chatsquot Shows ComedySoapsNewsMusic 0 Chain Broadcasting Regulations 1941 Stops some of PaIey39s practices Can only own one network New Network In 1945 NBC Blue becomes ABC 0 Radio during WWII 0 Radio escapes direct censorship by adhering to quotvoluntaryquot codes during the war Voluntary Codes 0 We can regulate ourselves o WWII puts radio news in the spotlight o quotOn the spotquot reporting becomes a regular feature of news programming by the late 193039s Correspondents Edward R Murrow of CBS 0 O O Radio39s Decline 1St Correspondent quotPatron Saintquot of Broadcasting Covered 1940 air raid quotBlitzquot of London by Nazis during WW2 live on CBS radio Later CBS TV shows include See it Now and Person to Person Takes down quotcommunisthuntingquot Wisconsin SenatorJoseph McCarthy in the mid195039s Movie Good Night and Good Luck 0 TV39s introduced after World War 2 0 Radio networks were reeling by the early 195039s 0 Radio reinvents itself Focuses on Music Saved By 0 Rock amp Roll 0 Alan Freed and the Top40 format 0 Considered rst radio DJ The FM band emerges as a force Begins its rise in the late 1960s 0 Has higher delity and stereo sound 1980 s AM turns to talk 0 Sports 0 News 0 Politics 0 Early TV Development 0 Color television O 0 Cameron 10 Compatible Color selected by FCC as standard 1953 RCA System Video recording 1956 Ampex Corporation launches rst successful videotape recorder TV vs Hollywood Studios wouldn39t sell post1948 movies to TV This practice ended in the early 1960s VHF amp UHF Television Stations 0 O O 0 In the beginning all stations operated on VHF VHF Very High Frequency Only Channels 2 13 After World War 2 huge demand for new TV channel licenses 19481952 A quotfreezequot on all new licensing while FCC conducted research 1952 Sixth Report and Order approves the introduction of UHF television UHF Ultra High Frequency Channels 14 83 Much more room for new stations Communitybased allocation policy Huge Uproar The Big 3 Survive 00000 0 Most CBS and NBC station af liates were on VHF band ABC hung on with a combination of VHF and UHF af liates Independent UHF stations struggled to survive America would not have a fourth network for almost 30 years 1962 Congress nally mandates that all TV manufacturers39 sets sold in the US must receive UHF signals 0 Still took decades for consumers to buy new sets Rupert Murdoch creates FOX 1986 Didn t Fail Because Rupert Murdoch had the nancial quotdeep pocketsquot to sustain huge losses for many years BIGGESTREASON 0 Cable Eliminates UHF overtheair reception problems 0 Cable Today 0 O O 0 Six companies Control 90 percent of all cable subscriptions in US Cable industry consolidation Small operators merged into big Due to Deregulation MSO Multiple System Operator Cameron 11 Large clusters of local cable franchises operating under one company HBO amp Premium Cable 0 HBO PayPe rView Home Box Of ce Created in 1972 Introduced pay or premium cable 1975 Began distribution by satellite Did not have commercial advertisements Showed primarily feature lms for which subscribers paid an additional monthly fee over and above the charge for advertising supported basic tier channels Also featured sporting events boxing by the 19805 0 Allows viewers to order individual programs from the cable company for a onetime fee 0 Can39t decide when to start watching it or skip commercials 0 Initially driven by three types of programming Porn Boxing WWF quotwrasslinquot Biggest reason for success 0 Widespread use of PPV depends on addressability An ef cient means for the cable system of ce to receive program orders and address individual PPV decoders Addressability Send programs to the house but can t get information back Video On Demand 0 Similar to PayPer View Possible Because 0 Box addressability Advance to digital cable service 0 Allows digital cable subscribers to access programming stored on the cable system39s video server instantly and to control it 0 Price Decide when you start watching Pause rewind fastforward Like a tape or DVD Some free VOD on systems Some systems also offer subscription VOD SVOD Allows subscribers unlimited access for a monthly fee Direct Broadcasting Service 0 DBS o LocalintolocalService 0 Cameron 12 Since 2000 Providers authorized to deliver local broadcast TV stations into local markets Similar to quotMust Carryquot rule for cable quotCarry one carry allquot Similar business model to cable Subscriberbased income Other revenue streams DBS companies also pay a national persubscriber fee to the basic tier quotcablequot networks Example Dish Network 0 Internet Origins 0 Many historians say the Internet began in the late 19505 with the creation of the Department of Defense39s Advanced Research Projects Agency ARPA ARPA tasked with promoting scienti c research Scientists and researchers wanted to share data 0 Transmission Control ProtocolInternet Protocol TCPIP O Mid 70 s Allows informationsharing among different computer networks Vinton Cerf amp Robert Kohn Hypertext Transfer Protocol HTTP H39ITP Late 8039searly 90 s Tim BernersLee links hypertext documents on the Internet 0 Starts the World Wide Web Transistors o Transistor A three element solidstate tube replacement Greatly improved upon hot bulky powerhungry vacuum tube technology The foundation on which all modern electronics is based 0 Digital Video Recording 0 Introduced in 1999 The personal video recorder PVR Also known as the digital video recorder DVR 0 A device that records TV programming on a large computer hard drive Approaching 55 household penetration Example 0 TiVo


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