Test2Review.pdf CEM 102
Popular in Understanding Media And Content In The Digital Age
Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angela Cameron on Monday October 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CEM 102 at University of Miami taught by Ana Francois in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Understanding Media And Content In The Digital Age in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Cameron 1 Test 2 Review Electromagnetic Spectrum 0 Kilohertz I AM Radio 0 Megahertz Shortwave FM VFH TV 0 Gigahertz UHF TV Radar Microwaves Satellite Links Transduction o Transduction The process of changing one form of energy into another Examples Radio Broadcasting 0 Changes sound wave energy into electromagnetic wave energy 0 Transmitting waves over long distance 0 Changing the electromagnetic waves back into sound waves for humans to detect Microphone 0 Responds to air pressure patterns 0 Transduces them into electrical patterns Converts Mechanical Waves to Electromagnetic waves Electromagnetism o Electromagnetic Energy Three Characteristics Radiating Waves Radiate outward from a source without bene t of any discernible physical vehicle Travel at the same velocity Have the properties of waves 0 Waves propagate radiate from an antenna Dropping rock in water 0 Attenuation Waves lose their energy as they radiate outward Spectrum Management 0 FCC Controls physical and technical sides Licenses Assigned Frequencies Operating Hours Power Cameron 2 Antenna Height and Design Do NOT control content 0 Wave Length 0 Wave Length Distance between two corresponding waves 0 Frequency Number of waves that pass a stationary point in one second 0 1 wave 1 hertz 1000 waves 1 kilohertz 1000000 waves 1 megahertz 1000000000 waves 1 gigahertz Shorter wave length Higher Frequency Longer Wave Length Lower Frequency Higher Frequencies Fast Attenuation Lower Frequencies Slower Attenuation o Amplitude Height or depth of a wave 0 Analog vs Digital 0 Analog Carry words in analog form Consist Amplitude patterns 0 Loudness Frequency Patterns 0 Tones or pitches Audio Frequency AF 0 Electrical Variations Superimposed on Transmitter39s radio frequency RF carrier 0 Causes its oscillations to mimic the AF Patterns 0 Digital Binary Code 039s and 139s Advantages Simplicity protects signals from extraneous in uence that causes distortion 0 Each digital copy is a perfect replica of the original 0 Take apart and reassemble in in nitely varied forms Disadvantages Needs wider channels 0 Need more bandwidth Sausage Theory 0 The more the cut it up the lower the quality 0 Coverage Contours 0 Station Radio and TV coverage de ned by reception probability 0 Analog Cameron 3 Signal fades out 0 Digital Signal drops completely Cliff Effect 0 Receive everything or nothing Cables 0 Coaxial Cable Primary method for distributing video signals Architecture 0 Main Cable Feeder o Branches of main cable 0 Drop Cable 0 Goes into the house Ridge on outside of house Flexible on inside of house 0 Cable Distribution Networks Cable System39s Headend Supenhub Brings together aggregates TV Programing from various sources Delivers them via cable to homes Cable ber cable ber nod coaxial cable home 0 Fiber Optic Cable Glass Fibers High Capacity 0 Ideal for handling digitally processed information Carried information light waves Bene ts Less expensive Thinner Less interference Low power Non Flammable Flexible Lightweight Distribution by the Internet 0 O O 0 Infrastructure is made up of mostly privately owned networks Interconnected with one another Like spider web Exploded in Mid 905 Mosaic 0 Made it pretty 0 Back forward and refresh button Messages Circuit vs Packet Switching 0 Circuit I PODS Cameron 4 0 Plain Old Telephone Service 0 Uses one route 0 Line Occupied all the time you use it 0 Packet Switching Uses many routes to get to the receiver TCPlP ProtocolsRules TCP o o o o 0 IP 0 o o 0 Domain Name Systems Breaks up the Data Packets Puts it back together on other end Checks for errors during transmissions Directs packets through channels Gives each packet an address TP address and number packets 0 Translate a domain name into a numeric IP address 0 ICANN Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers Private Nonpro t Manages domain names 2009 almost any top level domain name will be registered Broadcast Stations 0 De ned as an entity that Holds a license from the federal government Transmits programs over the air Carries commercial messages to promote products 0 This point differs from public stations 0 Station Ownership 0 Stations Licensed by FCC o Owned by private enterprises 0 Mostly Group Owned Few ma and pop stations left Must have individual FCC Licenses for each station 0 Can be af liated but not necessarily owned by a network Vast majority of stations not owned by their network 0 Ownership Limits Radio 0 No limit of number of stations owned nationally Up to 8 within the same market Television 0 Maximum number owned is determined by the percent of national household coverage 0 Not number of stations 0 Maximum is 39 of household coverage Duopoly Cameron 5 0 Ownership of TV stations within the same market is restricted to no more than 2 stations Radio and Television af liate station system permits networks to distribute programming and commercials nationwide Broadcast Networks 0 O O O 0 Networks are primarily program content providers Many are station owners 0 amp 0 s FCC does not license networks are program providers FCC does regulate networks as station owners Each major TV network has about 200 af liated stations 0 Network Af liation O O O Purely contractual relationship between a local station and network Except 0ampO39s 310 years Stations and networks change af liations Fox and ABC history Fox acquired NFL football rights in 1993 Issues Relationship between networks and af liates is rocky Repurposing Reuse of network programming on other media such as cable networks 0 Example Law and Order CrossPromotion Forcing stations to broadcast promos for cable networks owned by the parent network 0 Example ESPN on ABC Stations no longer have a monopoly over programming 0 Reducing or eliminating network compensation for af liated stations 0 Taking away commercial adjacencies for af liated stations 0 Moving traditional network programming to cableonly networks 0 Disney putting all NASCAR races on ESPN CableBroadcast Comparison 0 0 Cable systems depend on subscriber fees not advertising Commercial broadcaster depend on advertisers One cable company serves a community A franchise granted by the government not a license granted by the FCC Cable Programming 0 The headend is the center of operation for receiving and distributing 0 programming Cable systems ll their channels with programs from overtheair TV stations retransmission and pure cable networks and some local programming Cameron 6 0 M50 Multiple System Operator Dozens of franchises under one owner 0 Yield Management 0 The art and science of managing commercial inventory and pricing to earn maximum revenue 0 Examples Airline Seats Invented yield management Hotel Rooms 0 Ad space is perishable and limited 0 Can39t oversell ad space MakeGoods 0 Don39t deliver Promised ratings performance and audience viewing not met MakeGoods Compensating for not delivering Offer free commercials to compensate buyers for disappointing ratings Preempting Alternative Ad Buys 0 Product Placement Business model Ignores program interruptions and quotzappingquot Products quotshowupquot in movies and TV shows because the company paid for it
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