ThirdTestReview.pdf CEM 102
Popular in Understanding Media And Content In The Digital Age
Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angela Cameron on Monday October 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CEM 102 at University of Miami taught by Ana Francois in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Understanding Media And Content In The Digital Age in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Cameron 1 Third Test Review 0 Advertisingbased Model 0 Programming can we acquire for the least cost to attract the biggest audience that we can sell to the most advertisers at the highest commercial rates 0 Art 63 Science of Scheduling 0 Not only the content that attracts audiences 0 Where you place it on a schedule 0 Dayparts Blocks of time in which several programs may be scheduled One consistent type of program may be offered Example 0 Law amp Order 0 Factors to consider in scheduling Available audience 0 Time of day Audience flow Leadin 0 Audience before program Leadout 0 Audience after The competition 0 Scheduling Strategies 0 O O Hammocking Strong program Weak program Strong program Tentpoling Weak program Strong program Weak program Leadin Effects Inheritance Effects Programs tend to quotinheritquot audiences from the prior program Block Scheduling Clustering programs of the same type of content Example Comedies on Monday night CounterProgramming Offering radically different programming to what the competition is running 0 Super Bowl and New Sitcom Stripped vs Checkerboarded Stripped Program airs at the same time every day or every weekday 0 Example The Price Is Right airs 11AM Monday F day Checkerboarded Program airs at the same time once per week Cameron 2 0 Example Hawaii FiveO airs 10PM Fridays on CBS 0 Sources of Programming 0 Local broadcast station perspective radio or TV Each day Broadcast stations select 0 Local 0 Network Syndicated 0 Programming to attract audiences 0 Two Tvnes of Svndication 0 First Run Syndication Fresh episodes produced for stations Entertainment Tonight Judge Judy Dr 02 etc o OffNetwork Syndication Originally aired on a network Reruns Programs remain on a network offering fresh episodes Also offer repeat episodes to local stations through syndication Seinfeld TwoandaHalf Men Friends etc 0 quotCable syndicationquot Some rerun broadcast network programs go directly to cable Bypass TV station syndication 0 Creating New TV Shows 0 Very expensive 0 Rislq Business Most programs fail o De cit Financing Networks pay only a portion of the costs of production of a new program Producers hope the program will be a huge ratings hit 0 Demand a huge fee increase at renewal time Producers also hope to turn pro ts on broadcast station or cable network reruns syndication This is where the really BIG money is 0 Generate 100 episodes 0 Accepted number of episodes needed to place the program into syndication Exception e The Sopranos o 86 episodes Steps to Creating New Show 0 A treatment 0 quotConceptquot of the show 0 Prepare a sample script 0 Produce a pilot episode Negotiate a deal for a short run with limited number of episodes Cameron 3 0 Series 0 Usually order 13 episodes of a new series Could be for fewer episodes 0 Track show ratings for several episodes 0 Successful Add additional episodes to nish the season Full Season 0 2224 episodes Renewal for next season 0 Renegotiate terms Acquire enough episodes over several years to be able to go into off network syndication 0 Public Broadcasting o Noncommercial TV amp radio operations Nonpro t organizations 0 Supported by 0 Donations 0 Corporate underwriting 0 Grants from government 0 Local stations licensed by FCC Public broadcast stations typically owned by 0 Local governments Universities 0 School boards 0 WLRNMiami owned by Miami School Board 0 Religious groups 0 Stations Af liated with PBS network TV NPR network radio Programs also contributed by other organizations PRI etc o Taxsupported government subsidized networks 0 Decadesold controversy over Federal government funding of public broadcasting Would no government funding quotkill Big Birdquot 0 No Public broadcasting receives roughly only 15 of its budget from government 0 Less than 1100th of the total federal budget 2011 poll a clear majority of Americans 70 supported continued funding 0 Types of Audience Research 0 Attitude Research Recording what people say 0 Behavioral Research Observing what people do RATINGS BASED ON BEHAVIOR 0 Ratings Cameron 4 0 Ratings don39t quotratequot anything in terms of how much an audience likes a program Difference What do you think of CEM 102 o Attitude Did you attend CEM 102 class today 0 Behavior Svndicated vs Custom Research 0 Syndicated Research Standardized research sold to many quotsubscribersquot Nielsen research is available to anyone willing to pay 0 Custom Research Tailored to meet the needs of a speci c client Custom research is proprietary Only one client receives the data 0 Research rm cannot share results with any other entity Ratings Survey Methods 0 Nielsen TV Paper diaries given to individuals Electronic meters attached to TV sets 0 Nielsen Audio radio Paper diaries given to individuals 0 Being phased out Electronic meters carried by people 0 Both services use random population samples The laws of chance or probability predict that a randomly selected small sample from a large population will be representative of the entire population Randomness 0 Every unit in the population has an equal chance of being selected for sample Random samples allow us to calculate a quotmargin of errorquot based on the laws of probability Problem 0 Few people pay any attention to this margin Random or probability sample A truly representative sample Allow researchers to calculate sampling error Margin of error Sample reliability Consistency over time Biased Sample A nonrandom sample or nonprobability sample Cannot produce reliable sampling error calculations Cameron 5 o Sweeps O O O 0 Time periods when Nielsen measures audiences all markets All 210 DMAs swept Determine Ad Rates for Advertisers 4 times per year November February May July Ratings Jargon 0 Everybody who has their radio or television set on at a speci c time HUT Homes Using Television PUT Persons Using Television PUR Persons Using Radio Expressed as HUTPUTPUR o Expressed as numbers of households or persons HUTPUT o Expressed as a percentage of the total population of households or persons Example 0 Total population 120000 households HUT at 700 PM 60000 HH or 50 of the population HUT rating of 50 Program Rating 0 O O RaUng Estimated size of a program39s audience Expressed as a percentage of the total market population Gross Rating Points GRPs Add a group of program ratings together 0 Example 0 Program Rating 0 CSI 30 o NCIS 20 o MODERN FAMILY 10 0 Gross Ratings Points 60 Program Rating Calculation Formula Households Watching Show Market Population 0 Example Market Size 120000 households Your program attracts 30000 households 30120 25 25 Cameron 6 Your rating 25 DON T USE PERCENTAGE SIGN 0 Program Share 0 Size of a program39s audience expressed as a percentage of the market population that is using the TV or radio at that time Percentage of the HUT Program Share Calculation Formula 0 Households Watching A ShowAll Households Using TV During That Time Period Example 0 Average vs Cume Audience Market Size 120000 Households Your program attracts 30000 HH HUT level 60000 HH Using Television 3000060000 50 50 Your share 50 DON39T USE PERCENTAGE SIGN 0 Ratings measure a couple different audience numbers AQH Average Quarter Hour ratingshare The average audience at any point in time The cume audience over a period of time Accumulated audiences over time quotNonduplicated audiencesquot 0 Only count a person once 0 Sometimes called quotReachquot 0 Average Commercial Minute Ratings ACM 0 Introduced in 2007 0 Rates commercial content minutes only Not average program minutes 0 Industry standard today is C3 Live commercial minutes plus three days of commercial playback Only counts DVR playback at normal speed 0 Fast forward through ads you are not counted Currency Favored metrics that is used for advertising 0 Measurment Tools quotAnalvticsll 0 Total number of visitors or quothitsquot Impressions 0 Number of unique visitors vs repeat visitors Unique visitors 0 A quotcumequot measure on Internet 0 Average number of pageviews per visitor How deep into your site do visitors go Cameron 7 How many times they click Most requested pages More for advertisements on these pages Average duration of a visit to the overall site Average duration of particular page visits Sequence of pages viewed by visitors from entry to exit quotPeople who viewed this item also likedquot Number of advertisements clickthroughs for additional product information You clicked on it you must be interested right Number of visitor transactions where something is requested or purchased Source links from other websites or search engines Demographic lifestyle and purchasing behavior of Internet users 0 What is quotTHEORYquot 0 Scienti c Theory Causal explanation of an occurrence Used in natural sciences and social sciences 0 Research Methodology 0 O 0 Lab Experiments are only one that explains cause All others DESCRIBE Sample Surveys Opinion polls Audience ratings Drawback Causation cannot be determined Content Analysis Organizingcounting classes of media content Drawbacks Does not directly address quotmedia effectsquot Causation cannot be determined Laboratory Experiments Controlled ONLY METHOD TO IDENTIFY CASUAL FACTORS Drawbacks Setting is arti cial Confounding variables Field Studies Researcher observes in the quotreal worldquot without intruding Drawbacks Time consuming Less control Ethnographic Studies Researcher becomes part of the group being studied 0 Reactivity Drawback Cameron 8 0 Participant observation requires extended amounts of time o Earlv Communication Research 0 Hypodermic Needle Theory quotMagic Bulletquot Theory Assumption that all audiences were passive Easily in uenced in a direct way by media content Media has direct immediate and uniform effects on audience Mass Propaganda World War I 19141918 Opinion Leaders 2step ow 0 Warnings Example 0 quotStatistically signi cantquot lnferential statistics 0 Signi cant does not mean important 0 Measure of sample reliability o If you repeated the study many times you can be con dent of consistent results within a calculated margin of error 0 Communication research p lt05 95 con dence Probability level set by researcher medicine vs media study example Observed differences in a study could be statistically signi cant but still unimportant Improves our understanding a very little bit 0 Random Sampling amp Sample Error 0 Media Effects Theories o Cultivation theory Takes an allencompassing look at the power of television to in uence people39s perceptions attitudes and values about the world in which they live quotScary worldquot phenomenon If all you see is bad news your outlook on world is bad Heavy viewing of the symbolic imagery of TV shapes social reality 0 Social Learning theory Most learning takes place through observing and modeling the behavior of others Role of rewards and punishments 0 Spiral of Silence theory A political science and mass communication theory Asserts that a person is less likely to voice an opinion on a topic if one feels that one is in the minority Fear of reprisal or isolation from the majority Cameron 9 Thirdperson Effect theory Hypothesis Person exposed to a persuasive communication in the mass media sees it as having a greater effect on others than on himself AgendaSetting theory Concentrates primarily on the power of the news media Determine what issues people think are important to their community and personal wellbeing We can39t tell you what to think but we can tell you what to think about Uses and Grati cations theory People seek out speci c media to satisfy or quotgratifyquot speci c needs 0 Needs may not be the same for everybody Effect of a media message depends on grati cation sought Elaboration Likelihood Model ELM Attempts to describe under what conditions people are easily persuaded Under what conditions people are stubbornly resistant to change ELM 2 routes to persuasion Central route 0 Message processing that requires a great deal of thought and careful scrutiny Peripheral route 0 Message processing that does not involve extensive mental effort
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