107Exam1StudyGuide.pdf GSC 107
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angela Cameron on Monday October 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GSC 107 at University of Miami taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Natural Disasters - Hollywood Vs. Reality in Geology at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
GSC 107 Exam 1 Study Guide Plate Tectonics o Layers of the Earth 0 Crustsolid o Mantleliquid o Coresolid o Spheres Lithosphere Crust and outer region of the mantle Asthenosphere 0 Inner mantle and core 0 Three plate boundaries and examples 0 Convergent Subduction zones 0 One plates dives under another 0 Old crust destroyed ContinentContinent Collision o Lows density of continents prevents subduction so they crumple into each other instead 0 Transform Plates slide past each other 0 Divergent Plates move away from each other Ex MidOcean Ridge 0 New crust is created 0 Horizontal lines o Earthquake depth and plate boundaries 0 Shallow earthquakes occur at all three plate boundaries 0 Mid and deep earthquakes occur at subduction zones 0 Continental drift and plate tectonics development of the theories 0 Continental Drift Precursor Theory 0 Antonio SniderPellegrni o Said the continents were one land mass that t together and split apart at one point 0 Alfred Wegner expanded the idea 0 Published two articles on Continental drift 0 Said rocks mountains and fossils matched across continents o Guanwonasuper continent o Collided with North America to form Pangaea 0 Theory was missing a mechanism for how continents could move 0 Plate Tectonics Henry Hess o WWII Submarine commander Taking sonar of Paci c Ocean Floor Found MidAtlantic Ridge and lava erupting from it Realized there was movement on the sea floor Proposed quotSea Floor Spreadingquot o Continents don t plow across the sea floor 0 Ocean Floor growsexpands at midocean ridge 0 Creates new ocean crust o FOUND MECHANISM FOR CONTINENTAL DRIFT 0 Hot spots 0 O O Formed the Hawaiian Islands Oceanic Hotspot and Yellowstone Caldera Continental Hotspot Volcano in ocean that continuously erupts As magma builds up new islandsland masses are formed These masses move away from the hotspot over millions of years Earthquakes 0 Types of faults O O O O O Earthquakes occur along faults Normal One side of fault pulls away from the other StrikeSlip Sides of fault move past each other Causes offset Reverse Thrust Side of fault pushes toward the other side MegaThrust Fault Cause Tsunami 0 Effects of earthquakes 0 00000 0 Ground shaking Fires Landstes Displacement of land surface Falling buildings Tsunamis Aftershocks Focus epicenter O 0 Focus Point in Earth39s crust where earthquake originates Epicenter Point on Earth39s surface directly above the focus 0 Three types of waves be able to identify on a seismograph O O P waves Primary Wave Fastest First to arrive Travel through solids and liquids In and out S Waves Secondary Shearing Wave Arrives after P waves Can travel through rock Can t travel through liquid Move in 5 formation 0 Surface Waves Slowest Wave Last Wave On Surface Cause most damage Rolling motion 0 Calculating the distance and location of an earthquake o Worksheet 0 Need 3 stations 0 The Richter scale 0 Richter Scale The amount of energy released by the Earthquake o Mercalli Scale The amount damage created by the Earthquake Earthquake Prediction and Management 0 Earthquake precursors o Foreshocks Change in ground level Change in Water Table eve Seismic Gap Radon Gas 0 Radon gas as a predictor concept and problems 0 Not reliable enough 0 Earth naturally releases this gas when faults fracture 0 Seismic gap 0 An area along an active fault that has had less earthquake activity than surrounding segments 0 Fault is quotstuckquot 0 Length of gap proportional to size of next earthquake 0 Relationship between length of fault movement and size of earthquake o The bigger the rupture zone the bigger the earthquake 0 Building safety measures 0 Isolation Pads Diagonal Bracing Retro tting Anchoring Walls to foundation Bolt everything to walls Earthquake Insurance Construct watergas lines from exible material TransAlaskan Pipeline Oscillation of mud vs rock vibrational frequency of short vs tall buildings 0 Mud shakes at a low frequency 0000 000000 Rock shakes at a high frequency Tall buildings shake at low frequency Short buildings shake at high frequency Do not want to match oscillations Short buildings soft mud Tall Buildings rock 0 quot105quot accuracies and inaccuracies 0 There can t be a 105 earthquake o Earthquake chains do not happen that quickly 0 You cannot fuse a fault Tsunami What are the ve causes of tsunami o Earthquake Thrust Earthquake Snaps up then back Most Common Cause 0 Submarine volcano o Submarine landslide o Bolide impact Asteroid o Glacier calving Large part of glacier breaks off and falls into water 0 Wave velocity and amplitude in deep vs shallow water 0 Deep Water Small Amplitude Fast Velocity 0 Shallow Water High Amplitude accordion effect Low Velocity What types of earthquakes typically set off a tsunami 0 Shallow focus 0 In what tectonic setting 0 Subduction zone 0 What causes the displacement of water 0 Overriding continental plate snapping up and forward due to subductioneq How does the Paci c Tsunami Warning System work 0 Sensors on ocean oor Pressure from Tsunami activates sensor Sensor sends signal to buoy Buoy sends signal to satellite Satellite sends signal to station Station warns people to evacuate 000000 00000 Volcanoes o The three types of volcanoes size and shape lava viscosity lava type 0 StratoComposite Andesiticrhyolitic Lava High Viscosity not runny Eruptions are unpredictable Form over subduction zones Ex Mt Helens 0 Shield Basaltic Lava Low Viscosity runny Tallest In ocean Ex Hawaiian Islands 0 Cinder Cones Basaltic lava Low viscosity Lava encounters groundwater Erupts as steam and cinders Smallest Steep sides Erupts out of side 0 Identi cation of aa vs pahoehoe characteristics 0 AA Slow moving Cooler BloclqJagged o Pahoehoe Fast moving Hotter Ropy Gassy Can degas to form AA lava o How pillow basalts form 0 Underwater volcano erupts Hot lava reaches cool ocean Rapid cooling causes crust to form around lava pillow lava Water pressure causes lava to rise to surface Causes erosion of land above it as it rises to surface Lava ow from eruption reaches ocean Rapid cooling again causes pillow lava 0 Mt St Helens what is a pyroclastic flow 0 A mixture of hot volcanic ash and steam o Precursors to the Mt St Helens eruption o Volcanic tremors o Blasts of steam and ash Steam eruptions decreased in frequency but ash content increased 0 1500mlong ssure opened on north ank o Harmonic tremors with increasing strength 0 Bulge started appearing at the top of the volcano 0 Sequence of events of the Mt St Helens eruption o Magnitude 51 earthquake o Caused landslide Uncorked the volcano champagne bottle OOOO o Relived steam pressure 0 Lateral Blast out the side of the volcano o Pyroclastic cloud 0 Toutle River mud ow lahar 0 Hot volcanic mud ow Volcanic Hazards and Mitigation What are the ve main volcanic hazards How are they dangerous 0 Lava Flows Hot enough to ignite wood structures even when cooled and black Objects that aren39t burned can be surrounded and buried by ow killing them 0 Pyroclastic Flows Hot volcanic ash and steam To dense to rise rush down all sides of volcano 50200 kmh Kill everything in its path HOT 800850C Shock wave can race ahead of flow at 600 kmh Can travel over water Most dangerous place in a valley 0 Ash and Pumice Falls Ash falls after volcano erupts Blankets everything Can cause structures to collapse Can suffocate peoplejet engines Block radiation from sun and change climate 0 Large particles fall near vent smaller spread o Volcanic Mud ows Ash combines with water Flows down side of Stratovolcano Picks up everything on way lcy to boiling temperatures Bury everything 0 Poisonous Gases Under so much pressure in magma stay in liquid form Release of pressure from eruption causes them to exsolve Come out of solid form Can form vog Volcanic Smog Release Carbon Dioxide sulfur dioxide hydrogen sul de chlorine compounds and uorine Can kill everything in high concentrations Lava temperatures overall range 0 7001250C What is a lahar 0 Hot volcanic mud ow What are monitoring techniques to detect volcanic eruption precursors o Tilt meters 0 Seismograph records 0 Change in surface temperature 0000 More steam emitted Change in gas eruptions GPS Harmonic Tremors
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