107Exam2StudyGuide.pdf GSC 107
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angela Cameron on Monday October 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GSC 107 at University of Miami taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Natural Disasters - Hollywood Vs. Reality in Geology at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Cameron 1 GSC 107 Exam 2 Study Guide Beach Processes Rogue waves 0 Giant Waves 0 First thought to be myth until evidence came to light 0 Two waves experience constructive interference together without destructive inference Rip currents o A wave returning to the ocean is funneled 0 Water streams back offshore where deeper water reaches beach 0 Creates a strong current perpendicular to the beach 0 Scalloped shorelines and muddy streams in the water can indicate a rip current Longshore drift 0 Current that moves the sand down the beach over time o Caused by waves hitting the beach at an angle Part of wave in shallower water slows down Part of wave still in deeper water moves faster Causes wave refraction Waves bend or refract toward shore Breaking wave pushes sand grains up beach at angle Retreating wave ows down beach slope with sand perpendicular to water39s edge 0 Occurs in the direction that the waves approach the beach 0 Prevention Groins Breakwaters Beach RenourishmentReplenishment Barrier island migration 0 Form gently sloping coastlines of East and Gulf Coasts o Naturally migrate landward 0 Due to Rising sea level Hurricanes and storms Cause the biggest shift 0 Sand Dunes Built by wind bringing sand particles up on the beach Protect barrier islands Commonly removed or cut through by development 0 NOT GOOD Dramatically increases erosion Beach erosion management 0 Groins Displace erosion o Breakwaters Cause Deposition 0 Beach RenourishmentReplenishment Take the sand that was originally on the beach Replace it with coarser sand Cameron 2 Helps restore the beach to its original landscape 0 Riprap Put boulders along a sea cliff so they take the force of the wave Provides temporary protection for sea cliffs Waves are now more likely to wash away sand The boulders will fall away into the deeper water 0 Shortcrete Sprayon concrete Same problem with riprap 0 Sea Walls Known as Beach Hardening Contribute to further erosion Undermines the sand at the base of the wall Waves re ect off wall 0 Stir sand at deeper levels 0 Carry sand offshore Beach becomes narrower and steeper Often hastens erosion and removal of beach Hurricanes o What conditions are necessary for a hurricane to form warm SST low air pressure gradient 0 Warm sea surface temperature 0 Low air pressure gradient Warm air rises near the eye Cold air sinks in the eye 0 Rising air and condensation can build up into convective 39chimney39 of thunderstorms 0 Warm air rises expands and cools o Coriolis forces cause the rising air to rotate 0 Characteristics of the eye and eyewall 0 Eye Center of the storm Lowest pressure zone Calmest Warmer than the rest of the storm by as much as 20 C o Eyewall Highest wind speeds Just along edge of the eye 0 Directions of rotation and tracking for northsouth hemispheres 0 North Hemisphere Rotates Counterclockwise Tracks Clockwise 0 South Hemisphere Rotates Clockwise Tracks Counterclockwise Fastest winds in NE quadrant America39s hurricanes typically form from storms off of Cape Verde Africa Drivers of storm surge 0 Low atmospheric pressure helps cause sea level under storm to rise Cameron 3 O Prolonged high winds push seawater into high mounds 0 Hurricanes arriving perpendicular to coastline have a higher storm surge Faster storm movement Pushes storm surge into higher mound Slower storm movement 0 Lower storm surge Stays in place longer Builds higher waves 0 Highest surge levels in north to northeast quadrant of storm Forward movement of storm enhances wind speed Worse surges occur where ocean floor slopes gradually 0 Effects worsened by high tide 0 Causes most deaths in a hurricane Can wash away buildings 0 What eventsconditions increase or decrease hurricane frequency 0 Increase Warm sea surface temperatures El Nino is absent 0 Low atmospheric pressure in the Caribbean region Africa has a wetter summer 0 Decrease Cooler sea surface temperatures El Nino is present Disrupts and breaks apart tropical cyclones Shears off their tops Africa has a drier summer Hurricane Katrina 0 Category of storm in Gulf upon landfall 0 Gulf 5 o Landfall South Florida 1 New Orleans 3 0 Why did New Orleans experience catastrophic ooding o The levees failed due to the storm surge 0 Pumps pumping water out of the city failed after the city ooded 0 Why did the levees fail 0 They were built to withstand a strong Category 3 storm 0 The levees had settled 0 Storm surge Undermined the levees Caused their bases to fail Collapsed into the storm surge waters Overtopped the levees on the eastern side of the city 0 What features mitigated the effects of Hurricane Katrina 0 Wetlands Vegetation can dramatically slow landward advance of storm surges and waves Cameron 4 0 Effects of levees on wetlands o Causing the wetlands to die and shrink rapidly o Prevent the ooding that brings sediment and organic matter into the wetlands o A football eld of wetlands is lost every half hour due to the levees Thunderstorms and Tornadoes o Cumulonimbus clouds o Anvil shaped o Taller than other clouds o Produced serve thunderstorms Tornadoes spawn from these storms o Thunderstorm formation 0 Commonly triggered by cold air pushing under warm moist air causing it to rise rapidly 0 Three Stages Developing Stage Mature Stage Dissipating Stage Unstable warm moist air rises rapidly cools and condenses Condensation causes release of heat Causes rising air to continue to rise in an updraft Raindrops form from collisions of moist droplets If airdroplets rise high enough in atmosphere cumulonimbus clouds form 0 Lightning formation charge separation 0 Strong charge separation Builds up between the top and bottom of cumulonimbus clouds 0 Driven Water droplets and ice crystals moving upward Snowice pelletshail moving down within cloud Collide 0 Charge difference between cloud and ground become too great Conducive channel of air develops between cloud and ground 0 Simply Step ladder down from cloud negative charge Step ladder up from ground positive charge The instant connection is made powerful discharge of electricity occurs This discharge is visible as a ash of lightning o Instantly heats air to temperatures about 28000C 0 Thunder Accompanying expansion of air at supersonic speed 0 Downbursts o Rapidly descending columns of air 0 As fast as 200 kmhr Cameron 5 0 Sometimes mistaken for tornadoes They have straight pattern Not the rotating damaged pattern of a tornado 0 Cause wind shear Not good for planes Tom Fujita39s work helped decrease plane crashes 0 Atomic bombs caused downbursts Tornado formation 0 Form Shear in wind direction 0 Surface winds are moving in one direction 0 Winds higher in the atmosphere are moving in a different direction Rolling currents are then dragged upward into the atmosphere 0 By an updraft in a thunderstorm Form a rotation cell The cell sags below the cloud base Forms a slowly rotating wall cloud 0 A large localized and persistent lowering rotating cloud formation that develops beneath the base of a cumulonimbus cloud 0 Usually in rainfree base part of storm 0 Indicate area of strongest updraft 0 Simply Winds change direction 0 Warmer slower air in the lower level atmosphere 0 Colder faster air in the higher level atmosphere Increase speed and altitude Creates an invisible horizontal spinning effect in the lower atmosphere Rising air within the thunderstorms updraft tilts the rotating air from horizontal to vertical An area of rotation now exists within the storm Tornadoes from this rotation o Tornado movement 0 Track to the Northwest 0 Fujita scale 0 1 Roof surfaces peeled Mobile homes overturned Autos pushed off road Damage to trees and signs Roofs torn off Mobile homes destroyed Large tree uprooted or snapped Cameron 6 Light objects can be missiles o 3 Roofs and some walls torn off Trains overturned Most forest trees uprooted Cars lifted and thrown o 4 Houses leveled Only foundations remain Cars thrown Heavy objects become missiles o 5 Houses are picked up and moved Cars y more than 100 yards Trees debarked Nothing is left Tornado watchwarning criteria 0 Watch Thunderstorms seem capable of producing tornadoes 0 Warning Thunderstorms shows strong indication of vorticity or rotation Tornado is sighted Climate Change 0 The greenhouse effect Solar energy from the sun hits Earth Greenhouse gases contained some of the heat 0 Water Vapor 60 0 C02 25 Methane The rest bounces back Enhancement of greenhouse effect since Industrial Revolution Humans have put the Greenhouse Effect on steroids by pumping additional C02 into the atmosphere 0 Not as much heat bounces back into space causing climate change Atmospheric C02 preindustrial level and modern level Before 280pmv Now 400pmv Increased 13 Highest since humans have been on Earth 0 Ice core data Bubbles of gas trapped in the core ice of ancient glaciers in Antarctica Canada and Greenland Information from up to 800000 years ago Provides information about 0 Air temperature 0 Gas Composition of the atmosphere Cameron 7 Volcanic eruptions General effect of C02 on ocean chemistry Makes it more acidic Harder to form Calcium Carbonate CC dissolves in the presence of acid 0 Many sea creatures and coral form their shells and bodies from CC Decreasing diversity in sea life Geoengineering The deliberate largescale manipulation of the planetary environment to counteract anthropogenic climate change Two Types 0 Solar Radiation Management SRM O O O O 0 Quick way to lower temperatures Expensive Rislq Does not change C02 levels in atmosphere or ocean acidi cation Sunblocking Aerosols in the atmosphere Giant re ectors between the sun and Earth 0 Carbon Dioxide Removal CDR O 0000 O Cheaper Less effective Aforestation CCS Iron fertilization Cause plankton blooms Greening deserts Carbon capture and storage Carbon from oil wells is capture as a natural gas Processed Injected back into empty reservoirs as a liquid 10 million tons of C02 have been captured and stored Statoil s Sleipner elds on Norway continental shelf North Sea 0 Pilot Project Glaciers and Climate Change Accumulation vs ablation o Accumulation 0 Point where a glacier grows 0 Snow accumulates and freezes 0 Forms new ice 0 Ablation 0 Point where a glacier shrinks 0 Ice melts or breaks off 0 Sublimation lce goes straight to water vapor o Equilibrium Line 0 The line that divides the accumulation and ablation zones Cameron 8 Glacial mass balance 0 Positive The glacier grows Ice input exceeds ice loss NegaUve The glacier shrinks Ice loss exceeds ice input 0 Sea level rise curve 2100 prediction 0 2 meters 6 ft Iceberg calving Giant chunks break off the front of the glacier Why is Arctic sea ice melting Ocean currents bringing warm salty water to the Artic For how much longer will we have Arctic sea ice after 3 million years of sea ice cover 0 34 years Permafrost effect on greenhouse gas effect 0 Increase the Greenhouse Effect Melts Methane trapped in the layers will be released into the atmosphere Switch Economic Perspective Coaluse 0 Get coal from strip mining 0 Cheap source of fuel 0 Most of the world runs on energy from coal 0 Powder River Basin 0 Main source Operates 24 hours a day 365 days a year 0 Appalachians Not a much 0 Coal produces sulfur Have to use scrubbers to prevent sulfur release into the atmosphere 0 C02 emissions from natural gas compared to coal 0 Half as much 0 Why is oil hard to replace 0 Dense and ef cient energy source 0 Easy to get 0 Can run a car on a small tank of it o Stronger than rocket fuel
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